|Minus sign||- , ./.|
|Mark||⋅ , ×|
|Divided sign||: , ÷ , /|
|Plus minus sign||± , ∓|
|Comparison sign||< , ≤ , = , ≥ , >|
|Difference sign , Nabla||∆ , ∇|
|Angle sign||∠ , ∡ , ∢ , ∟|
|Vertical , parallel||⊥ , ∥|
|Triangle , square||△ , □|
|Union , cut||∪ , ∩|
|Difference , complement||∖ , ∁|
|Subset , superset||⊂ , ⊆ , ⊇ , ⊃|
|Follow arrow||⇒ , ⇔ , ⇐|
|Conjunction , disjunction||∧ , ∨|
History and creation
The cross has been known as a symbol since the Stone Age ( e.g. in stone carvings ), but it is usually not understandable. As a mathematical symbol, it is of more recent date. In the 15th century it was still common to spell out the words “plus” and “minus”.
The plus sign is used in the following roles:
- as a mathematical operator, mostly analogous to use in basic arithmetic operations , as a type of arithmetic ( binary ) or sign ( unary ) for numbers , vectors , matrices and other mathematical objects
- similar in programming languages , there were twice or as a component (eg. as in other syntactic elements for other functions C ++ the increment operator
++that also appears in the name of the language itself, in order to succeed the language C of each)
- in texts simplified for " and ", similar to " & "
- simplified for dead , is to replace an on typewriters unavailable or on computer keyboards that does not exist † (the plus resembles a Greek cross , the sign of the cross a Latin )
- as a symbol for “good”, “approval”, etc. Ä.
- in phone number information as a placeholder for the international traffic elimination number , as this can vary depending on the country and telephone company
- The plus sign as a symbol for a positive electrical charge or the plus pole is derived from mathematical symbols and goes back to the mathematician and physicist Georg Christoph Lichtenberg .
Typography and appearance
The typographically correct plus sign consists of two bars of the same size, which cross each other at right angles at their center and one of which runs parallel to the base line. Thus, it resembles a Greek cross , but the bars are usually narrower in relation to the overall size of the sign.
In 19th century pamphlets, its width usually resembled that of an em dash . The height of the vertical bar varied between capital height and square height . Thus (in contrast to today's shapes) the vertical bar was often slightly shorter than the horizontal one.
In today's fonts , the width of the plus sign is usually matched to the appearance of the decimal digits. Thus, its width is mostly similar to that of the digit zero. The vertical bar is always the same length as the horizontal one, so the height of the character is always less than the capital height. Vertically it is mostly positioned slightly (about a bar width) above the baseline, so it does not take the x-line into account .
Like all common arithmetic symbols, it is always sans serif regardless of the style of the font in which it is contained . In italics , the vertical bar appears in many fonts without an incline (i.e. the font is not always taken into account).
Basis for the form of other arithmetic symbols
The design of the plus sign in a font usually determines the design of other arithmetic symbols.
- The (typographical) minus sign (-) is identical to the horizontal bar of the plus sign in terms of its shape (length, line width, if necessary shape of the ends).
- The equal sign (=) consists of two parallel horizontal bars with the same shape as the horizontal bar of the plus sign. The bars are offset equally far up or down compared to the center of the plus sign.
- In many fonts the center of the cross (×) is exactly as high as the center of the plus sign.
Hebrew plus sign
A different form of the plus sign was designed for the Hebrew script , which lacks the lower part of the vertical bar, so that its shape does not resemble a (Christian) cross . There has been a (not universally used) tradition in Judaism since the 19th century, as it was later in individual Israeli schools, to symbolize addition in this way. It is also used on El Al aircraft for seat adjustment control. However, most adults use the international plus sign. The Israeli religious scholar Adin Steinsaltz described the Hebrew plus sign in a 1994 interview with Spiegel as "absurd externality".
The character is contained in Unicode as U + FB29 ﬩ hebrew letter alternative plus sign .
