Armored recovery vehicle 2
|Armored recovery vehicle 2|
Bergepanzer 2 (standard)
|crew||4 (driver, commander, mountain soldier 1, mountain soldier 2)|
|height||2.69 m (with retracted crane boom)|
|Dimensions||39.8 tons (standard)
40.6 tons (2A2)
|Armor and armament|
|Main armament||2 × 7.62 × 51 mm NATO MG3|
|Secondary armament||Smoke throwing system|
MTU MB 838 CaM-500, 10-cylinder multi-fuel diesel engine
610 kW (830 hp ), 2.86 kNm torque
|Top speed||62 km / h|
|Power / weight||approx. 15 kW / ton|
The Bergepanzer 2 ( BPz-2 ) belongs to the group of combat support vehicles and is the successor to the Bergepanzer 1 . It is an armored work machine and is based on the Leopard 1 chassis. His area of responsibility includes: ensuring the mobility of armored troops , recovering damaged vehicles in combat, providing assistance with the installation and removal of engines and towers, and support in maintenance operations. The vehicle is used by the logistics troops of the army and in the armored infantry companies of the Bundeswehr as well as by the armies of other countries that have the Leopard 1. In the 2A1 version - as Pionierpanzer 1 - it was also a work tool of the pioneers . It is the third armored recovery vehicle in the German armed forces, but the first in-house development.
The rearmament of the Federal Republic from the mid-1950s also led to the initial equipping of the Bundeswehr with American armored vehicles. In addition to M47 and M48 battle tanks, M74 armored recovery vehicles on Sherman chassis and, from 1962, as the successor to the armored recovery vehicle 1 were introduced.
With the development of the Leopard 1 , the Bundeswehr's armored recovery concept also changed. General Dietrich Willikens - a driving force in tank development - favored a family of tanks on the chassis of the Leopard 1. Uniform training, supply and lower production costs made the idea of the 'multi-purpose tank' interesting for the Bundeswehr command. The catalog of requirements drawn up for the Leopard 1 defined a suitable armored recovery vehicle right from the start.
The Federal Office for Defense Technology and Procurement (BWB) commissioned Porsche's special office with the development in October 1963 . Type 807 was developed under the direction of the designers Eyb and Greding. The joint office, consisting of the companies Jung Jungenthal , Atlas-MaK Maschinenbau (Atlas-MaK, from 1971 only MaK) and Luther-Werke , produced the first of two prototypes in 1964. The components of the Leopard 1 were adopted unchanged to 75 percent.
In September 1964, Atlas-MaK took over the main responsibility for the project and led the troop tests, while Jung Jungenthal carried out the factory trials and tests on the stationary vehicle. Porsche's development department was responsible for further development and carried out basic tests such as flow measurements.
In the spring of 1965, Atlas-MaK presented the overall plan for series production. The changes made by Porsche were implemented on the prototype by mid-May. In September 1965 the first tests were carried out at test site 51. The second conversion in October 1965 brought the vehicles to a condition similar to series production. The testing of these pre-series vehicles took place between October 19 and November 23.
On September 9, 1966, Atlas-MaK handed over the first of 444 Bergepanzer 2 (Standard) to the troops. The delivery of this first batch was completed in April 1969 and served to replace the armored recovery vehicle on an M88 chassis. The unit price for the Bundeswehr was 750,000 German marks when it was introduced .
The second construction lot followed in 1969. The 36 armored recovery vehicles were intended for the army's armored engineers. This type was similar in appearance and assemblies to the Bergepanzer 2 (standard) and was adapted to the needs of the pioneers; it was called Bergepanzer 2A1 or Pionierpanzer 1. All vehicles of this type were converted into the Pionierpanzer 2 Dachs at the end of the 1980s . The total weight was 40.8 tons.
With the introduction of the Gepard anti-aircraft gun tank and the Leopard 2 , a more powerful variant was developed and introduced. MaK delivered in 1977 to 1978 contract section 3 100 armored recovery vehicles 2A2 (LS) to the Bundeswehr, the LS version had a rest right at the stern, so were these vehicles capable of the 16-ton tower of a Flakpanzers Cheetah to to lift. Another nine went to the Canadian Army with the designation Taurus - Armored Recovery Vehicle (ARV) .
