Jaroslav Borsita from Martinic

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Jaroslav Borsita from Martinic

Jaroslav Borsita von Martinic , also Martinitz , Czech: Jaroslav Bořita z Martinic , (born January 6, 1582 , † November 21, 1649 in Prague ) was a Bohemian nobleman and one of the two royal governors who came out of a window during the second lintel in Prague in 1618 the Bohemian Chancellery in Prague Castle were overthrown.


His parents were the imperial councilor of the same name, chamberlain and Colonel-Hofmeister of King Rudolf II , Jaroslav Borsita the Elder. Ä. from Martinic, and Johanka Dašická from Barchov on Běrunice and Veltruby . His father died in an accident in 1581. Jaroslav Borsita grew up with his older siblings Isolde and Jiřík with their mother, who was then married to Albrecht Leskovec von Lestkov and, after his death, to Johann Wenzel Popel von Lobkowitz on Dux and Oberleutensdorf . His half-brother was Albrecht Sebastian Leskovec von Lestkov. His mother died in 1592; she bequeathed her goods to her children from her first and second marriage.

Jaroslav Borsita was declared of age in 1596 at the age of 14. Two years later he inherited his uncle Georg Borzita von Martinic auf Smetschno († January 22, 1598), who was court marshal and colonel chancellor in the Kingdom of Bohemia .

From the extensive inheritance of his uncle, Jaroslav Borsita von Martinic gave King Rudolf II, who was constantly lacking in money, a loan of 100,000  florins.There is a legend that is said to have happened around 1600: Martinic is said to have been on a study trip to Siena and Rome by the Pope Clement VIII received a relic for the altar of the family chapel of the house bought in 1583 at Hradschiner Platz No. 8 in Prague as an award for his adherence to Catholicism . However, it is documented that Jaroslav Borsita inherited the large estate and the castle in Smetschno in 1598 and bought the Stochau estate near Kladno . King Rudolf II appointed him city governor of the royal city of Schlan , which had joined the Evangelical Reformed creed. In 1607 he sold the maternal goods Běrunice and Veltruby together with his sister Isolde and her husband Friedrich von Donin to Adam the Elder . J. von Waldstein on Dymokury . In 1609 Jaroslav Borsita was appointed Court Marshal and Colonel Chancellor in the Kingdom of Bohemia by Martinic.

During the dispute between King Rudolf II and his brother Matthias over the succession as King of Bohemia, Martinic had withdrawn from active politics and devoted himself to the administration of his property. On July 9, 1609, King Rudolf II granted the evangelical rulers in Bohemia extensive religious freedom through the letter of majesty , which included the building of schools and churches for the evangelical reformed believers, not only on the possessions of the nobility, but also in the Territory of the royal chambers . Because of the last provision, there were serious conflicts between Bohemian Catholics and Protestants in the following years. It was disputed whether the possessions of the Catholic monasteries - these did not belong to the estates in Bohemia - were to be regarded as royal chamber goods and therefore they had to allow Protestant churches to be built in their villages. The destruction of a Protestant church in a monastery grave , the construction of which the Catholics considered illegal, was the trigger for the Bohemian class uprising in 1618 . The military leader of this uprising was Heinrich Matthias von Thurn , who harbored a personal grudge against Martinic, as Thurn had to relinquish the lucrative office of Burgrave of Karlstein to him in 1617 . At the same time, Martinic was appointed royal governor in Bohemia at Prague Castle . He was thus one of the main representatives of the Catholic rulers and thus of the Counter Reformation and opposition to the letter of majesty.

In 1617 Ferdinand II was elected King of Bohemia by the estates. Ferdinand was known for being a zealous supporter of the Counter-Reformation, who also tried to implement the same by fighting the letter of majesty and severely restricting the rights of the Protestant nobility. For the reasons mentioned, there was then the second lintel in Prague: On May 23, 1618, after a protest meeting in the University of Prague, an angry crowd of Protestant representatives under the leadership of Heinrich Matthias von Thurn rushed over the Charles Bridge to Prague Castle, where they followed After a loud argument, the two royal Catholic governors Martinic and Wilhelm Slavata , as well as the clerk Fabricius, threw some 17 meters deep into the moat from a window in the Bohemian chancellery. The three victims survived, but the lintel in itself became an event of far-reaching significance as it sparked the Thirty Years War .

Jaroslav Borzita von Martinic was able to save himself to the nearby house of Colonel Chancellor Lobkowitz, pretended to be terminally ill, had a priest appointed for confession and the final unction and thus deceived his persecutors. Disguised as a groom, he fled via Munich and Passau to Bavaria and thus under the protection of the leader of the Catholic League , Duke Maximilian I of Bavaria. Two years later, on November 8, 1620, the combined armies of the Imperial and Catholic League triumphed over the army of the Bohemian rebels in the Battle of White Mountain . On June 21, 1621, 27 participants in the uprising were executed on Prague's Old Town Square , most of their lands were confiscated and distributed to the Catholic nobility.

Jaroslav Borzita from Martinic also moved into Prague with the winners. He got his property back and was made Count of the Empire by King Ferdinand II on May 10, 1621 . On January 6, 1622, he received an improvement in the coat of arms and confirmation of the count's status for the Kingdom of Bohemia. From the emperor's property management he bought the city of Schlan, which had previously sided with the rebellious Protestant estates and had been expropriated in 1620 after the battle on White Mountain near Prague. Martinic was the owner of Smetschno and Schlan, as well as the manors and castles Grünberg , Hagensdorf and Brunnersdorf .

Count Martinic's political career continued in the years after his elevation to the count's status. In 1624 he was appointed Oberstlandrichter, 1625 Oberstlandkämmerer, 1628 Obersthofmeister, 1634 Hofpfalzgraf with a large Palatine and in 1638 Oberstburggraf von Bohemia. He received the Order of the Golden Fleece from King Philip IV of Spain . Jaroslav Borsita Graf von Martinic was married four times and fathered five sons who continued the line of the Martinic family ; and three daughters, who married noblemen from Bohemia.

Martinic and his family survived the short period of Swedish occupation after the conquest of the Lesser Town in Prague at the end of the Thirty Years' War in 1648 by Swedish troops under General Hans Christoph von Königsmarck , only the Palais Martinic on Hradschiner Platz was confiscated and occupied with Swedish billeting. Martinic experienced the withdrawal of the Swedes and thus the end of the Thirty Years' War, but died the following year at the age of 67 and was buried in the church of Smetschno Castle. In memory of the Martinic family, the town of Smetschno has two rooted, rising water lily leaf stalks from their old family arms in the town's coat of arms.


Web links

Individual evidence

  1. ^ Chronicle of Běrunice