Representation in computer systems
The plus sign is defined and coded as follows:
|+||U + 002B||plus sign||Plus sign||%2 B||Basic Latin|
The block mathematical operators , in which the typographical minus is coded, does not contain a special typographical plus.
Variants of the plus sign
|+||U + 002B||plus sign||Plus sign||Basic Latin||
|˖||U + 02D6||modifier letter plus sign||Modifying plus sign||Spacing Modifier Letters|
|◌̟||U + 031F||combining plus sign below||COMBINING SUB-PLUS SIGN||COMBINING DIACRITICS||
|||U + 2064||invisible plus sign||Invisible plus sign||General punctuation|
|⁺||U + 207A||superscript plus sign||Superscript plus sign||Superscripts and subscripts|
|₊||U + 208A||subscript plus sign||Subscript plus sign||Superscripts and subscripts|
|➕||U + 2795||heavy plus sign||Bold plus sign||Dingbats|
|⧺||U + 29FA||double plus||Double plus sign||Various math symbols-B|
|⧻||U + 29FB||triple plus||Triple plus sign||Various math symbols-B|
|⧾||U + 29FE||tiny||Tiny ( combinatorial game theory )||Various math symbols-B|
|﬩||U + FB29||hebrew letter alternative plus sign||hebrew alternative plus sign||Alphabetical forms of presentation|
|﹢||U + FE62||small plus sign||Small plus sign||Small variations in shape|
|＋||U + FF0B||fullwidth plus sign||Full-width plus sign||Half-width and full-width shapes|
|ᐩ||U + 1429||canadian syllabics final plus||(a character from the Cree script )||Unified indigenous Canadian syllables|
|⁜||U + 205C||dotted cross||dotted cross||General punctuation|
|⊹||U + 22B9||hermitian conjugate matrix||Hermitian conjugated matrix||Mathematical operators|
|☩||U + 2629||cross of jerusalem||Crutch cross (1)||Different symbols||
|✙||U + 2719||outlined greek cross||Outlined Greek cross||Dingbats||
|✚||U + 271A||heavy greek cross||Fat Greek cross||Dingbats||
|✛||U + 271B||open center cross||Open center cross||Dingbats|
|✜||U + 271C||heavy open center cross||Bold cross with an open center||Dingbats||
|✢||U + 2722||four teardrop-spoked asterisk||Four-armed teardrop star (teardrop cross)||Dingbats||
|✣||U + 2723||four balloon-spoked asterisk||Four-armed ball star (ball cross)||Dingbats||
|✤||U + 2724||heavy four balloon-spoked asterisk||Fat four-armed ball star||Dingbats||
|✥||U + 2725||four club-spoked asterisk||Shamrock cross||Dingbats||
|⸭||U + 2E2D||five dot mark||Five point mark||Additional punctuation||
|⼗||U + 2F17||kangxi radical ten||Kangxi radical 24 "ten"||Kangxi radicals|
|〸||U + 3038||hangzhou numeral||Suzhou number sign ten||CJK symbols and punctuation|
|十||U + 5341||(a CJK sign)||Unified CJK ideograms|
|?||U + 10932||lydian letter q||Lydian letter Q||Lydian|
|?||U + 11055||brahmi number four||Brahmi number four||Brahmi|
|?||U + 16869||bamum letter phase-b shet njaq||(Historical letter of the Bamum script)||Bamum, addition|
|?||U + 169B7||bamum letter phase-e ket||(Historical letter of the Bamum script)||Bamum, addition|
|?||U + 1F542||cross pommee||Apple cross||Various pictographic symbols|
|?||U + 1F70A||alchemical symbol for vinegar||Alchemical symbol for vinegar||Alchemical symbols|
Sign with plus sign as a component
|±||U + 00B1||plus-minus sign||Plus minus sign||Latin-1, supplement||
|∓||U + 2213||minus-or-plus sign||Minus plus sign||Mathematical operators||
|∔||U + 2214||dot plus||Plus sign with dot||Mathematical operators||
|⊕||U + 2295||circled plus sign||Circled plus sign||Mathematical operators||
|⊞||U + 229E||squared plus sign||Framed plus sign||Mathematical operators||
