Multipurpose boat

from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Multipurpose boat at fire brigades
Multipurpose boat of the Speyer fire brigade
Multipurpose boat of the Speyer fire brigade
Ship data
Ship type Multipurpose boat
Ship dimensions and crew
5.0 - 16 m ( Lüa )
width 1.5 - 2.5 m
Draft Max. 0.30 - 0.50 m
crew 1 skipper, at least 1 bosun
Machine system
machine Diesel engine
performanceTemplate: Infobox ship / maintenance / service format
up to 350 hp
20 - 70 km / h kn (Err km / h)
Load capacity

1500 kg

Max. people


Classifications DIN 14961

A multi-purpose boat (MZB) refers to numerous different watercraft that can be used for more than one area of ​​activity. These are covered in a separate section at the end. Is predominantly under MPE the area defined by the standard DIN 14961 "boats for the fire" type of boat understood universally by the fire services and other water rescue organizations is used for working in the region at or near the water. In addition, the THW , the police , authorities and commercial operators use the MZB for a variety of purposes, as they can be individually designed and equipped.


With a multi-purpose boat, depending on the exact design and equipment, a variety of tasks can be carried out on all inland waters and the coastal areas of the seas. In principle, rescue and hazard prevention missions can be carried out in the following areas:

Construction and equipment

Multipurpose boat with catamaran hull

The boats consist of a solid hull, which is mainly made of fiber-reinforced plastic (e.g. GRP or CFRP ) or aluminum. The lengths vary between 5 and 16 meters and the maximum width of 2.50 meters depends on the StVZO due to trailerability . Depending on the area of ​​application and the required properties, the fuselage floor is designed as:

  • Flat bottom boat with strong guide keel
  • Double keel glider (catamaran)
  • Three-keel glider (trimaran)
  • Glider as a combination of two-keel (front) and three-keel (rear)
  • V-glider with pronounced central keel

The multi-purpose boats are mainly open boats and behave as semi-planers when ready to drive . However, plane travel is usually not achieved at full capacity ( displacement travel ). You must have a fixed steering position with a seat for the boat driver, which is partially covered or at least offers wind and weather protection. The protective frame also serves as a device carrier for all lighting equipment and antennas on board, if a separate bracket in the stern is not used for this task. There are storage spaces on all sides to accommodate the necessary devices and equipment, some of which also serve as fixed seats for transporting people.

A tight double floor and additional cavities ensure buoyancy and a shallow draft of around 30 centimeters. Here, even tough-hard have foams on PVC basis easier to design, self-supporting components (eg. As AIREX PVC foam R.63.80) proven. The overall construction must ensure that an MZB, including all the equipment and the necessary loading, remains buoyant and cannot overturn even when it is full . This also applies to one-sided loads with everyone on one side. Bilge flaps are required in the stern so that any water that comes over is drained away automatically.

Diesel engines with an output of up to 350 hp (261 kW) are used for the drive. According to DIN 14961, an MZB must reach a speed of at least 20 km / h above ground even when fully loaded. The boats can be equipped with inboard or outboard motors, which generate propulsion via shaft drive , Z-drive or water jet propulsion . The advantage of the waterjets is that they pose no danger to people in the water and the boats are suitable for extreme flat water use and trips on the banks. The motor must be equipped with a safety quick stop.

A multi-purpose boat can be equipped with an electrohydraulically or mechanically operated bow hatch to facilitate the following operations:

  • Picking up and rescuing people from the water
  • Getting in and out of people on the bank
  • Loading and unloading of equipment (e.g. portable pump)
  • Admission and transport of wheelchair users
  • Diving on the water
  • Recovery of floating objects or bodies of water

Rescuing people in particular can be carried out more carefully, as they no longer have to be pulled over a railing . In internal engines or jet propulsion to a fixed platform can at the transom be appropriate. A version with a side door is also available for this purpose. Plug-in entry ladders also help when diving.

