Project 955

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Project 955 / 955A
K-535 during testing in 2010
K-535 during testing in 2010
Ship data
country RussiaRussia (naval war flag) Russia
Shipyard Sevmash in Severodvinsk
Construction period Since 1996
Launch of the type ship 2007
Units built 8 planned
Ship dimensions and crew
170 m ( Lüa )
width 13.5 m
Draft Max. 10 m
displacement surfaced: 14,720 t
submerged: 24,000 t
crew 107 men
Machine system
machine 1 × OK-650W pressurized water reactor

1 × steam turbine GT3A

propeller 1 jet ring propeller
Mission data submarine
Diving depth, normal 400 m
Immersion depth, max. 480 m
29.0 kn
15.0 kn

The project 955 / 955A Borei ( Russian Борей , after the Greek wind god Boreas , NATO name: Borei class or also Borej class ) is a class of nuclear submarines of the Russian Navy . The Borei is SSBN carrier system for sea-based ICBMs . The class represents the 4th generation of strategic nuclear-powered submarines within the Russian fleet and is currently regarded by the Russian side as the most modern SSBN unit worldwide.

Development history

Alexander Nevsky , 2015

The development probably started before the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, at the same time as the 667BDRM and 941 projects . The basic development lasted until 1996 and became known to the West when the first boat of this new type was laid down in the Sevmasch shipyard in Severodvinsk . In 1998 the project was again slightly modified. The construction was finally temporarily suspended due to financial problems: A Russian trade journal read that the shipyard lacked the steel suitable for submarine construction. The previous main supplier, Azovstal , has been in Ukraine since the collapse of the Soviet Union , and the Ministry of Defense had no money to buy the now very expensive steel there. The construction of the Yuri Dolgoruki came to a standstill in January 1998 (at that time only 5% completed).

Construction resumed in 2001. From then on the boat was called Yuri Dolgoruki . On March 19, 2004, a second boat of the class with the name Alexander Newski was laid in Severodvinsk, exactly two years later a third with the name Vladimir Monomakh . The first boat was launched in April 2007. Its reactor was first activated in November 2008. It was to be made available to the Russian naval forces by the end of 2009 and, after long tests, was put into service on January 10, 2013. After initial problems, the sea trials dragged on until late summer 2010. The Yuri Dolgoruki was launched 17 years after the last Soviet strategic nuclear submarine . Therefore, the Jurij Dolgoruki is the first Russian SSBN.

The Aleksandr Newski was originally supposed to be completed in 2009, but was only launched on December 1, 2010 and was handed over to the naval fleet on December 23, 2013. Another boat of the 955 class is already being built at Sewmasch. The Vladimir Monomakh should be ready in 2011; both boats are intended for the Pacific Fleet. The keel of a modernized fourth unit, the Svjatitel Nikolai , was intended. The boat was laid down on July 30, 2012, but was given the name Knjas Vladimir . The Russian Navy intends to acquire eight boats of the 955 class by 2015. Seven units were to be built under the then valid (financial) plan by 2015, the eighth boat "afterwards" as part of a follow-up program. The new SSBN are intended to form the backbone of Russia's sea-based nuclear deterrent in the coming decades, replacing the older 667BDR / 667BDRM projects in this role .

The boats are equipped with an escape pod for the entire crew in the tower. A Russia Today documentation presents the inner workings and the functionality of the capsule.


Drawing of the starboard view of Project 955

The R-39UTTCh Grom missile , which was developed in the Makejew missile design office, was initially planned for Project 955 . Makejew could not keep the prescribed dimensions of the missile, which is why the nuclear submarine had to be rebuilt itself. Other shortcomings were also found when testing this missile. When the rocket was finally 80 percent ready in 1998, the project ended.

The main armament of the Yuri Dolgoruki are 16 intercontinental ballistic missiles of the Bulava type (SS-N-32) with solid propulsion . Each of these missiles can carry 6–10 nuclear warheads with an explosive force of 100–150 kt each. There were also difficulties in developing the Bulava. As of December 2011, eighteen launch tests had been conducted, seven of which failed.

In addition to the rocket armament, the boats of the class have 6 torpedo tubes in caliber 533 mm. There is speculation about a possible additional armament with S-10 “Grenade” cruise missiles ( SS-N-21 Sampson ) that can be fired from the torpedo tubes .

All previous SSBN of the Project 667A boats up to 667BDRM had to either stop or go slower than 3 knots to launch the rockets . The boats of the project 667BDRM and 941 can launch four rockets at the same time. In the new boats, the silos are installed at an angle of 25 to 35 degrees - analogous to the SSGN . When the rockets are ejected, the boat can travel up to 15 knots at a depth of 65 meters.


