K-535 during testing in 2010
The project 955 / 955A Borei ( Russian Борей , after the Greek wind god Boreas , NATO name: Borei class or also Borej class ) is a class of nuclear submarines of the Russian Navy . The Borei is SSBN carrier system for sea-based ICBMs . The class represents the 4th generation of strategic nuclear-powered submarines within the Russian fleet and is currently regarded by the Russian side as the most modern SSBN unit worldwide.
The development probably started before the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, at the same time as the 667BDRM and 941 projects . The basic development lasted until 1996 and became known to the West when the first boat of this new type was laid down in the Sevmasch shipyard in Severodvinsk . In 1998 the project was again slightly modified. The construction was finally temporarily suspended due to financial problems: A Russian trade journal read that the shipyard lacked the steel suitable for submarine construction. The previous main supplier, Azovstal , has been in Ukraine since the collapse of the Soviet Union , and the Ministry of Defense had no money to buy the now very expensive steel there. The construction of the Yuri Dolgoruki came to a standstill in January 1998 (at that time only 5% completed).
Construction resumed in 2001. From then on the boat was called Yuri Dolgoruki . On March 19, 2004, a second boat of the class with the name Alexander Newski was laid in Severodvinsk, exactly two years later a third with the name Vladimir Monomakh . The first boat was launched in April 2007. Its reactor was first activated in November 2008. It was to be made available to the Russian naval forces by the end of 2009 and, after long tests, was put into service on January 10, 2013. After initial problems, the sea trials dragged on until late summer 2010. The Yuri Dolgoruki was launched 17 years after the last Soviet strategic nuclear submarine . Therefore, the Jurij Dolgoruki is the first Russian SSBN.
The Aleksandr Newski was originally supposed to be completed in 2009, but was only launched on December 1, 2010 and was handed over to the naval fleet on December 23, 2013. Another boat of the 955 class is already being built at Sewmasch. The Vladimir Monomakh should be ready in 2011; both boats are intended for the Pacific Fleet. The keel of a modernized fourth unit, the Svjatitel Nikolai , was intended. The boat was laid down on July 30, 2012, but was given the name Knjas Vladimir . The Russian Navy intends to acquire eight boats of the 955 class by 2015. Seven units were to be built under the then valid (financial) plan by 2015, the eighth boat "afterwards" as part of a follow-up program. The new SSBN are intended to form the backbone of Russia's sea-based nuclear deterrent in the coming decades, replacing the older 667BDR / 667BDRM projects in this role .
The R-39UTTCh Grom missile , which was developed in the Makejew missile design office, was initially planned for Project 955 . Makejew could not keep the prescribed dimensions of the missile, which is why the nuclear submarine had to be rebuilt itself. Other shortcomings were also found when testing this missile. When the rocket was finally 80 percent ready in 1998, the project ended.
The main armament of the Yuri Dolgoruki are 16 intercontinental ballistic missiles of the Bulava type (SS-N-32) with solid propulsion . Each of these missiles can carry 6–10 nuclear warheads with an explosive force of 100–150 kt each. There were also difficulties in developing the Bulava. As of December 2011, eighteen launch tests had been conducted, seven of which failed.
In addition to the rocket armament, the boats of the class have 6 torpedo tubes in caliber 533 mm. There is speculation about a possible additional armament with S-10 “Grenade” cruise missiles ( SS-N-21 Sampson ) that can be fired from the torpedo tubes .
All previous SSBN of the Project 667A boats up to 667BDRM had to either stop or go slower than 3 knots to launch the rockets . The boats of the project 667BDRM and 941 can launch four rockets at the same time. In the new boats, the silos are installed at an angle of 25 to 35 degrees - analogous to the SSGN . When the rockets are ejected, the boat can travel up to 15 knots at a depth of 65 meters.
|tact. number||Surname||Project||Keel laying||Launch||In service||off-duty||Remarks|
|K-535||Yuri Dolgoruky||955||November 2, 1996||February 12, 2008||January 10, 2013||active, Northern Fleet|
|K-550||Alexander Nevsky||955||March 19, 2004||December 13, 2010||December 23, 2013||active, Pacific Fleet|
|K-551||Vladimir Monomakh||955||March 19, 2006||December 30, 2012||19th December 2014||active, Pacific Fleet|
|K-549||Knyaz Vladimir||955A||July 30, 2012||17th November 2017||June 12, 2020||Shipyard tests, since November 2018|
|...||Knyaz Oleg||955A||July 27, 2014||-||under construction|
|...||Generalissimo Suvorov||955A||December 26, 2014||-||under construction|
|...||Emperor Alexandr III||955A||December 18, 2015||-||under construction|
|...||Knyaz Poscharsky||955A||December 23, 2016||-|
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