Multipurpose boats at aid organizations

Boats for the fire department

Multipurpose boat on a WLF
Lifeboat on trailer

Because of the need of a unified systematization and comparability of the vehicles as well as for insurance purposes was for the firefighters DIN 14961, entitled prepared "boats for the fire department." It lays down precise building regulations for the boats used by the fire service. According to this, an MZB must have sufficiently large devices that allow the boat to be craned, lowered, towed (including crew, equipment and loading) and moored. The permitted payload must be at least 1,500 kg (including crew). Fixed seats are to be arranged in the boat for at least 10 people. An A-suction connection can be built into the bottom of the boat in order to be able to extract water from the water with a portable pump and a holder for a jet pipe facilitates fire fighting.

The standard applies to fire brigade boats with a maximum hull length of 8 meters, which correspond to design categories D and C according to the CE seaworthiness classification (pleasure craft directive). The constructions must therefore be designed for a wind force of up to 6 Bft and for wave heights of up to 2 meters. Instead of a fixed hull, the boats can also be designed as inflatable boats or rigid inflatable boats (RIB). The standard specifies the color red for the hose body of the boats. With other materials, the fuselage must have a surrounding band in red. The label "Fire Brigade" is clearly visible.


In addition to the MZB , the standard defines two other types as lifeboats (RTB) that are suitable for similar deployment scenarios. Common to all boats is a freely usable interior length of at least 2.20 meters so that basket stretchers can be transported completely and safely. When fully loaded, the freeboard must be 0.33 meters for all types .

The RTB 1 is intended for standing water and is usually moved by hand ( paddle ). The boat must be ready for use - i.e. inflated as an inflatable boat - and can also be designed for motor operation. The motorized RTB 2 is used for open and flowing waters and, like an MZB, can also be equipped with a bow hatch. For the operational readiness of boats ranging abandoned Tung on a standard DIN 14962 slipfähigen boat trailer or change loader vehicle from (WLF), thereby enabling rapid transportation over land and the safe introduction into the water.

Technical data of the fire fighting boats according to DIN 14961
property Multipurpose boat (MZB) Lifeboat 2 (RTB 2) Lifeboat 1 (RTB 1)
permitted number of people (á 90 kg) 10 6th 4th
min. Speed ​​over ground 20 km / h 30 km / h Motor optional
Load capacity 1,500 kg 1,000 kg 500 kg
freely usable inside width 1.20 m 1.00 m 0.80 m

The following tasks can be performed with the fire brigade's multi-purpose boats:

  • Rescue and recovery of people, animals and goods
  • emergency medical care on boats and inhabited islands
  • Firefighting on the water and on islands
  • Precipitation of vapors
  • Divers use
  • technical assistance
  • Combating damage in oil spills
  • Transport of people and resources

The Schwerte fire brigade has a special version of a fire brigade boat with the RTB 2 from Pionier from Norway . It is an all-plastic boat made of polyphenylene ether (PPE), which is built up in layers by heating the PPE in a mold. This creates a particularly light, one-piece boat that is unsinkable due to the low density of the PPE material. Including the engine, the boat has a length of 5.30 meters and an empty weight of around 600 kilograms. With an engine output of 80 hp and a two-person crew, the RTB reaches a speed of 55 km / h (30  knots ). A special feature is the mechanically operated bow flap: it can still carry one person thanks to its high level of self-buoyancy.

Boats of the water rescue companies

DLRG boat on the Danube

The water rescue companies such. B. the DRK water rescue service or the DLRG use MZB according to DIN 14961. Similar to the boats of the fire brigade, these boats have an inscription on the boat hull with the name of the company. Depending on the aid organization, there are slight variations in equipment and construction. In the case of extensive bodies of water, GPS map systems help with navigation and in the dark, night vision devices or thermal imaging cameras can be used. Sonar devices are used for the targeted search for objects and people . Extensive first aid equipment enables emergency care for injured persons. The rescue companies carry out the following tasks with MZB :

  • Rescue and recovery of people
  • emergency medical care
  • Search for missing people
  • Divers use
  • Exploration and monitoring of deployment sites
  • Supply and feeder trips

