Julius Hirsch (soccer player)
Julius Hirsch (1938)
portrait in the National Socialist "Judenkennkarte"
|birthday||April 7, 1892|
|place of birth||Achern , German Empire|
|date of death||Declared dead 8 May 1945|
|Years||station||Games (goals) 1|
|1934-1935||Gym club 03 Karlsruhe|
|Stations as a trainer|
|1934-1938||Gym club 03 Karlsruhe|
|1 Only league games are given.|
Julius Hirsch (born April 7, 1892 in Achern ; † declared dead on May 8, 1945 ), also called "Juller", was a German football player . Hirsch became German champions in 1910 with Karlsruhe FV and in 1914 with SpVgg Fürth and played seven times for the senior national team between 1911 and 1913 . As a Jew, he was established in March 1943 by the Nazis to Auschwitz-Birkenau deported and murdered. His exact date of death is unknown; he was declared dead retrospectively from May 8, 1945 in 1950.
Live and act
Origin and youth
Julius Hirsch came from a Jewish family. His grandfather Rafael Hirsch, born in Weingarten in 1808, was the first family member to adopt this name. Julius Hirsch's father, Berthold Hirsch, was the second child of the farming family. Berthold Hirsch, a trained businessman and involved as a soldier in the Franco-German War of 1870/71 , had a German-national attitude and raised his four sons in this spirit.
Julius Hirsch was the youngest of four sons and one of seven children during a spa stay his mother in the mental hospital Illenau in central Baden Achern born. In 1898 he started school in Karlsruhe and finished his school years with secondary school leaving certificate. He then attended a commercial school and then completed a two-year apprenticeship as a merchant at the Karlsruhe leather dealer Freud and Strauss on October 1, 1908. He was employed at this company until March 22, 1912.
Career as a football player
Hirsch joined the Karlsruhe FV in 1902 as a schoolboy . Its first team was one of the strongest in the early years of football in Germany . From 1901 to 1905 the KFV won the South German championship five times in a row and was German runner-up in 1905. In the same year, the team left the traditional Engländerplatz, where “Juller” learned to play football, in favor of the newly built KFV square at the Telegrafenkaserne in Karlsruhe's north-west town, which was equipped with a grandstand .
At the age of 17, Julius Hirsch first belonged to the core formation of the KFV. The English coach William Townley, who was called to Karlsruhe from Prague in January 1909, lacked a left winger for a Sunday game against Freiburg for the team, which was a bit old at the time, so that the youth player got his first chance of probation. Hirsch delivered a good game and scored a goal, so that Townley used him from now on in the first team. In this 1909/10 season , the team in the southern district league fought head-to-head with local rivals and German champions from the previous year, the Karlsruhe FC Phoenix . The KFV was finally able to prevail with a 3-0 play-off, reached the finals and finally won the final of the German soccer championship 1910 on May 15 in Cologne with a 1-0 after extra time against Holstein Kiel .
The small, fast stag was known for his stooping stance and a strong left shot. He started on the left winger, but soon switched to the half-left. Together with Gottfried Fuchs and Fritz Förderer he formed the inner storm trio of the Karlsruher FV, which was also used together in the national team.
"Above all, the Karlsruhe Innensturm sponsors, Fuchs, Hirsch, who had a fabulous reputation at the time, impressed me so much with their technical tricks and captivating combination moves that I can still remember them today," said the later national coach Sepp Herberger , who had attended KFV games as a youth, talked about the team of strikers. From the "Wettspielchronik des Karlsruher Fußball-Verein eV" it emerges that between August 21, 1910 and September 21, 1913, Hirsch played 81 games for the first team and one game for the second team of the club, 54 of them together with sponsor and fox.
In 1910 , 1911 and 1912 Hirsch won the southern German championship three times in a row with the Karlsruher FV and was again in the German championship final against Kiel in 1912, which however was lost 1-0. On February 18, 1912, he won the final for the Crown Prince Cup with the South German national team in Berlin , where he scored two goals , Gottfried Fuchs scored three goals.
Because of his achievements, Hirsch was appointed to the senior national team. He made his debut on December 17, 1911 in Munich in the 4-1 defeat by Hungary . In his second international match on March 24, 1912 in Zwolle , he scored four goals in one game in a 5-5 draw against the Netherlands as the first German international; his only ones in the national jersey remained.