|⟴||U + 27F4||right arrow with circled plus||Right arrow with plus sign circled||Additional arrows-A|
|⤽||U + 293D||top arc anticlockwise arrow with plus||Left high arch arrow over plus sign||Additional arrows-B|
|⥅||U + 2945||rightwards arrow with plus below||Right arrow over plus sign||Additional arrows-B|
|⥆||U + 2946||leftwards arrow with plus below||Left arrow over plus sign||Additional arrows-B|
|⨁||U + 2A01||n-ary circled plus operator||N-digit circled plus sign||Additional math operators||
|⨄||U + 2A04||n-ary union operator with plus||N-digit union sign with plus sign||Additional math operators||
|⨢||U + 2A22||plus sign with small circle above||Plus sign with ring above||Additional math operators||
|⨣||U + 2A23||plus sign with circumflex accent above||Plus sign with circumflex above||Additional math operators|
|⨤||U + 2A24||plus sign with tilde above||Plus sign with tilde above||Additional math operators|
|⨥||U + 2A25||plus sign with dot below||Plus sign with a dot below||Additional math operators|
|⨦||U + 2A26||plus sign with tilde below||Plus sign with tilde below||Additional math operators|
|⨧||U + 2A27||plus sign with subscript two||Plus sign with subscript two||Additional math operators|
|⨨||U + 2A28||plus sign with black triangle||Plus sign with black triangle||Additional math operators|
|⨭||U + 2A2D||plus sign in left half circle||Plus sign in left-hand semicircle||Additional math operators|
|⨮||U + 2A2E||plus sign in right half circle||Plus sign in right-hand semicircle||Additional math operators|
|⨹||U + 2A39||plus sign in triangle||Plus sign in the triangle||Additional math operators|
|⩱||U + 2A71||equals sign above plus sign||Equal sign over plus sign||Additional math operators|
|⩲||U + 2A72||plus sign above equals sign||Plus sign over equal sign||Additional math operators|
|⪿||U + 2ABF||subset with plus sign below||Subset over plus sign||Additional math operators|
|⫀||U + 2AC0||superset with plus sign below||Superset over plus signs||Additional math operators|
|⬲||U + 2B32||left arrow with circled plus||Left arrow with plus sign circled||Different symbols and arrows|
A plus sign-like cross as a component also contains alchemical-astronomical symbols such as ♁ " Earth (planet), church ( map sign ), antimony " (U + 2641 earth ), ♀ "female, Venus , copper " (U + 2640 female sign ), ☿ “ Mercury , Mercury ” (U + 263F mercury ) - see astronomical symbols , planetary metals - and many others.
- PT Meissner, Chemische Aequivalenten- oder Atomlehre , bookshop of the widow of the blessed knight JG von Mösle, Vienna 1834, part 1, p. 227.
- The Holocaust in Three Generations: Families of Victims and Perpetrators of the Nazi Regime, Gabriele Rosenthal, A&C Black, August 13, 1998, p. 107
- Christian-Jewish Dialogue: Theological Foundations By Peter von der Osten-Sacken (1986 - Fortress Press - ISBN 0-8006-0771-6 ) p. 96 ( preview in Google Book Search)
- Stefan Simons, Dieter Wild: "A Pain for the Church". The Orthodox Israeli Rabbi Adin Steinsaltz on Jews and Christians . In: Der Spiegel . No. 15 , 1994, pp. 214-216 ( online - 11 April 1994 ).
- Scott Pakin: The Comprehensive LaTeX Symbol List. (PDF, 8.7 MB) January 19, 2017, archived from the original on September 28, 2017 ; Retrieved on September 28, 2017 (English, linking the original results in a mirror of CTAN , the archive link compare file: Comprehensive LaTeX Symbol list.pdf ).