Plus sign
+



Mathematical signs  
arithmetic  
Plus sign  + 
Minus sign   , ./. 
Mark  ⋅ , × 
Divided sign  : , ÷ , / 
Plus minus sign  ± , ∓ 
Comparison sign  < , ≤ , = , ≥ , > 
Root sign  √ 
Percent sign  % 
Analysis  
Sum symbol  Σ 
Product mark  Π 
Difference sign , Nabla  ∆ , ∇ 
Prime  ′ 
Partial differential  ∂ 
Integral sign  ∫ 
Concatenation characters  ∘ 
Infinity symbol  ∞ 
geometry  
Angle sign  ∠ , ∡ , ∢ , ∟ 
Vertical , parallel  ⊥ , ∥ 
Triangle , square  △ , □ 
Diameter sign  ⌀ 
Set theory  
Union , cut  ∪ , ∩ 
Difference , complement  ∖ , ∁ 
Element character  ∈ 
Subset , superset  ⊂ , ⊆ , ⊇ , ⊃ 
Empty set  ∅ 
logic  
Follow arrow  ⇒ , ⇔ , ⇐ 
Universal quantifier  ∀ 
Existential quantifier  ∃ 
Conjunction , disjunction  ∧ , ∨ 
Negation sign  ¬ 
The plus sign (+) is used as a mathematical operator for addition or as a sign for positive numbers or quantities .
History and creation
The cross has been known as a symbol since the Stone Age ( e.g. in stone carvings ), but it is usually not understandable. As a mathematical symbol, it is of more recent date. In the 15th century it was still common to spell out the words “plus” and “minus”.
The first plus sign in print appeared in the work Mercantile Arithmetic or Behende und hüpsche Rechenung auff alle Kauffmanschektiven by Johannes Widmann , published in Leipzig in 1489 .
use
The plus sign is used in the following roles:
 as a mathematical operator, mostly analogous to use in basic arithmetic operations , as a type of arithmetic ( binary ) or sign ( unary ) for numbers , vectors , matrices and other mathematical objects
 similar in programming languages , there were twice or as a component (eg. as in other syntactic elements for other functions C ++ the increment operator
++
that also appears in the name of the language itself, in order to succeed the language C of each)  in texts simplified for " and ", similar to " & "
 simplified for dead , is to replace an on typewriters unavailable or on computer keyboards that does not exist † (the plus resembles a Greek cross , the sign of the cross a Latin )
 as a symbol for “good”, “approval”, etc. Ä.
 in phone number information as a placeholder for the international traffic elimination number , as this can vary depending on the country and telephone company
 The plus sign as a symbol for a positive electrical charge or the plus pole is derived from mathematical symbols and goes back to the mathematician and physicist Georg Christoph Lichtenberg .
Typography and appearance
The typographically correct plus sign consists of two bars of the same size, which cross each other at right angles at their center and one of which runs parallel to the base line. Thus, it resembles a Greek cross , but the bars are usually narrower in relation to the overall size of the sign.
In 19th century pamphlets, its width usually resembled that of an em dash . The height of the vertical bar varied between capital height and square height . Thus (in contrast to today's shapes) the vertical bar was often slightly shorter than the horizontal one.
In today's fonts , the width of the plus sign is usually matched to the appearance of the decimal digits. Thus, its width is mostly similar to that of the digit zero. The vertical bar is always the same length as the horizontal one, so the height of the character is always less than the capital height. Vertically it is mostly positioned slightly (about a bar width) above the baseline, so it does not take the xline into account .
Like all common arithmetic symbols, it is always sans serif regardless of the style of the font in which it is contained . In italics , the vertical bar appears in many fonts without an incline (i.e. the font is not always taken into account).
Basis for the form of other arithmetic symbols
The design of the plus sign in a font usually determines the design of other arithmetic symbols.
 The (typographical) minus sign () is identical to the horizontal bar of the plus sign in terms of its shape (length, line width, if necessary shape of the ends).
 The equal sign (=) consists of two parallel horizontal bars with the same shape as the horizontal bar of the plus sign. The bars are offset equally far up or down compared to the center of the plus sign.
 In many fonts the center of the cross (×) is exactly as high as the center of the plus sign.
Hebrew plus sign
A different form of the plus sign was designed for the Hebrew script , which lacks the lower part of the vertical bar, so that its shape does not resemble a (Christian) cross . There has been a (not universally used) tradition in Judaism since the 19th century, as it was later in individual Israeli schools, to symbolize addition in this way. It is also used on El Al aircraft for seat adjustment control. However, most adults use the international plus sign. The Israeli religious scholar Adin Steinsaltz described the Hebrew plus sign in a 1994 interview with Spiegel as "absurd externality".
The character is contained in Unicode as U + FB29 ﬩ hebrew letter alternative plus sign .
Representation in computer systems
Coding
The plus sign is defined and coded as follows:
character  Unicode position 
Unicode designation 
designation  HTML hexadecimal 
HTML decimal 
HTML named 
URL encoded 
Unicode block 