This game, in which besides Fuchs seven other KFV players and two wingers from local rivals FC Phönix competed, was counted by experts as one of the best international matches of the German national team before the First World War . Hirsch also owed the nomination for the team that was to play at the 1912 Olympic football tournament thanks to this commitment . Hirsch played two of the three encounters between the German team, but they were lost to the selections of Austria with 1: 5 and Hungary with 1: 3. In the 16-0 win against Russia , in which Gottfried Fuchs scored ten goals, he was missing.
In the meantime, Hirsch had been called up for military service: From April 1912, Hirsch completed his service as a one-year volunteer with the 1st Baden Leib Grenadier Regiment No. 109. Immediately afterwards, he moved to Nuremberg , where he took a position at the toy factory Gebrüder Bing AG started. It is unclear whether this change of location was due to his love for his future wife Ella, whether he was attracted by the professional improvement or the reputation of his former KFV trainer William Townley , who meanwhile worked for SpVgg Fürth . In terms of football, Hirsch seamlessly continued his performance of the previous year. In 1913, three more appearances in international matches against Switzerland (1: 2), Denmark (1: 4) and Belgium (2: 6) followed. With SpVgg Fürth, of which he was captain, he was again German champion in 1914 with a 3-2 win after extra time against VfB Leipzig .
First World War and post-war period
Shortly after the outbreak of World War I, he served as a soldier from August 7, 1914 and was involved in various war missions for four years. Most recently he had reached the rank of vice sergeant and was awarded the Iron Cross, 2nd class .
After the end of the war, Hirsch worked for the Nuremberg Bing AG until March 30, 1919 , after which he returned to Karlsruhe and from April 1 worked in his father's German signal flag factory . After producing flags, uniforms and leather equipment for the military, the police and the post office during the war, the company switched to the manufacture of sporting goods and leather goods of all kinds. The “Hirsch” brand soon became known worldwide for its leather footballs, among other things.
As a football player, he was active again for the Karlsruhe FV from 1919. However, the club could no longer build on previous successes. Julius Hirsch finally ended his active football career in 1925. In addition to the two championship titles, Julius Hirsch had celebrated four southern German championships and competed for the German national team seven times, including two at the Olympic Games.
Julius Hirsch married Ella Karolina Hauser in 1920. The native Karlsruherin, daughter of an innkeeper from Heidelsheim was professional, dressmaker and worked as chief assistant in a textile shop. The children Heinold Leopold (* 1922) and Esther Carmen (* 1928) emerged from this marriage. Ella Hauser was Protestant, but their children were brought up to be Jewish. After the birth of their son, the family lived at Kaiserallee 123 in Weststadt, and in 1934 they moved to Karlsruhe-Weiherfeld, Murgstrasse 7.
In 1926 the father Berthold Hirsch transferred his business shares to his two sons Max and Julius. In the following year, Gottfried Fuchs , KFV companion of Julius Hirsch and professionally working as a wood manufacturer, also acquired shares in the company. With the death of their father in 1931, the two brothers became sole shareholders . The operation had to because of claims from a guarantee that Max Hirsch had given, but liquidated are the bankruptcy proceedings opened on 10 February 1,933th As a result, Julius Hirsch lost his job as managing director of the Deutsche Signalflaggenfabrik .
In order to find work, Hirsch first stayed in Switzerland for a short time, and then in France without deregistering in Karlsruhe. On June 15, 1933, he took up a coaching position at FA Illkirch-Graffenstaden in Alsace . On March 25, 1934, he returned from France and tried to get a job as a coach, but although he was able to show certificates from various institutions, in particular the one issued by Ivo Schricker , the former co-founder and player of the Karlsruher FV, which is now FIFA - Secretary-General had no chance. Meanwhile without a club, he now joined the Jewish club Turnclub 03 Karlsruhe , which was organized in the sports association “Schild” of the Reichsbund Jüdischer Frontsoldaten (RJF), and worked there both as a player and as a coach.
From April 1, 1934, he worked as a sales representative for manufactories and linen, and from May 18 as an assistant accountant for the Jewish pulp and paper factory Vogel & Schnurmann . After the " Aryanization " of this company on April 1, 1938, he worked briefly as a wood peeler before finally losing his job again on June 30, 1938. An attempt by Hirsch to get into the Swiss national league as a football coach failed at this time .
