A door , especially above and medium German and door, is a movable device for closing an opening (of a wall , the wall , of a passageway or step) which allows the passage or trapdoor after opening. A distinction is made between external and internal doors. A door usually has an upright format. Wings that are used for the passage of vehicles are also known as gates . A wing that is installed horizontally or at an angle is often called a flap .
The word door, Old High German turi, Middle High German door (e), has been used since the 8th century. Originally it only appeared in the dual , later in the plural and would be reinterpreted in a new singular in German. It goes like Old Icelandic Dyrr (plural) and Old English duru (plural) to proto-Germanic flat major back, which in turn in Ablaut to indogermanisch d h advertising stands (see. Greek Thyra, Latin fores ).
The first man-made dwellings made of knots, wooden posts, clay, or stone usually had no lockable entrance doors; To protect against the entry of domestic animals or predators, the presence of a relocatable wickerwork of twigs in the lower half is likely. Door locks appear later - as do the window openings. There were also no interior doors. Antique and medieval doors usually had lateral tenons that were anchored in matching cavities in the threshold and in the lintel.
During the rescue excavations in 2010 at the Zurich Opera House , the most important individual find was a wooden door around 5000 years old, which could go down in history as the third oldest door in Switzerland and probably Europe. The Zurich door resembles the second oldest specimen found in Pfäffikon ZH . It is much better preserved and consists of three boards that are held together by sophisticated connectors. The hinge has also been preserved.
A door allows the delimitation of indoor and outdoor spaces from other rooms or other outdoor areas with the possibility of passage. Doors can be locked with a lock and the premises can be made inaccessible. In addition to the optical design, heat and sound insulation as well as the fulfillment of other structural regulations or requirements such as smoke protection , radiation protection (X-ray rooms) or fire protection and mechanical safety are decisive for the design and construction of doors. These additional functions can be achieved through inserts in the door leaf , additional seals between the door leaf and door frame or through the sequence of several doors. The window is related to the door, but is not accessible. The French door is a mixed form.
- The most common version is the hinged door having a movable door leaf, which rotatably with two or more hinges ( hinges ) on the door frame ( frame , door casing) is fixed.
- A sliding door is attached to the frame with running rails in which the door leaf is suspended or inserted and can be moved sideways.
- In the case of folding doors , the door leaf or leaves are divided into several parts by hinge strips or flexible strips, which fold out of the closing plane when opened.
There are also numerous variants of doors according to their type of movement .
Door components in construction
- Door leaf : The door leaf forms the actual moving part of the door.
Stock door : the door stock is the part of the frame, closes the door.
- Lintel : The upper part of the floor. Originally bears the load of the wall areas above the door and transfers it to the uprights of the stick.
- Door threshold: The floor-side closure of the door, anciently raised at least on one side, today often flush or covered. At the same time the transition between the possibly different floor coverings of the rooms separated by the door.
- Door frame or door frame : The door frame forms a three-sided frame around the door, with a rail (threshold) below. The three sides (left and right, top) are executed the same. With steel frames, the frame is delivered and installed in one piece.
- Blind frame : The blind frame is an element that is not visible in the finished door. It is already installed in the shell. With the help of the dummy stick, which also functions as a plastering strip, it is possible to install the finished stick only after the floor covering has been installed. This protects the floor and the door leaf from any damage during the construction work. Originally, a door frame was made of strong, raw wood, which is then veneered.
- Aperture : The visible parts of the stock, often referred to as trim strip running; integrated in the frame.
Door rebate: The door leaf of a hinged door can at the edges rebated (graded) or obtuse be carried out (even). For a particularly high heat or sound one is double or triple fold used with up to four peripheral sealing profiles. DIN 4109 regulates specifications for soundproof doors. Soundproofing values of over 40 dB can be achieved.
- As a face plate of the rollover or the "loose post" is called a double door in the middle of the double-leaf door leaf.
- Door seal: The seal on modern doors is made of rubber or polyurethane . It is mounted in one piece around the door leaf in the frame and thus forms a closed closure. The bottom seal can be lowered, for example designed as a grinder.
In the construction industry, doors, like windows, are fundamentally differentiated in addition to their type of construction, according to their opening direction (also stop (s) or impact (s) direction ).