Maschinenbau Kiel (since 1992 ' Rheinmetall Landsysteme') produced a total of 742 armored recovery vehicles 2.
The company Flensburger Fahrzeugbau , responsible for the defense technology repair of the Leopard family, has since developed several versions of the armored recovery vehicle. First, an increase in performance of the Bergepanzer 2 ( Bergepanzer 2000 ) was developed. Older variants of the Bergepanzers 2 can be converted to this version. The armed forces of Belgium and Chile use this variant.
In 2006 and 2007 the Bergepanzer 2 was again significantly modified and increased in performance in order to be able to be used as a support vehicle for the Leopard 2 battle tank. This product is known as the bison armored recovery vehicle and has been used by the Danish army since 2008 .
Equipment and crew
The crew consists of a total of four soldiers: the driver, the commander , a bow machine gunner and, as the fourth crew member, the radio operator / rescue worker. The driver sits in the front left of the vehicle under a one-piece hatch. He controls the tank according to the commandant's instructions and operates the recovery equipment, including the shield and winch. He is also responsible for maintenance work on the hull of the tank. The machine gunner for the bow machine gun is to the left of the driver. The commander sits slightly to the left directly behind the driver. He leads the tank, maintains the radio link to the higher-level management level and can override the driver when operating the crane arm if necessary. He is also responsible for loading and operating the anti-aircraft machine gun. The fourth soldier sits in the back of the superstructure and looks to the rear. Access to the fighting compartment is via the three roof hatches or the entry hatch on the left-hand side of the vehicle. The emergency exit hatch in the vehicle floor is also available.
The hull of the armored recovery vehicle 2 is made of welded armored steel and has a single layer of armor. The protection level for the chassis corresponds to that of the Leopard 1. The armored structure achieves armouring thicknesses of 25 mm to 35 mm for the sides and 10 mm for the roof. The hydraulic cylinders of the crane system were given a splinter protection. The standard equipment includes an NBC protection and ventilation system as well as a fire warning and suppression system. The exhaust system with fresh air admixture reduces the infrared signature and thus supports passive armor protection.
As part of the foreign missions, IBD Deisenroth Engineering (Ingenieurbüro Deisenroth) provided some armored recovery vehicles with additional composite armor ( Mexas Medium) and anti-mine equipment. In addition to Canada, which had their armored recovery vehicles converted, the protection package was tested by Norway.
The armament is primarily intended for self-defense and varies depending on the user state. The German armed forces have two MG3 machine guns , which are used as a bow machine gun and an anti-aircraft machine gun on the anti-aircraft mount of the commander's cupola. A smoke throwing system in caliber 76 mm with six throwing cups on the left side of the armored structure enables the crew to avoid the eyes of the enemy in battle.
Drive and chassis
The Leopard's torsion bar- sprung support roller drive was adopted without any changes. On each side it has seven rubber-tyred double castors and four support castors, whereby the first three and the last two castors are each provided with a hydraulic shock absorber. The spring travel is limited by truncated cone springs and end stops. The chain drive wheel is at the rear. A "living" end connector chain (type: D 640A ) with exchangeable chain pads from Diehl serves as the crawler belt .
The entire drive train was taken over one to one. Driven by a 10-cylinder multi-fuel engine of the type MB 838 CaM-500 with two mechanical loaders , the Bergepanzer 2 reaches a top speed of 62 km / h. The engine develops 830 hp with a 37.4 liter displacement and enables a power-to-weight ratio of around 20 hp / t. The fuel supply in the tanks was increased to 1550 l to take account of the increased consumption during the recovery work. The road range is 850 km, with a consumption of 165 l per 100 km. The ground pressure is 0.83 kg / cm² - in the performance-enhanced variant 2A2 this is 0.85 kg / cm². The pioneering variant was equipped with a fuel supply of 1410 l.
In order to guarantee a constant oil supply even in difficult terrain and on inclined positions, the engine is equipped with dry sump pressure lubrication .
The 24 V on-board network is supplied with power by a liquid-cooled 9 kW three-phase generator. The battery system consists of six batteries of 12 volts each with a total of 300 ampere hours.