Persecution and death
After the National Socialists came to power , Hirsch was persecuted because of his Jewish descent. When the sports clubs excluded their Jewish members in 1933, Julius Hirsch wrote to "his" Karlsruhe FV:
“Today I read in the Stuttgart sports report that the major clubs, including the KFV, have made a decision that the Jews should be removed from the sports clubs. Unfortunately, with a moved heart, I now have to announce my resignation to my dear KFV, to which I have been a member since 1902. I would like to mention, however, that there are also decent people and perhaps even more nationally thinking and also proven and passionate German Jews in the now so hated whipping kids of the German nation. "
Hirsch's fate is that of many nationally-minded Jews who could not imagine that the state would try to kill them as Germans loyal to the emperor and frontline soldiers in the First World War. Like many of his fellow believers, he suppressed the danger until it was no longer possible to escape.
On his way back from visiting relatives in France in November 1938, Hirsch survived a suicide attempt. He was then admitted to the psychiatric clinic in Bar-le-Duc because he looked depressed . A few years after his return to Karlsruhe, his evangelical wife divorced him in 1942 in order to protect himself and their children Heinold and Esther from persecution, which deprived him of the protection of a so-called “ privileged mixed marriage ”. Hirsch was forced to work as an unskilled worker on a rubble site by the Karlsruhe Municipal Civil Engineering Office .
In February 1943, the 50-year-old Julius Hirsch was informed by the Gestapo that he had to go to the main train station for a transport to “work”. From there, he and eleven other Jews from Baden were deported on March 1, 1943, via Stuttgart Central Station via Trier, Düsseldorf and Dortmund to Auschwitz-Birkenau , where he and 1,500 people arrived on March 2. In the entry register of the concentration camp , only 150 people from this transport are registered by name - the name Julius Hirsch is not found here, so that its trace is lost here. Today's literature assumes an immediate gassing of all Jews who are not mentioned in these entry books. His last sign of life is a postcard that was only canceled on March 3rd in Dortmund: “My dear ones. I landed well, it's going well. Come to Upper Silesia, still in Germany. Warm regards and kisses your Juller ”.
The exact date of death of Julius Hirsch remains unknown; he was declared dead in 1950 by the Karlsruhe District Court on May 8, 1945. At the same time, “compensation” in the amount of DM 3,450 was ordered.
His two children, who had already left school in 1938 as “first-degree half-breeds” and had to wear a Jewish star from 1941 , were deported from Karlsruhe main station to “work” on February 14, 1945 to the Theresienstadt concentration camp ; Heinold was 22 years old at the time, Esther 17 years old. Both were saved by the liberation of the camp by the Red Army on May 7, 1945 and returned to Karlsruhe on June 16.
- In 2005, the German Football Association launched the Julius Hirsch Prize . It is intended to honor special commitment to tolerance and human dignity, against extremism, xenophobia and anti-Semitism .
- The "sports fields at Eichkamp" in Berlin , on which the Jewish soccer club TuS Makkabi Berlin plays its home games, were renamed in 2006 in honor of Hirsch to "Julius Hirsch sports fields in Eichkamp".
- As part of the “ Stolpersteine ” project , a memorial plaque for Julius Hirsch was placed in the sidewalk in front of Murgstrasse 7 in Karlsruhe's Weiherfeld-Dammerstock district on November 9, 2006 .
- The school sports hall of the Ludwig-Marum-Gymnasium and the Geschwister-Scholl-Realschule in Pfinztal-Berghausen is named after Julius Hirsch.
- On June 16, 2013, the Karlsruhe municipal council decided to rename a section of the Karlsruher Weg to Julius-Hirsch-Straße .
- On February 26, 2014, the Fürth city council decided unanimously to name a new sports center with a triple gymnasium after Julius Hirsch, which his grandson welcomed as "very appropriate" with reference to the German championship title won 100 years earlier by SpVgg Fürth with Hirsch as captain . The Julius Hirsch Sports Center was inaugurated in 2017.