+  U + 002B  plus sign  Plus sign  %2 B  Basic Latin 
The block mathematical operators , in which the typographical minus is coded, does not contain a special typographical plus.
In TeX / LaTeX it is simply encoded by its ASCII characters.
Variants of the plus sign
character  Unicode position 
Unicode designation 
designation  block  Latex 

+  U + 002B  plus sign  Plus sign  Basic Latin 
+

˖  U + 02D6  modifier letter plus sign  Modifying plus sign  Spacing Modifier Letters  
◌̟  U + 031F  combining plus sign below  COMBINING SUBPLUS SIGN  COMBINING DIACRITICS 
\textsubplus

 U + 2064  invisible plus sign  Invisible plus sign  General punctuation  
⁺  U + 207A  superscript plus sign  Superscript plus sign  Superscripts and subscripts  
₊  U + 208A  subscript plus sign  Subscript plus sign  Superscripts and subscripts  
➕  U + 2795  heavy plus sign  Bold plus sign  Dingbats  
⧺  U + 29FA  double plus  Double plus sign  Various math symbolsB  
⧻  U + 29FB  triple plus  Triple plus sign  Various math symbolsB  
⧾  U + 29FE  tiny  Tiny ( combinatorial game theory )  Various math symbolsB  
﬩  U + FB29  hebrew letter alternative plus sign  hebrew alternative plus sign  Alphabetical forms of presentation  
﹢  U + FE62  small plus sign  Small plus sign  Small variations in shape  
＋  U + FF0B  fullwidth plus sign  Fullwidth plus sign  Halfwidth and fullwidth shapes 
Similar characters
character  Unicode position 
Unicode designation 
designation  block  Latex 

ᐩ  U + 1429  canadian syllabics final plus  (a character from the Cree script )  Unified indigenous Canadian syllables  
⁜  U + 205C  dotted cross  dotted cross  General punctuation  
⊹  U + 22B9  hermitian conjugate matrix  Hermitian conjugated matrix  Mathematical operators  
☩  U + 2629  cross of jerusalem  Crutch cross ^{(1)}  Different symbols 
\kreuz

✙  U + 2719  outlined greek cross  Outlined Greek cross  Dingbats 
\PlusOutline

✚  U + 271A  heavy greek cross  Fat Greek cross  Dingbats 
\Plus

✛  U + 271B  open center cross  Open center cross  Dingbats  
✜  U + 271C  heavy open center cross  Bold cross with an open center  Dingbats 
\PlusThinCenterOpen

✢  U + 2722  four teardropspoked asterisk  Fourarmed teardrop star (teardrop cross)  Dingbats 
\FourAsterisk

✣  U + 2723  four balloonspoked asterisk  Fourarmed ball star (ball cross)  Dingbats 
\JackStar

✤  U + 2724  heavy four balloonspoked asterisk  Fat fourarmed ball star  Dingbats 
\JackStarBold

✥  U + 2725  four clubspoked asterisk  Shamrock cross  Dingbats 
\CrossClowerTips

⸭  U + 2E2D  five dot mark  Five point mark  Additional punctuation 
\fivedots

⼗  U + 2F17  kangxi radical ten  Kangxi radical 24 "ten"  Kangxi radicals  
〸  U + 3038  hangzhou numeral  Suzhou number sign ten  CJK symbols and punctuation  
十  U + 5341  (a CJK sign)  Unified CJK ideograms  
?  U + 10932  lydian letter q  Lydian letter Q  Lydian  
?  U + 11055  brahmi number four  Brahmi number four  Brahmi  
?  U + 16869  bamum letter phaseb shet njaq  (Historical letter of the Bamum script)  Bamum, addition  
?  U + 169B7  bamum letter phasee ket  (Historical letter of the Bamum script)  Bamum, addition  
?  U + 1F542  cross pommee  Apple cross  Various pictographic symbols  
?  U + 1F70A  alchemical symbol for vinegar  Alchemical symbol for vinegar  Alchemical symbols 
 ^{(1)}In German, " Jerusalem Cross " denotes another symbol.
Sign with plus sign as a component
character  Unicode position 
Unicode designation 
designation  block  Latex 