Fittings are all functional or decorative parts attached to the door:
The axis of rotation (pin or bolt) attached to the frame or stick, on which the door leaf is suspended (hence the name). Usually two, in the case of heavy doors or those with increased security requirements, three or more are used. Hinges were originally made of wood or stone, later in forged metal, which was embedded in the supporting material or smashed. Today the door hinges are usually drilled or let into the frame or stick and screwed.
Originally an iron band with one end bent into one eye , which encompasses the thorn of the hinge and which was firmly fixed to the door leaf at the other, long end. This construction is obsolete due to the drill-in hinges commonly used today and is only occasionally used for decorative purposes. Colloquially, the unity of band and angel is collectively referred to as band . Modern door hinges for doors with increased requirements can usually be adjusted retrospectively in terms of height and inclination. In addition to the common drill-in hinge, there are a large number of other visible or invisible hinges, for example the Fitschenband . When the door is closed and open, the upper hinge is continuously subjected to tension due to the weight of the door, the lower hinge is subjected to pressure. When the door is closed, the forces act parallel to the wall surface, when it is open, perpendicular to it.
Doors are designated as left doors ( door DIN 107 left ) or right doors ( door DIN 107 right ) depending on the type of hinge (position of the hinges) . The doors are viewed from the side towards which the door leaf opens. Unless the straps are obscured (i.e., invisible when closed), this is the side on which the straps are visible.
With the door lock a mechanical device as a whole is meant, with which a door can be firmly closed, it consists of the following elements:
It locks the door (automatically) into place when it is closed. The case may be, in certain locks by a secured case determination by handle and key movement prevented from extending.
The door handle is used to move the door leaf, especially for pulling or (with sliding doors) pushing it is required. It can protrude or be designed as a recessed grip, the latter being the usual design for sliding doors. If the lock latch can be operated with it at the same time, it is called a door handle or door handle . By operating the door handle, the latch is withdrawn to open the door. Most of the hinged doors have a door handle on both sides of the door leaf, while the end doors only have an immovable doorknob or bar handle on one side . In this case, the latch cannot be unlocked from this side, so that the door can only be opened with a key.
With the door handle, the latch of the door lock can be released from the strike plate and the door can be opened.
The lock cylinder describes a mechanical component inserted into the lock , which is set in motion by a key or, in modern times, electronically by a coded key or a chip, and which opens or closes the bolt. See also access control systems with code number entry or biometric registration.
Other parts and additions
Other functional or decorative parts that do not count as fittings in the true sense:
- Door drive : motor for opening revolving doors. These are closed by a door closer after a certain hold-open time or the opening of the door by hand is supported. They are also used to operate revolving doors that rotate as long as people are in their rotating area, in order to then remain in the closed position, or to open and close sliding doors.
- Floor door drive : Like door drive , but here it is installed on the underside of the door.
- Door stopper or shock absorber : A rubber, metal or plastic part that prevents the door from hitting the wall when it is opened. It is attached to the wall behind the door (sometimes in the shape that the door handle strikes it) or to the floor. It may becombinedwith a door holder, a hook on the wall or on the floor stopper that holds the door in the open position.
- Standing bolt: a device in double or multi- leaf doors which fixes the second leaf (standing or inactive leaf ) when the active leaf is open and offers resistance and support when closing. Usually in the form of bolts, which are inserted from the upper edge into the door frame or the door frame and at the lower edge into an opening in the door sill or in the floor.
- Door damper : A movement damper to let the door close gently and quietly.
- Door closer : pneumatic or hydraulic device which closes the door after each opening and often at the same time dampens the movement, required for smoke and fire protection doors.
- Door opener : A door opener sits in the door frame or in the strike plate and unlocks the lock latch. Electromechanical door openers can be triggered remotely, e.g. B. via the control panel of a door intercom
- Door knocker : knocking mechanism that replaces and reinforces knocking by hand. It is the forerunner of the electric doorbell , electronic alarm noises and melodies.
- Door chime : makes a sound when someone comes through the door (e.g. in little-frequented shops; it signals a shopkeeper that customers are entering)
- Door harp : a small harp to be attached to the door leaf, the strings of which are made to sound when the door is moved by small balls suspended at the level of the strings
- Peephole : small lens in the door leaf through which the space in front of the door (e.g. stairwell) can be seen
- Door chain : Device that prevents a door (uninvited from the outside) from opening wider than just a crack
- Letter slot: opening built into the door leaf through which mail and other items can be thrown into the space behind the door or into a collecting container
- Fighters : separating crossbar or bolt as part of the frame between the door leaf and top panel ( skylight )
- Upper panel: a plate fixed immovably in the frame above the door leaf or the transom, which often has the same texture and the same surface as the door leaf.