The 4 HP-250 manual transmission from ZF Friedrichshafen is used to transmit power to the chain . Flanged to the engine, it has four forward and two reverse gears, which are shifted electro-hydraulically. The clutch is connected via a hydraulic torque converter with a lock-up clutch. The vehicle's brakes are designed as hydraulic single-circuit disc brakes with brake oil pump support and a nitrogen reserve. The Bergepanzer 2 was the first tank in the Leopard family with this improved type of brake from Teves, which was retrofitted to the main battle tanks from the third construction batch.
The heart of the Bergepanzer 2 is its recovery equipment. This includes the crane arm, the clearing and support shield, the recovery and winch equipment as well as equipment for repair such as a cutting and welding system. As part of field repairs, it is possible to carry a replacement engine for the Leopard 1 on the rear of the tank. A shaft placed on the commander's hatch makes it deep-wading and submersible , so that it can be used as a security vehicle at river crossings.
The crane arm is installed on the front right of the chassis and enables a working range of 270 °. The maximum hook load in the supported state and with a maximum increase of 72 ° is 20 tons. In practical use it is limited to 13 t in order not to exceed the maximum slewing load. It was only with the 2A2 armored recovery vehicle that it was increased to 16 tonnes with a reinforced crane and rear support. At the maximum outreach, 7 tons can be lifted and up to 6.3 tons can be moved without support. In the event of an overload, an overload warning system - which must be reset manually by the operator - stops the hoist operation. The length of the 13 mm thick hoisting winch rope is 100 m. The pioneer variant also received a ladder on the boom and an earth auger that can be attached to the end of the crane. In theory, it was possible to dig up to 30 holes in the ground with a diameter of 70 cm and a depth of 190 cm. In practice, however, the hydraulic radial piston motor drilling rig was prone to failure. Roots and stones in soils that did not conform to the standard reduced the reliability enormously.
The clearing and support shield in the armored recovery variant primarily serves as a support in crane operation and as a ground anchor during recovery work. The 3.25 m wide blade is operated by two hydraulic cylinders and blocks automatically if there is a loss of pressure. The Pionierpanzer used an almost identical dozer blade. Raised by 40.4 cm and expanded from 25 cm to 3.75 m by two removable extensions, it was tailored to the areas of application of the pioneers. A roller above the middle of the blade reduced wear on the recovery rope. In order to be able to tear up the ground, four fangs for a depth of 50 mm and two large fangs for 40 cm were available for attachment. The clearing capacity of both shield variants is 200 m³ / h.
The main and main winch from Rotzler is controlled by two hydraulic motors. The pulling force of the drum winch is 345 kN (34.5 t) in a single pull and 690 kN (69 t) in a double pull with pulley . The rope extension speed is 14 m / min in first gear, 44 m / min in second gear and 74 m / min in the 2A2 armored recovery vehicle with the improved winch. A tensioning device ensures that the rope is evenly tensioned when the 90 m long rope is rolled up and unrolled. The cable drive must be covered for underwater use and can therefore not be used.
The equipment also includes a cutting and welding system (54 V / 360 A), a chainsaw , an impact wrench , vehicle jack, pulleys, tow shears , shackles , a set of double rollers , chain links and, in addition to the on-board tools, an extended tool set for field maintenance. The pioneers also had storage space for 600 kg of explosive equipment including fuses and 117 kg of explosives.
