# Prefabrication

In the production economy, prefabrication (or prefabrication ) is that part of production that deals with the manufacture of the components required for production .

## General

There is prefabrication in production companies with several production stages . The production stage with prefabrication is upstream of the main production. In prefabrication, individual parts , assemblies or components are prepared in such a way that they can become part of an end product . The assembly of individual parts and layers to form a complete component is known as prefabrication.

## Examples

In the construction industry , system construction is often equated with prefabrication, because the production of a building and its construction is industrial. Many construction systems use prefabricated components and are based on industrial assembly methods, even if they are assembled on the construction site .

In the gastronomy one knows the prefabrication of meals . In the kitchen, the steak is first filleted , fried and seasoned . This prefabrication is necessary in order, for example , to prepare prefabricated side dishes in parallel until the menu consisting of several parts can be served.

In the film and music industry , pre-production is referred to as pre-production ( pre-production (film) / pre-production (music) ). The program uses the principle of prefabrication, such as when creating web pages through standardization and modular units. For the customers of software companies, this can be seen, for example, through types of website constructions that can be used as templates .

## history

In the manufacture of small, but widely used components or elements, standardization began very early - in some cases even before the industrial revolution . One of the first examples are standardized bricks , some of which were already common in antiquity. From the time of the beginning industrialization, small parts such as screws and wire nails should be mentioned, but also uniform panels, roof tiles or uniform cross-sections in wood construction (laths, boards) and in metal construction . In the construction industry, the use of standardized profile steel or large hollow blocks led to an acceleration, but also to more reliable predictions of the statics .

In building construction , large-scale prefabrication began around the middle of the 20th century: based on experience with chipboard and plasterboard , precast construction techniques were developed in which elements prefabricated in the factory are only assembled to form a complete structure on site; This construction method led to the first boom in prefabricated houses in the 1970s , which, in addition to the cost advantage, also made it possible to calculate the construction costs more precisely.

Similar processes also led to significant reductions in price and increased performance in other sectors such as electrical engineering and electronics . In general, the prefabrication of components also facilitates technical planning and makes it easier to estimate the impact of faults that arise, for example, from deviations from the standard properties of the components.

## economic aspects

The schedule section follow the prefabrication pre-assembly and final assembly (see Assembly ). The individual production stages are mutually dependent and must be harmonized in the workflow in such a way that a bottleneck is avoided. Prefabrication reveals a certain vertical range of manufacture , because parts that are self-made in- house could also be procured from third parties as intermediate goods .

By standardizing the components in terms of their dimensions and properties, the final assembly can be significantly accelerated and made cheaper, and in some cases more uniform product quality . A disadvantage could be the higher storage costs or an under- or over-production. Prefabrication does not necessarily have to be industrial or mechanical mass production , but can also be done manually in small series or in individual production . In the construction industry, for example, building site production may be preferable to factory production, for example when casting only fewer but the same concrete slabs .

Another goal of prefabrication can be to minimize the cost of materials - for example, through the relationship between the shape of the component and its load-bearing capacity or load-bearing capacity (mechanical, thermal, electrical, etc.). Typical for this are, for example, shell structures in construction, mechanical engineering and industrial construction . The ready-made mixture of building materials , the efficiency increase; In the last few years the classic precast concrete has been supplemented by a number of other mixing systems.

The methods of prefabrication thus enable shorter construction or lead times and larger areas or volumes on the one hand, and cost reductions and, in some cases, greater flexibility on the other - so overall an increase in profitability. Without extensive prefabrication, many of today's products for everyday use and industry would be too expensive to manufacture or would be limited to much smaller quantities.

## Degree of prefabrication

Prefabrication plays a major role, especially in the construction industry, as it can reduce the construction time. To evaluate and compare prefabrication, reference is often made to the degree of prefabrication (VFG). This results from the ratio of the values ​​for the prefabricated service and the total service. In building construction, the modular construction method achieves the highest degree of prefabrication.

${\ displaystyle {\ text {Degree of prefabrication}} = {\ frac {\ text {Prefabricated services}} {\ text {Total construction services}}} \ cdot 100 \% \,}$