- Skylight : a translucent panel, usually a glass panel, fixed immovably in the frame above the door leaf or the transom
- Door lifter : lifts a door by around 5 to 10 millimeters when it is opened in order to overcome unevenness in the floor that would impair the smooth opening of the door.
Doors according to their function
- Room door (inner door), revolving door, usually with a wood look without any requirements, with a tumbler lock (BB), toilet lock or profile cylinder lock(PZ).
- Front door - a solidly constructed door, mostly with security features to prevent unauthorized access, sound-insulating, heat-insulating, weather-resistant and resistant to temperature and humidity differences on the inside and outside according to the intended climate class .
- Apartment door - sound-insulating and burglar-resistant door with lower demands on thermal insulation and resistance to temperature and humidity differences than house doors
- Security door , protective door - a door that protects against break-ins, fire, smoke etc. See # Doors for special requirements
Doors for special installation locations
- Balcony door , patio door - doors that can usually only be opened from the inside, meet the requirements for windows in terms of windproofness and thermal insulation (approximately) and are usually also used for lighting
- French door - a window that could also be used as a door in terms of its format and positioning in relation to the interior, but which is not connected to any traffic area outside or is not intended for passage
- Wicket door - a door built into a gate (e.g. a garage door) that allows quick passage.
- Wallpaper door - is a door that is wallpapered in the same way as the walland is therefore clad and cannot be recognized immediately on superficial examination (see also secret door ).
- Secret door - camouflaged, rotating or sliding access to a hiding place
- Safe door - solid steel door with one or more security locks.
- Construction door (also sometimes called construction site door) - temporarily attached door to close off an area under construction
- Elevator door - double sliding often with 4 elements as access to an elevator system, formerly simple revolving door
- Platform screen door - additional entry protection at certain stations
- Refrigerator door - from the outside usually be locked, but with a Notöffnungsmechanismus inside (cool room side)
- Fence door - in the fence of a garden or other property
Doors for special requirements
The following properties or functions regulated in standards can usually also be combined with one another.
- Panic door - door whose locking can (optionally) be released from the inside by operating the handle (for example in public buildings). This "escape door" can always be opened from one side ("inside") in the event of danger ( panic lock ) in order to ensure an escape.
- Soundproof door - the door leaf isfilledwith sound-absorbing and / or sound-absorbing material and has at least one sealing layer all around (in the area of the threshold this is usually a lowerable floor seal).
- Fire door , fire door or Feuerschutzabschluss- (nachgenannter passage applies only to Germany and is regulated according to DIN 4102-5 and DIN 4102-18) this door provides protection against fire and must be self-closing (different fire protection classes T30, T60, T90 - is the number how many minutes a fire has to be held up in order to pass the fire protection test). A fire protection door does not have to be a smoke protection door at the same time (however, it makes a lot of sense, since far more people are harmed by smoke and toxic gases than by fire). According to § 17 (fire protection) and § 38 (necessary corridors and corridors) of the building regulations for the state of North Rhine-Westphalia - state building regulations (BauO NRW) in the version of March 1, 2000, newly installed fire doors must also be smoke protection doors. Built-in fire barriers in Germany must have general building authority approval. This is issued by the German Institute for Building Technology in Berlin. Fire doors are subject to labeling in Germany. This type of door is monitored by independent approved monitoring bodies in the manufacturing plant for its permissible construction and manufacture.
- Smoke protection door - provides protection against smoke. Smoke protection doors are standardized in Germany according to DIN 18095. They are specially sealed and must close automatically. Among other things, mechanically lowerable floor seals and door closers are used. Smoke protection doors are subject to labeling in Germany.
Burglar-resistant doors are to be used where the unauthorized forced entry into a room or area to be protected is to be made difficult or impeded. Since September 2011, the European standards EN 1627 –EN 1630 have replaced DIN V 18103, which was validuntil April,and the previous version of EN 1627 that was valid thereafter, and defines various resistance classes.
→ Main article: Burglary protection , section Burglary protection standards
- Safety features include approximately: Profile cylinder lock , multi-point locking with rear grip hook , security strike plate and belt side guard
- Radiation protection door - offers protection against radiation through lead plate inserts. The value is given as a lead equivalent in mm. A lead equivalent of 2 would be the same as the protection that a 2 mm thick lead plate would offer and is suitable, for example, for shielding X-ray rooms.