±  U + 00B1  plusminus sign  Plus minus sign  Latin1, supplement 
\pm

∓  U + 2213  minusorplus sign  Minus plus sign  Mathematical operators 
\mp

∔  U + 2214  dot plus  Plus sign with dot  Mathematical operators 
\dotplus

⊕  U + 2295  circled plus sign  Circled plus sign  Mathematical operators 
\oplus , \varoplus

⊞  U + 229E  squared plus sign  Framed plus sign  Mathematical operators 
\boxplus

⟴  U + 27F4  right arrow with circled plus  Right arrow with plus sign circled  Additional arrowsA  
⤽  U + 293D  top arc anticlockwise arrow with plus  Left high arch arrow over plus sign  Additional arrowsB  
⥅  U + 2945  rightwards arrow with plus below  Right arrow over plus sign  Additional arrowsB  
⥆  U + 2946  leftwards arrow with plus below  Left arrow over plus sign  Additional arrowsB  
⨁  U + 2A01  nary circled plus operator  Ndigit circled plus sign  Additional math operators 
\bigoplus

⨄  U + 2A04  nary union operator with plus  Ndigit union sign with plus sign  Additional math operators 
\bigcupplus

⨢  U + 2A22  plus sign with small circle above  Plus sign with ring above  Additional math operators 
\circplus

⨣  U + 2A23  plus sign with circumflex accent above  Plus sign with circumflex above  Additional math operators  
⨤  U + 2A24  plus sign with tilde above  Plus sign with tilde above  Additional math operators  
⨥  U + 2A25  plus sign with dot below  Plus sign with a dot below  Additional math operators  
⨦  U + 2A26  plus sign with tilde below  Plus sign with tilde below  Additional math operators  
⨧  U + 2A27  plus sign with subscript two  Plus sign with subscript two  Additional math operators  
⨨  U + 2A28  plus sign with black triangle  Plus sign with black triangle  Additional math operators  
⨭  U + 2A2D  plus sign in left half circle  Plus sign in lefthand semicircle  Additional math operators  
⨮  U + 2A2E  plus sign in right half circle  Plus sign in righthand semicircle  Additional math operators  
⨹  U + 2A39  plus sign in triangle  Plus sign in the triangle  Additional math operators  
⩱  U + 2A71  equals sign above plus sign  Equal sign over plus sign  Additional math operators  
⩲  U + 2A72  plus sign above equals sign  Plus sign over equal sign  Additional math operators  
⪿  U + 2ABF  subset with plus sign below  Subset over plus sign  Additional math operators  
⫀  U + 2AC0  superset with plus sign below  Superset over plus signs  Additional math operators  
⬲  U + 2B32  left arrow with circled plus  Left arrow with plus sign circled  Different symbols and arrows 
A plus signlike cross as a component also contains alchemicalastronomical symbols such as ♁ " Earth (planet), church ( map sign ), antimony " (U + 2641 earth ), ♀ "female, Venus , copper " (U + 2640 female sign ), ☿ “ Mercury , Mercury ” (U + 263F mercury )  see astronomical symbols , planetary metals  and many others.
Individual evidence
 ^ PT Meissner, Chemische Aequivalenten oder Atomlehre , bookshop of the widow of the blessed knight JG von Mösle, Vienna 1834, part 1, p. 227.
 ^ The Holocaust in Three Generations: Families of Victims and Perpetrators of the Nazi Regime, Gabriele Rosenthal, A&C Black, August 13, 1998, p. 107
 ^ ^{A } ^{b} ChristianJewish Dialogue: Theological Foundations By Peter von der OstenSacken (1986  Fortress Press  ISBN 0800607716 ) p. 96 ( preview in Google Book Search)
 ↑ Stefan Simons, Dieter Wild: "A Pain for the Church". The Orthodox Israeli Rabbi Adin Steinsaltz on Jews and Christians . In: Der Spiegel . No. 15 , 1994, pp. 214216 ( online  11 April 1994 ).
 ↑ ^{a } ^{b } ^{c} Scott Pakin: The Comprehensive LaTeX Symbol List. (PDF, 8.7 MB) January 19, 2017, archived from the original on September 28, 2017 ; Retrieved on September 28, 2017 (English, linking the original results in a mirror of CTAN , the archive link compare file: Comprehensive LaTeX Symbol list.pdf ).