Boats at the technical relief organization

Multipurpose boat at the THW
Multi-purpose workboat at the THW

In accordance with the legal mandate, the Technische Hilfswerk (THW) provides technical support for civil protection and disaster control, especially in the event of public emergencies and major accidents. The specialist group on water hazards (FGr W) is used for technical assistance and rescue operations on and on the water . For this purpose, the FGr W Type A have high-performance MZB and the FGr W Type B have floating work platforms (pontoons). The MZB , which was previously in operation, is being gradually replaced by the structurally similar multi-purpose workboat (MzAB) Faster 650 CAT , which is to be regarded as a kind of special form of the MZB . In technical jargon it is also called a work boat or A-boat for short , with a slight change in equipment and construction compared to the standard. Combating the oil damage with the boats is carried out together with the oil damage specialist group . On the coast, there is close cooperation in fighting oil with the emergency command , which procured a special MzAB and made it available to the THW.

The MzAB has a flat, continuous cargo space of around 2 × 3 m and a lowerable bow hatch. Towing and coupling devices enable the connection with other ships and boats. Loaded on a trailer, the boat is mobile based on land and can therefore also be used for supra-local and supraregional operations.

This means that the multi-purpose boats at the THW have the following tasks:

  • Rescue of people, animals and property from water hazard
  • Transport of people, animals and loads in ferry traffic, during evacuations and other operations
  • Towing, pushing and pushing floating objects
  • Coupling with other watercraft or pontoons
  • Landings with takeovers on the bank
  • Securing operations and the emergency services involved
  • Support of diving missions
  • Fire fighting from water
  • Deployment of the inflatable air-oil barriers
  • Directing the oil spills
  • Carrying out measurements and sampling
  • Supply and feeder trips
  • Securing dykes
Technical data of the multi-purpose boat and multi-purpose work boat at the THW
property Multipurpose boat (MzB) Multipurpose Workboat (MzAB)
Crew: 2 to 7 helpers 1 to 9 helpers
Outboard engine: 30 kW (single or double) 2 × 36 kW
Speed: approx. 50 km / h over the ground 30 kn (approx. 55 km / h)
Load capacity: up to 2 t or 10 people > 1.5 t or 10 people
Transport: Single-axle boat trailer, 2 t slip-able Single-axle boat trailer, 2 t slip-able with winch

Police boats

NRW police on the Rhine

In addition to the larger distance boats of the Water Police (WSP), the police authorities of the federal states also rely on the flexible MZB for their special missions in:

  • Control and patrol trips
  • for diving missions
  • for the transport of equipment and people when diving
  • Salvage of ordnance from the water
  • Search for missing people
  • Recovery of corpses
  • Support of the WSP at events on the water
  • Waterside property protection measures
  • Translating police forces
  • Space patrol and assistance in flood situations

Boats in disaster control

Disaster control: flood boat in action

In addition to the MZB certified according to DIN 14961 and its variants, the aid organizations also have numerous special forms of boats which are similar to the MZB , but do not consistently have all the characteristics. All of these vessels are not standardized nationwide and in some cases cannot be clearly differentiated from one another. In many cases these boats are used universally as lifeboats or work boats. In Germany, however, these boats must at least comply with DIN EN 1914 “Inland navigation vehicles - work boats, auxiliary boats and lifeboats”. Usually the boats are procured by the federal states and subsidized by disaster control funds. Therefore, these boats are also known as civil protection boats or K-boats for short .

Flood boats

A special form of the disaster control boat is the flood boat, with which people can be rescued from desperate situations or at least taken care of in extreme flood situations. The difficult conditions require particularly shallow boats, as during high tide there is often water in places where otherwise there is never water. As a special feature, these boats have wheels on the hull so that the boat can be pushed when touching down on roads. Optionally, track wheels can also be mounted to enable pushing over rails. Plug-in fitting as a railing and handrails facilitate handling. The slim and 'economical' construction allows the stacked storage of several boats.

More multi-purpose boats

Workboat of the WSA Berlin
WSV multi-purpose ship "Neuwerk"
Multipurpose ship «Argus» of the Niedersachsen Ports

Multi-purpose boats based on DIN 14961 are also used by authorities with water tasks:

By contrast, in was World War II as an escort vehicle used multi-purpose boat 1943 more of a multi-purpose vessel . The latter can still be found today in the military sector and in the coast guards of the nation states . An example of the multi-purpose ship "Neuwerk" of WSV the Federal . In Wilhelmshaven , the port company Niedersachsen Ports describes the survey vessel “Argus” as a multi-purpose vessel .

