Festivities Opálka

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Festivities Opálka - view from the southwest

The Fortress Opálka ( Czech Opálecká tvrz ) is a fortress on the northern edge of the village of Opálka , between Janovice nad Úhlavou and Strážov in the Okres Klatovy ( Pilsen region ) in the Czech Republic , above it on a rocky hump at the highest point of the village.


Fixed Opálka location (based on a plan from 1905).

Immediately below the fortress, which dates back to the second half of the 14th century, there is a farmyard with an administrator's house (in its current form from the 19th century) with a former brewery , distillery , stables and barns, which in their current form date from the 17th to 19th centuries. In the center of the courtyard is a baroque chapel from the first half of the 18th century, which is dedicated to St. Anna . Every year a pilgrimage takes place here for the patronage . The fortress was originally surrounded by a multiple, for the size of the complex unusually powerful and extensive, strong wall ring with a moat to the west and north and a bastion to the east over steep terrain; Large parts of this fortification have survived.


Festivities Opálka - view from the southeast (historical engraving from: August Sedláček , Hrady, zámky a tvrze Královsví českého. Díl devátý, Domažlicko a Klatovsko, Prague 1893, 146).
Festivities Opálka - view from the east (historical engraving from: August Sedláček, Hrady, zámky a tvrze Královsví českého. Díl devátý, Domažlicko a Klatovsko, Praha 1893, 149).

The celebrations Opálka was likely built in the second half of the 14th century by Bušek of Strážov, who also called himself Bušek of Opálka. It is first mentioned in 1392. After Bušek's death, his property most likely passed to his son Bušek II of Opálka, whose trace, however, is lost between 1403 and 1415. Little is known about the history of the festivals and their masters in the first half of the 15th century. From around 1450 Opálka belonged to the Knights of Dražovice, who held the festival until 1480. Between 1476 and 1480 Bedřich Škorně von Malonice came into possession of the fortress in an unknown manner. Opálka belonged to him and later his son until 1540. In the years 1538 to 1540 Elisabeth von Pacov gained control of Opálka, which she held from 1542 together with her husband Jan Tunkl von Brníčko , who owned it alone after her death around 1549. After 1557 it was inherited by Margareta von Šternberk , whose son and later her grandson probably lived there until the late 1880s. These pledged Opálka and could not redeem the property again. Then the rule fell to Johann the Elder of Lobkowitz .

After his death in 1590 Opálka took over his three brothers Ladislav the Elder, Georg and Bohuslav Havel; Between 1595 and 1597 Opálka belonged to Elisabeth von Lobkowitz and Wolf Novohradský, from 1609, after his death, to his son Zdeněk, who sold Opálka in 1614 to Judith von Kolowrat , who owned it until 1630 and had to sell it because of debts to Georg Adam Bořita von Martinic . After his death in 1653, his wife Johanna (born Gonzaga ) and his brothers Georg, Bernhard Ignaz and Maximilian Valentin shared the property . The property was sold as early as 1656, and it came into the hands of Maximilian von Waldstein , who soon after the purchase resold Opálka to Isabella Emilie von Schwihau , who only owned it for a few years and sold it to Ignaz Karl von Šternberk , the Opálka, in 1669 also did not belong long until finally in 1673 the fortress Pavel Graf von Morzin bought. Since that time Opálka was no longer a manor house, but was only inhabited by castellans . After Opálka was sold again by his son Ferdinand Matthias von Morzin in 1701 to Alois Bonaventura von Altenheim zu Arnschwang , the owners changed again in quick succession, until 1760 Opálka acquired Karl Josef von Palm-Gundelfingen and the rule with that of Bystřice nad Úhlavou united what existed in this form until 1923. In the following period after 1760 the rule passed to the Counts of Trauttmansdorff , then to Václav Alexander Hildtprandt Ritter von Ottenhausen, then to Karl Richard Josef Ritter von Schmiedeln, later to Karl Joachim Graf von Bredow , until the middle of the 19th century the princes from Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen took over Opálka.

In the course of the land reform of the 1st Czechoslovak Republic in 1923 and 1924, the then owner of the estate and the Opálka fortress, Wilhelm von Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen , was expropriated; this property was transferred to the Strouhalová family, who had managed the estate since the 1870s; it lost it through nationalization after 1945, with the farm buildings initially being used by an agricultural cooperative and later on a state estate. Some of the buildings remained unused and fell into disrepair. The fortress in particular fell into an almost ruinous structural condition. In 1992 the Strouhalová family got their property back through restitution .

In 2001 the sculptor Harald Bäumler and his wife Marie Bäumlerová acquired the festival with the associated courtyard and are currently gradually restoring the buildings.

Building description

Fixed Opálka - section through the building from south to north.

The fortress in its current form consists of three wings in the south, west and north, with the west wing connecting the south and north wings, which run almost parallel to each other; these parts of the building are grouped around a centrally located residential tower, a donjon , to which the north and west wings are directly connected, while the south wing is separated from the residential tower by a narrow, narrow courtyard. The ground floor of the residential tower, which is higher than the other parts of the building, is on the level of the first floor of the wings. The donjon is accessed from the outside via an attached staircase. The main entrance to the festival is in the south wing. One reaches through an open archway in the facade over a gently rising staircase directly under an elevator dormer protruding from the roof to the two-winged, spacious main portal of the festival, which is set back about 6 meters.

Building history

The Gothic fortress was formed by a multi-storey prismatic residential tower , a so-called donjon , from the late Gothic period with a side length of approximately 12 mx 10 m, the current external appearance of which essentially reveals its structural character from the 14th century, albeit it but was rebuilt and changed. For example, a hall with high vaults was installed over its entire area above the ground floor, which was built on a rock that was elevated compared to the surrounding level, and the division of the floors, once formed by flat wooden ceilings, was changed; In addition, in connection with the renovation, the upper floors were removed to their present height and a hipped roof was added. The masonry of the keep is made of rubble stones together. Some loopholes and original window openings have been preserved, as well as the Gothic pointed arched entrance to the tower, located in the east, which is now behind a brick staircase that was added in the Baroque period. The southern, northern and western parts of the building surrounding the donjon are from the Renaissance and Baroque periods , but almost all of them were created through the renovation and expansion of existing late Gothic components.


  • Jiří Úlovec: Opálka tvrz. Prague 2001.
  • Encyclopedie českých tvrzí. Díl 2 (K-Ř). Prague 2000, 541-542.
  • August Sedláček: Hrady, zámky a tvrze Královsví českého. Díl devátý. Domažlicko a Klatovsko, Praha 1893, 146–149.

Web links

Coordinates: 49 ° 18 '24.1 "  N , 13 ° 13' 58"  E