- Kickers, fighters and legends. Jews in German football. Until December 15, 2006, Berlin: Centrum Judaicum (Oranienburger Straße 28–30). From January 21, 2007 in the Julius Hirsch sports facility in Berlin-Eichkamp (Harbigstrasse 40).
- Swantje Schollmeyer: Julius "Juller" Hirsch. German national soccer player. 1892 Achern - 1943 Auschwitz. Hentrich & Hentrich, Teetz / Berlin 2007, ISBN 978-3-938485-33-0 .
- Werner Skrentny:
- The death of "Juller" Hirsch. In: Werner Skrentny (ed.): When Morlock still met the moonlight. The history of the Oberliga Süd 1945–1963. Klartext, Essen 1993, ISBN 3-88474-055-5 , pp. 7-10.
- Julius Hirsch - the national player who died in Auschwitz . In: Dietrich Schulze-Marmeling (Hrsg.): Star of David and leather ball. The history of the Jews in German and international football . Verlag Die Werkstatt, Göttingen 2003, ISBN 3-89533-407-3 , pp. 115–122.
- Julius Hirsch - the national player who was murdered by the Nazis . In: Dietrich Schulze-Marmeling (Hrsg.): The history of the national soccer team . Verlag Die Werkstatt, Göttingen 2004, ISBN 3-89533-443-X , pp. 118–121.
- Julius Hirsch: The national player who was murdered by the Nazis . In: Lorenz Peiffer, Dietrich Schulze-Marmeling (ed.): Swastika and round leather. Football under National Socialism. Verlag Die Werkstatt, Göttingen 2008, ISBN 978-3-89533-598-3 , pp. 489–497.
- Julius Hirsch. National player. Murdered. Biography of a Jewish footballer . Verlag Die Werkstatt, Göttingen 2012, ISBN 978-3-89533-858-8 , 352 pp.
- Ludger Syré: Julius Hirsch. In: Baden biographies . NF 5. Kohlhammer, Stuttgart 2005, ISBN 978-3-17-018976-8 , pp. 124–126 ( online version )
- Gereon Tönnihsen: Julius Hirsch. A German national soccer player of Jewish origin from Karlsruhe . In: Research and sources on city history . Info-Verlag, Karlsruhe 2008, ISBN 978-3-88190-492-6 . (Series of publications by the Karlsruhe City Archives, Volume 10)
- Julius Hirsch (soccer player) in the Stadtwiki Karlsruhe
- Julius Hirsch in the database of the German Football Association
- Entry in memorial book for the Karlsruhe Jews
- Appreciation by the DFB
- Memory of Julius Hirsch in Karlsruhe . Karlsruher Fußballverein eV, accessed on December 12, 2017
- The famous inner trio of the old master team of the KFV . Karlsruher Fußballverein eV 1891, accessed on October 5, 2014
- Hans Wille: Football history: the eye stumbles . Zeit.de, October 12, 2005
- Jan Peter Althoff: “The German nation's whipping kids” . Article on the role of the DFB in the Nazi era in the Stattzeitung für Südbaden 63/2005, November 2005.
- Bundesarchiv (Hrsg.): Gedenkbuch - Victims of the Persecution of the Jews under the National Socialist Tyranny in Germany 1933-1945 . Federal Archives, Koblenz 2007, ISBN 978-3-89192-137-1 .
- Julius Hirsch. National player. Murdered. Biography of a Jewish footballer . Verlag Die Werkstatt, Göttingen 2012, ISBN 978-3-89533-858-8 , 352 pp.
- Karlsruhe stumbling blocks Murgstraße 7
- About the Julius Hirsch Hall of the Pfinztal-Berghausen Education Center ( Memento of the original from March 8, 2005 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link has been inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- Press release of the Karlsruher FV: Inauguration of Julius Hirsch-Straße and Gottfried Fuchs-Platz
- Fürth's citizens get their “Julius Hirsch Sports Center” . Fürther Nachrichten of February 27, 2014
|ALTERNATIVE NAMES||Hirsch, Juller|
|BRIEF DESCRIPTION||German soccer player and victim of National Socialism|
|DATE OF BIRTH||April 7, 1892|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Achern|
|DATE OF DEATH||after March 3, 1943|
|Place of death||Auschwitz-Birkenau concentration camp , Oświęcim (Auschwitz)|