More recently, the call law enforcement boats to the prevention and prosecution of crimes as MPE . In 2020 which has water police of Hamburg for the 'Maritime unit stake' (MEE), the "LKA 24 / SE" put into service. The eight-meter-long open boat is used by the SEK in order to be able to effectively counter threats, in particular from terrorism, in the port and on the Elbe. On the MZB made of CFRP , up to ten officers can be taken along on spring-loaded seats. Two 350 hp outboard motors each offer strong acceleration and a high top speed for the tasks at hand.

The GSG 9 of the federal police also names their boats as MZB . For example, since 2016 she has owned three state-of-the-art rigid inflatable boats for use at sea, which can accommodate 18 rescue workers. The twelve meter long boats have three engines of 350 hp each.

In the future, there will be two new 35-meter-long multi-purpose boats for the Port of Hamburg that are designed to be multifunctional. They are to be used both as fireboats for the Hamburg fire brigade and for tasks of the Hamburg Port Authority . The special equipment is stored in exchangeable containers so that spontaneous missions can be carried out at any time. An extinguishing capacity of 30,000 liters per minute can be provided for fire-fighting purposes. The throwing distance of the extinguishing monitors is up to 110 meters. The boats can accommodate up to 16 firefighters

The manufacturer of the 'Klepper Partner' called his boat MZB because it could be used as a sailing , rowing or motor boat .

See also

Web links

Commons : THW Mehr Zweckboot Faster 650 CAT  - Collection of images, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. German Institute for Standardization (Ed.): DIN 14961 . Boats for the fire department. April 2013 ( [accessed on May 15, 2020]).
  2. AIREX PVC rigid foam on , accessed on May 24, 2020
  3. Construction of multi-purpose or lifeboats on , accessed on June 12, 2020
  4. Multipurpose boats MZB, RTB1, RTB2 on , accessed on May 24th. 2020
  5. Boats for the fire brigade working group of fire brigade accident insurance funds, accessed on May 26, 2020
  6. German Institute for Standardization (Ed.): DIN 14962 . Fire service - boat trailers. February 2005 ( [accessed on May 15, 2020]).
  7. Unsinkable plastic lifeboat in , accessed on May 28, 2020
  8. Federal Agency for Technical Relief (Hrsg.): Specialist group water hazards type A (FGr W (A)) . ( [1] [accessed February 22, 2013]).
  9. Joint oil combat training by Havariekommando and THW at , accessed on May 24, 2020
  10. The Multipurpose Workboat on , accessed May 30, 2020
  11. Federal Agency for Technical Relief (Hrsg.): Vehicle description multi-purpose boat (THW) . ( [accessed on February 22, 2013]).
  12. Federal Agency for Technical Relief (Hrsg.): Vehicle description multi-purpose work boat (THW) . ( [accessed on February 22, 2013]).
  13. New police boat for Saxony on , accessed on May 28, 2020
  14. ^ Vehicles of the NRW police on , accessed on May 28, 2020
  15. Mission boat for the ordnance disposal service on , accessed on June 12, 2020
  16. German Institute for Standardization (publisher): DIN EN 1914 . Inland waterway vehicles - work boats, auxiliary boats and lifeboats. December 2016 ( [accessed on May 28, 2020]).
  17. Zweckboot-650/68- katastrophenschutzboot
  18. Einsatzboot-fuer-den- katastrophenschutz
  19. UNIBOOT - the versatile lifeboat, high water boat, flat water pusher boat, aluminum boat for fire brigade, THW and DLRG on , accessed on June 12, 2020
  20. Flood boats on , accessed on June 12, 2020
  21. Work boats on , accessed on June 12, 2020
  22. Zweckbootes-fuer-das-sek-hamburg /
  25.ösungen-fuer-feuerwehr-und-hpa --- 36583