Friedrich I. (Baden, Grand Duke)

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Grand Duke Friedrich I. as a Prussian Colonel General with the rank of General Field Marshal . portrayed by Hans Thoma (1901/1909)
Signature of Friedrich I. (Baden, Grand Duke) .PNG
Friedrich von Baden in civilian clothes

Friedrich I of Baden (born September 9, 1826 in Karlsruhe , † September 28, 1907 on the island of Mainau , full name Friedrich Wilhelm Ludwig von Baden ) was regent between 1852 and 1856 and Grand Duke of Baden from 1856 until his death in 1907 .


Friedrich was the second son of Grand Duke Leopold of Baden . As Prince of the House of Baden , he sat in the First Chamber of the Baden Estates from 1847 to 1852 . Since his older brother ( Ludwig II. ) Was terminally ill, he took over the reign after the death of his father . After the death of his brother in 1858, Friedrich became Grand Duke.

Frederick I was considered very liberal and was an advocate of the constitutional monarchy . Many important and trend-setting reforms were carried out in Baden under his reign. In 1860 he put religious education under the church, but the public school system under the state. Civil marriage was made possible again in 1869 , six years before the unified civil marriage in the Reich, and in 1904 secret and direct elections to the second chamber of the Baden state parliament were introduced.

Under Friedrich's rule, the up-and-coming Mannheim became a center of industry, as he had the waterways and the railway network expanded to meet the requirements of industrialization. The ruler, who is considered educated and cultured, laid the foundations for economic prosperity in south-west Germany.

Friedrich I was also a patron of art. The establishment of the Grand Ducal Baden Art School (today's State Academy of Fine Arts Karlsruhe ) in 1854 goes back to his initiative. Rudolf Epp was one of the artists he supported directly at the time . He supported the establishment of the Grand Ducal Majolica Manufactory with private funds. In 1853 Friedrich acquired the island of Mainau , which remained in the ownership of the Princely House of Baden until 1918. With the numerous exotic plants brought back from his travels, he created the basis for the park that still exists today. In 1898 he received Theodor Herzl there , who, in view of the emperor's imminent visit to Palestine, promoted the establishment of a Jewish state there.

In 1852, the Prussian king appointed him Friedrich Wilhelm IV. The chief of the Rheinische Lancers # 7. This regiment he remained life very connected. It was later officially renamed the Uhlan Regiment "Grand Duke Friedrich von Baden" (Rhenish) No. 7 .

Under Friedrich I, a supporter of German unity under Prussian leadership, Baden joined the North German Confederation and later the German Empire . It was also Friedrich who, on January 18, 1871, raised the first cheers to the Prussian King Wilhelm I, who was proclaimed emperor , in front of the assembled princes in the Hall of Mirrors at Versailles .

In 1873 he had a collection building built on Friedrichsplatz for his library and extensive collections . Here they were open to the public as the Grand Ducal Collection for Antiquity and Ethnology in Karlsruhe .

Because of his merits, he was asked by the teaching staff at the Technical University of Karlsruhe to give it his name. On April 12, 1902, he dedicated the university the name "Fridericiana".

In 1895 he donated for the place Immeneich a chapel in Black Forest style . He and his wife often came to Immeneich on the occasion of their spa stays in St. Blasien .

Friedrich's tomb was designed by Hermann Volz and is located in the Grand Ducal Sepulchral Chapel in Karlsruhe .



Friedrich Hereditary Prince of Baden (1703–1732)
Karl Friedrich Grand Duke of Baden (1728–1811)
Anna of Nassau-Dietz-Oranien (1710–1777)
Leopold Grand Duke of Baden (1790-1852)
Baron Ludwig Heinrich Philipp Geyer von Geyersberg (1729–1772)
Luise Karoline von Hochberg (1767–1820)
Maximiliana Christina, b. Countess von Sponeck (1730–1804)
Friedrich I. Grand Duke of Baden
Gustav III King of Sweden (1746–1792)
Gustav IV Adolf King of Sweden (1778–1837)
Sophie of Denmark (1746–1813)
Sophie of Sweden (1801-1865)
Karl Ludwig von Baden (1755–1801)
Friederike von Baden (1781–1826)
Amalie of Hessen-Darmstadt (1754–1832)


The children of Friedrich I: The siblings Victoria, Friedrich and Ludwig Wilhelm von Baden (from left), on the right the later King Gustav V of Sweden (photo 1882)

On September 20, 1856, Friedrich married Princess Luise of Prussia , the daughter of the Prince of Prussia, who later became King and Emperor Wilhelm I. With her he had three children:


Web links

Commons : Grand Duke Friedrich I of Baden  - Collection of images, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. Theodor Toeche-Mittler: The imperial proclamation in Versailles on January 18, 1871 with a directory of the festival participants. Ernst Siegfried Mittler and son. Berlin 1896.
  2. H. Schnaebeli: photographs of the imperial proclamation in Versailles. Berlin 1871.
  3. ^ History of the University of Karlsruhe, p. 86.
predecessor Office successor
Ludwig II (nominal) Grand Duke of Baden
Friedrich II.