- Last door - the last door to be closed in the area of activity of an intrusion alarm system
- Of two doors in a door lock , only one may be open at a time, at least one must always be tightly locked
- Wind curtain at department store entrances around 1970 with rapid air flow vertically downwards through a floor grate to separate the air-conditioned inside air and outside air from the prevailing weather
Furniture and appliance doors
Doors according to their type of movement
- Hinged door , as a swing door referred most common type, split into rebated doors and rebated doors .
- sliding door
- Swinging sliding door or sliding swing door, the door leaf is squeezed out here from the wall plane and pushed aside. - see also VW Transporter or individual modern cars.
- Folding door
- Revolving door (carousel) , often used as an entrance to shopping centers
- Folding door , understood as a door hinged on top
- Swing door or swinging door, often two wings, both wings swing open automatically by respective springs in bands in the closed position back to see as an input in the representation of Western - saloons or conclusion of porches
- Stable or Klöntür a double-hinged door with an upper and lower part that can be opened independently of each other
- Automatic door with electric drive
- Reversible door , single-leaf door with a pivot point in the middle or off-center (e.g. for right-hand traffic)
- Turntable door
- Sauna door, not lockable with handle and "swing door lock with roller latch" or "roller lock" that only opens when pushing or pulling.
- Double door - in extravagant automobiles
Doors according to material and structure
Wooden doors are differentiated depending on the structure of the door leaf:
- Framed door, glazed, as a panel door or with subdivision as a cassette door
- Slat door or board door with crossbars and diagonal brace
- Glued wooden door, blunt, gespundet or glued to the spring and with transverse slats or dovetail batons stiffened
Doors like the frame
- Lining door - The door is mounted on a classic wooden frame which surrounds the wall opening on three sides.
- Framed door - The door is mounted on a block frame (also known as a block frame, stick frame, stick frame or blind frame), which is attached anywhere inside the wall opening or on one side in front of the wall opening.
- Frame door - The door is mounted on a corner or surrounding frame made from a metal profile.
Norms and standards
Door leaf and frame dimensions
For residential construction, door leaf and frame dimensions are defined in DIN 18101, the associated wall openings in DIN 18100 (for each edition 1955-07, 1985-01, 2014-08). The dimensions are also listed in the respective construction standards: door leaves made of wood in DIN 68706-1 and door frames made of wood in DIN 68706-2 (per edition 2002-02), as well as door frames made of steel in DIN 18111-1 to DIN 18111-3 ( Edition 2004-08). DIN was in charge of the European harmonization in DIN EN 14351-1 for external doors and DIN EN 14351-2 for internal doors (editions 2006-07, 2010-08), to which the CE marking in the trade refers, with the standard dimensions informative (not normative) are listed in the appendix.
The specified tolerance dimensions result in an air gap between the leaf and frame of at least 5 mm and at most 9 mm for the air gap of the left and right vertical folds, with the individual gap not falling below 2.5 mm and not exceeding 6.5 mm may.
DIN 18101 is a manufacturing standard that ensures that doors and frames from different manufacturers fit together. The 1985 edition made a distinction between rebated and unrebated as well as single-leaf and double-leaf doors; For the common single-leaf rebated door leaves, a uniform height of 1985 mm (nominal size 2010 mm) was defined, for which five widths of 610 mm, 735 mm, 860 mm, 985 mm, 1110 mm were specified, as well as an enlarged door leaf of 1110 mm × 2110 mm. Instead of these five door dimensions, a grid size was specified in the 2014 edition in which the height and width are independent, and are each in steps of 125 mm - the previous widths of the door leaf have been expanded to the grid range 485 mm to 1360 mm, the heights are now in the grid range 1610 mm to 2735 mm. The most common dimension for interior doors is 860 mm × 1985 mm.
In the USA, doors are produced in a 2-inch grid. For a height of 78 "(1981 mm) or 80" (2032 mm), commercial widths are 18 "(472 mm), 24" (610 mm), 26 "(660 mm), 28" (711 mm), 30 "(762 mm) and 36" (914 mm). The most common dimension for single-leaf rebated interior doors is 30 × 80 in. (762 mm × 2032 mm).
The shell dimensions of the wall openings to be provided are regulated in DIN 18202 - tolerances in building construction. See also the standards DIN 4172 and DIN 18100, which deal with the standard dimensions traditionally used in masonry construction.
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