|designation||Bergepanzer 2 (standard)||Armored recovery vehicle 2A1 / Pionierpanzer 1||Armored recovery vehicle 2A2||Armored recovery bison|
|Type:||Armored recovery vehicle with self-supporting hull, turretless body and crane boom|
|Engine:||MTU MB 838 CA-M500, 10-cylinder multi-fuel diesel engine|
|Power:||610 kW (830 hp)||706 kW (960 hp) 3300 Nm at 1600 min -1|
|Cooling:||thermostatically controlled axial fan|
|Transmission:||ZF 4 HP 250 planetary gearbox with four forward and two reverse gears|
|Landing gear:||Torsion bar-sprung support roller drive with seven rollers and four support rollers||Torsion bar-sprung support roller drive with seven rollers, four support rollers and adjustable hydraulic gas shock absorbers|
|Length over all:
clearing blade in driving position
|7570 mm||7980 mm||7680 mm||8210 mm|
|Width over everything:||3250 mm|
|Height above everything:||2695 mm||2970 mm (with top case)
3271 mm (with Leopard 2 engine on the rear)
|Ground clearance:||440 mm|
|Wading ability or structure:||1200 mm|
|Deep wading m. Deep water shaft:||2250 mm|
|Underwater driving m. Underwater drive shaft:||4000 mm|
|Trench crossing ability:||2500 mm|
|Climbing ability:||1150 mm||880 mm||1000 mm||880 mm|
|Empty weight:||39,200 kg||40,200 kg||39,980 kg||47,000 kg|
|Combat weight:||39,800 kg||40,800 kg||40,600 kg||54,000 kg (total weight 56,000 kg)|
|Design-related maximum speed:||62 km / h|
|Fuel quantity:||1550 l||1410 l||1550 l||-|
|Driving range road and fuel consumption according to TDv:||840 km at 165 l / 100 km||650 km at 165 l / 100 km||840 km at 165 l / 100 km||-|
|Driving range terrain and fuel consumption according to TDv:||400 km (2A1) to 500 km at 300 l / 100 km (consumption over 400 l / 100 km is not unusual in towing operations)||-|
|Turning circle:||496 cm|
|Width of dozer blade:||3250 mm||3250 mm (3750 mm with widening)||3250 mm||3250 mm (3750 mm with widening)|
|Height of dozer blade:||591 mm||995 mm||591 mm||995 mm|
|Armament:||2 × 7,62 × 51 mm NATO MG3 or C6 GPMG as anti-aircraft machine gun and bow machine gun, smoke device||Smoke throwing system, armament varies depending on the user|
|Ammunition:||4250 cartridges for the two MG3s||-|
Brief overview of variants
- Bergepanzer 2 (standard) - series vehicle construction lot 1
- Bergepanzer 2A1 / Pionierpanzer 1 - construction lot 2; optimized for the pioneers
- Armored recovery vehicle 2A2 (LS) - Lot 3; performance-enhanced variant
- Armored recovery vehicle 2A2 (LS EHS) - section 3; with electro-hydraulic control
- Bergepanzer 2000 - performance-enhanced and modernized variant from FFG
- Bergepanzer Wisent - New development by Flensburger Fahrzeugbau in cooperation with the Danish armed forces based on the Bergepanzer 2 with improved armor and mine protection. According to the manufacturer, the vehicle is able to tow and recover a Leopard 2.
Variants of the Flensburger Fahrzeugbau Gesellschaft
The Flensburger Fahrzeugbau has developed two improved versions of the armored recovery vehicle 2:
- Armored recovery vehicle 2000
- The term Bergepanzer 2000 is understood to be a modification of the Bergepanzer 2. This conversion includes a new hydraulic system, an improved crane control, an electronic control system, an optimization of the flow rates for the fuel, emergency hydraulics as well as safety devices for crane and clearing operations.
- Armored recovery bison
- The Wisent armored recovery vehicle is a new development by Flensburger Fahrzeugbau based on the armored recovery vehicle 2 with the aim of meeting the higher requirements that the Leopard 2 main battle tank places on an armored recovery vehicle. The development took place from 2006 to 2007.
The Bergepanzer 2 in other armed forces
With the introduction of the Leopard 1 in 1977, Australia also received armored recovery vehicles on Leopard chassis. The eight armored recovery vehicles (standard) were used by the Australian armored forces and were listed as Armored Recovery Vehicle - Medium (ARVM). With the arrival of the M1 Abrams in 2007, the armored recovery vehicles were retired.
The Belgian army originally had 36 armored recovery vehicles (standard). The 20 remaining vehicles were upgraded to Bergepanzer 2000 in 2002. A Bergepanzer 2 was sold to Brazil. With the transformation of the army, in which tracked vehicles were dispensed with, the armored recovery vehicles were retired.
When Germany bought the Leopard 1 in 2006, Brazil received seven additional armored recovery vehicles (standard), at least two of which were converted into SG-13 Hart by the Belgian armaments company Sabiex. The converted vehicles have a raised body, a more massive crane, an enlarged shield and a rear support.