Project 955
tact. number Surname Project Keel laying Launch In service off-duty Remarks
K-535 Yuri Dolgoruky 955 November 2, 1996 February 12, 2008 January 10, 2013 active, Northern Fleet
K-550 Alexander Nevsky 955 March 19, 2004 December 13, 2010 December 23, 2013 active, Pacific Fleet
K-551 Vladimir Monomakh 955 March 19, 2006 December 30, 2012 19th December 2014 active, Pacific Fleet
K-549 Knyaz Vladimir 955A July 30, 2012 17th November 2017 June 12, 2020 Shipyard tests, since November 2018
... Knyaz Oleg 955A July 27, 2014 - under construction
... Generalissimo Suvorov 955A December 26, 2014 - under construction
... Emperor Alexandr III 955A December 18, 2015 - under construction
... Knyaz Poscharsky 955A December 23, 2016 -


Web links

Commons : Project 955  - Collection of Pictures, Videos and Audio Files

Individual evidence

  1. a b Borej submarines are to become the core of Russia's nuclear missile fleet. RIA Novosti , July 28, 2008, accessed July 29, 2008 .
  2. RIA Novosti: The latest nuclear submarine Yuri "Dolgoruki" activates the nuclear reactor (November 21, 2008)
  3. Russian Navy will get the most modern nuclear submarine by the end of the year (March 19, 2009). Retrieved March 19, 2009.
  4. Laying of the keel of the fourth Borej-class nuclear submarine postponed to 2010. RIA Novosti , December 15, 2009; accessed December 15, 2009 .
  5. ^ RIA Novosti: President Putin attends the keel-laying of the nuclear submarine "Knjas Vladimir" (July 30, 2012). Retrieved July 30, 2012.
  6. If a submarine gets sunk is there any way at all possible for the people on board to escape? If so, how?, May 6, 2019, accessed January 31, 2020 .
  7. Submarines of the Northern Fleet: The Beast Division - Part 1. Russia Today, January 27, 2019, accessed on January 31, 2020 (English, escape pod from 1.30 p.m.).
  8. Two Bulava missiles successfully tested. In: Sputnik Germany, accessed on March 31, 2015 .
  9. ^ Project 955 submarines to carry long-range cruise missiles., January 11, 2013, accessed January 17, 2013 .
  10. ^ First Borei Submarine Enters Service (January 10, 2013). Retrieved March 9, 2013.
  11. ВМФ России пополнился новейшим атомным подводным ракетным крейсером «Александр Невский» . ( Memento from March 4, 2016 in the Internet Archive ) In:, December 23, 2013. Accessed on December 23, 2013. (Russian: "The Russian Navy received the latest nuclear-powered U-missile cruiser 'Aleksandr Nevski'.")
  12. New nuclear submarine stationed on Kamchatka. In: October 1, 2015, accessed October 1, 2015 .
  13. "Владимир Мономах" поднял Андреевский флаг . In: :, December 19, 2014. Accessed on December 20, 2014. (Russian: "The Andrew flag was hoisted on the 'Vladimir Monomakh'".)
  14. Advanced Russian Nuclear Sub Takes Up Station In Pacific. In: Radio Free Europe / Liberty. September 26, 2016. Retrieved September 26, 2016 .
  15. ORF at / Agencies full: Appearance without mask and distance: Putin ignores CoV rules. June 12, 2020, accessed June 12, 2020 .
  16. Russia's advanced Borei-A submarine to enter 2nd stage of shipbuilders' trials., June 14, 2019, accessed November 13, 2019 .
  17. Пятый "Борей" назовут "Князь Олег" In:, May 29, 2014. Accessed on June 3, 2014. (Russian: "The fifth Borei is called 'Knjas Oleg'".)
  18. Sewmasch shipyard begins construction of the sixth Borej-A-class submarine in December. RIA Novosti , September 19, 2014, accessed September 19, 2014 .
  19. a b Sixth Borej-class nuclear submarine laid down. Sputnik Germany, December 26, 2014, accessed January 4, 2015 .
  20. The seventh “Borey” is named Imperator Alexander III. - Sewmasch. TASS , November 30, 2015, accessed December 1, 2015 .
  21. ^ Military & Defense - Construction of Russia's seventh Borei class sub due to start on Friday. In: TASS., accessed December 18, 2015 (English).
  22. The last strategic nuclear submarine of the Borej class is laid down in the Sewmasch shipyard. FLOTPROM, December 21, 2016, accessed December 21, 2016 .