Pomornik class

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Project 1232.2
A project 1232.2 with an open bow ramp
A project 1232.2 with an open bow ramp
Ship data
country Soviet UnionSoviet Union (naval war flag) Soviet Union Russia China
RussiaRussia (naval war flag) 
ChinaPeople's Republic of China (naval war flag) 
Ship type Landing craft
Shipyard "Yuzhnaya Tochka" shipyard Feodosiya

“Dekabristow” shipyard in Saint Petersburg

Construction period 1985 to 2014
Units built 18th
period of service Since 1985
Ship dimensions and crew
57.3 m ( Lüa )
width 25.6 m
Draft Max. 1.2 m
displacement 555 t
crew 27
Machine system
machine 5 × M-70 or NO-10 gas turbines
5 × 10,000 PS (7,457) kW
60 kn (111 km / h)
propeller 3 drive, 4 lift propellers
Transport capacities
Permitted number of passengers 500
  • 2 × 1 30 mm AK-630 tower
  • 2 × A22 starters, each with 22 × 140 mm missiles
  • 4 × 1 starter for 9K34 anti-aircraft missiles
  • up to 78 sea ​​mines


  • Lazur radar
  • ESM system
  • Ekran-1 navigation radar
  • "Rumb" SIGINT
  • Buran radio system

The Project 1232.2 , with the code name "Subr" ( Russian Зубр ; for bison , NATO designation: Zubr-class LCAC ) is a class of large air cushion - landing craft of the Soviet Navy , which in the Cold War was developed and now mainly from the People's Republic China is operated.


The landing craft of the class were developed in the 1980s and used in the first task force in 1986. From 1985 to 1993 as well as 2001 and 2004 a total of 15 boats of the class were laid down in Saint Petersburg and Feodosia . After the end of the Soviet Union, two boats were scrapped at the shipyard before they were completed and three boats from the Black Sea fleet were handed over to Ukraine , which built another boat itself. As of 2001, three new boats were built for Greece . The unit price was just under 100 million US dollars.

Russian Navy

There are still two boats in service with the Russian Navy (as of 2007):

Ukrainian Navy

The Ukrainian Navy originally had two boats in service. The Navy of the People's Republic of China bought two boats from the Ukraine, which were built by the Ukraine in Feodosiya as "bison class". The last boat left the shipyard in a hurry on March 1, 2014, before Russian troops seized the peninsula during the Crimean crisis . Russia later pledged to fulfill the treaty between China and Ukraine. After the Crimean crisis, Ukraine no longer had any boats of the class in service.

Greek Navy

The Greek Navy owns four boats. Kefallonia (L 180) was taken over by the Russian Navy and overhauled. Ithaki (L 181) was newly built in Ukraine from 2001 , Zakynthos (L 183) new in Russia. The fourth boat, Kerkira (L 184), was built in Ukraine from June 2004 and went into service in January 2005.

Navy of the People's Republic of China

The Navy of the People's Republic of China bought two boats in Ukraine and the right to build two more in China. Four boats were bought by Greece, making the Chinese Navy the largest active fleet in its class with six boats and the option of two more. Observers speculated that the boats could be used by China in the territorial conflict in the China Sea .


The Russian boats Yevgeny Kotscheschkow and Mordowija during an exercise in 2015
Soviet Project 1232.2 boat with the rocket launcher extended, 1989

Due to the Soviet Baltic Sea and Black Sea strategy, the landing craft had the task of landing large quantities of vehicles and material quickly and in a targeted manner independently of the usual traffic routes, also as an ideal aid for disaster relief in coastal areas.

In addition, the boats were equipped with heavy weapons for landing support and are able to lay minefields.

The big advantage of the boats is not only the higher speed compared to normal landing craft, but also the fact that they can reach around 80% of all coasts and land troops without having to wade through the water, compared to around 17% with regular boats .

Hovercraft can also operate over ice and the beach. In this way, the classic unsafe landing zone in the surf, such as the landings in World War II , can be avoided. The troops and equipment can be transported to an inland location, with this type of obstacles up to about 2 m high can be driven over.

This concept of bringing heavy equipment directly onto the beach from the high seas over a distance of up to 80 kilometers is called OTH ( over the horizon ) and could previously only be carried out with helicopters, and only to a limited extent.



On August 18, 2013, the Mordovia , one of the two Russian boats, made a landing maneuver in the Russian oblast of Kaliningrad on a beach populated by bathers on the Baltic Sea near the Baltiysk district of Metschnikowo (Neuhäuser) . The beach is part of a military training area and is actually closed to bathers.

See also


  • Ю.В.Апальков: Корабли ВМФ СССР. Том IV - Десантные и минно-тральные корабли. Saint Petersburg, 2007, ISBN 978-5-8172-0135-2 . (Russian)

Web links

Commons : Pomornik class  - collection of pictures, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. "Naval Forces News - China" of March 3, 2014
  2. ^ "Rosoboronexport to supply to China Zubr landing craft ordered in Ukraine" TASS of July 3, 2015
  3. Kyle Mizokami: "China Is Buying Giant Attack Hovercraft From Russia" popularmechanics.com of September 24, 2015
  4. a b c Ю.В.Апальков: Корабли ВМФ СССР. Том IV - Десантные и минно-тральные корабли. Saint Petersburg, 2007, ISBN 978-5-8172-0135-2 , p. 49
  5. Navy ship frightens beachgoers: Full speed ahead! Spiegel Online Video, accessed August 22, 2013