Chile received seven armored recovery vehicles 2 from German stocks, which were converted into armored recovery vehicles 2000 by FFG in 2002. The Netherlands supplied three more. The armored recovery vehicles 2000 were delivered until July 2003.
Denmark bought ten Bergepanzer 2 (Standard) in addition to its Leopard 1 inventory. Another 14 were bought by the Netherlands in 1995. With the arrival of the Leopard 2A5DK , the armed forces decided not to procure the Buffalo Bergepanzer and instead upgraded five Bergepanzer 2 to the bison. Despite the increased performance, the bison is overwhelmed with the weight of the Leopard 2A5DK in the conditions of use in Afghanistan. They are also equipped with the remote-controlled LEMUR weapon station from BAE Systems.
The armed forces of Greece also have with their purchase of the Leopard 1 armored recovery vehicles from the NATO countries. Germany supplied 25 armored recovery vehicles (standard) from the Bundeswehr stock, Italy 20 vehicles and the Netherlands 10 units. Another 50 Leopard 1V battle tanks are due to be converted.
Italy received a total of 137 standard armored recovery vehicles, 68 of which were manufactured in their own country by Oto Melara . 23 of these vehicles received a reinforced crane. With the transformation of the armed forces, at least 20 vehicles had been resold by 2004.
Canada maintains nine 2A2 armored recovery vehicles. The execution corresponds to that of the third construction lot of the Bundeswehr. The vehicles are used in the tank companies of the Canadian Army . The C6 GPMG machine gun is used as armament .
The Koninklijke Landmacht had 52 armored recovery vehicles up to the 1990s. By 1995, the number was reduced to 38, of which 14 were sold to Denmark. Some of the remaining armored recovery vehicles will be converted into mine clearance vehicles. The Büffel armored recovery vehicle on the Leopard 2 chassis serves as a replacement .
Norway owns a total of seven armored recovery vehicles from the first batch, one of which was purchased from the Netherlands.
As part of the military aid, Turkey also received armored recovery vehicles from the Bundeswehr with the Leopard 1 battle tank. The Turkish military has twelve armored recovery vehicles 2 (standard) and four armored recovery vehicles 2A2 (LS).
United Arab Emirates
In 2016/2017 the army of the armed forces of the United Arab Emirates received a total of four bison-2.
- Stefan Marx: The armored recovery vehicles of the Bundeswehr and the German recovery technology (= Tankograd military vehicles special . No. 5005 ). Tankograd, Erlangen 2004, OCLC 643329558 .
- Jürgen Plate, Lutz-Reiner Gau, Jörg Siegert : German military vehicles. Bundeswehr and NVA . Motorbuch, Stuttgart 2001, ISBN 3-613-02152-8 .
- Bergepanzer 2. In: deutschesheer.de. German Army, accessed on July 4, 2015 .
- Family In: Walter J. Spielberger: The Leopard battle tanks and their varieties. Motorbuch-Verlag, Stuttgart 1988, ISBN 3-613-01198-0 , p. 143.
- Der Bergepanzer 2 (Standard) / 2A2. In: Stefan Marx: The armored recovery vehicles of the Bundeswehr and the German recovery technology. Tankograd Publishing, 2004, p. 19, 23. (Tankograd Military Vehicles Special No. 5005)
- website of FFG to Bergepanzer WISENT
- Stefan Marx: The armored recovery vehicles of the Bundeswehr and the German recovery technology (= Tankograd Military Vehicles Special No. 5005) Tankograd Publishing, 2004.
- Armored vehicles. In: Frank Lobitz: Main battle tank Leopard 2 international use. Verlag Jochen Vollert-Tankograd Publishing, Erlangen 2009, ISBN 978-3-936519-09-9 , p. 153.
- casr.ca ( page no longer available , search in web archives: An Overview of Denmark's Afghan Deployment of Leopard Tanks. ) Logistics section… “A weak point is the Wisent Armored Recovery Vehicle. This Leopard 1-based ARV has some upgrades but cannot pull a heavier Leopard 2A5 - especially not in hilly terrain. Despite being unable to tow a Leo 2, the ARV remains indispensable for 'unsticking' other vehicles. " Retrieved October 25, 2010.
- SIPRI - Trade Registers China (English)