Marten (armored personnel carrier)
Marder 1A3 with mounted MILAN
|crew||3 (commander, driver, gunner) + 7 infantrymen (marten 1)
3 (commander, driver, gunner) + 6 infantrymen (from Marder 1A1)
|Dimensions||33 t, ready for action 33.5 t, maximum weight 35 t|
|Armor and armament|
|Armor||rolled armored steel
additional armor in bulkhead construction
|Main armament||20-mm automatic cannon MK 20 RH 202|
|Secondary armament||MG3 , MILAN -Panzerabwehrwaffe, anti-tank weapon system MELLS, smoke grenade launcher|
|drive||V6 90 ° four-stroke diesel engine MTU MB 833 Ea-500
441 kW (600 PS )
|Top speed||approx. 65 km / h (road)|
|Power / weight||15.6 kW / t (up to 1A2)
13.2 kW / t (1A3)
|Range||520 km of road
260 km of terrain
The IFV (IFV) marten , a product of Rheinmetall Land Systems was a long time the main weapon system of armored infantry troops of the Armed Forces . The versions 1A3, 1A4 and 1A5 are currently used. Used martens were exported to Chile, Indonesia and Jordan.
The Marder project was created in September 1959 during the start-up production phase of the HS 30 . The aim was to develop an armored personnel carrier equivalent to the Leopard 1 . The ATV staff (training, technology, tests) of the Munster armored troop school created the military requirements with the following characteristics:
- Total crew strength of 12 men (increased strength of 10 men if the commander also dismounts as group leader)
- high protection potential for the crew
- high mobility, driving range equal to a Leopard 1
- a reliable 20 mm on-board machine gun
- uncomplicated change between mounted and dismounted fight
- NBC protection
In addition, it was intended to create a family of armored personnel carriers, on which tank destroyers, rocket tank destroyers, 120 mm anti-tank mortars, medical tanks, transport tanks, anti-aircraft tanks, anti-aircraft missiles and the command tank were to be based on anti-aircraft defense. Due to the way in which the Panzergrenadiers fought, there were technical problems with the concept of the armored personnel carrier, which was to be the basis for all other platforms. The development of tank destroyers and rocket tank destroyers was continued separately and ended successfully in 1967. In January 1960, the Rheinstahl Group (Rheinstahl-Witten, Rheinstahl-Hanomag, Warnecke engineering office) and Henschel AG (Thyssen Industrie AG Henschel Kassel), together with MOWAG, were commissioned to develop seven prototypes. As a result, several concepts based on the HS 30 were presented. The prototypes of this first generation were the RU 111, RU 112 and RU 122 from Rheinstahl, the 1HK 2/1 and 1HK 2/2 from Henschel and the vehicles HM 1 and HM 2 from MOWAG. All prototypes had a combat weight of 16 tons.
Due to the influence exerted by the NATO partners, who demanded a say, and a large number of suggestions from other Bundeswehr agencies, however, the trials were slow. An agreement between the USA and the Federal Republic of Germany to develop a joint armored personnel carrier was rejected.
In 1963 the catalog of requirements was adapted for the second generation. This resulted in prototypes with a combat weight of 20 tons. The Rheinstahl group built the RU 214, RU 261 and RU 262 armored personnel carriers with a front engine, improved tailgate, one-man turret with a 20-mm automatic cannon and an anti-tank guided missile . MOWAG relied on a mid-engine for its prototypes 2M1 / 1, 2M1 / 2 and 2M1 / 3. The total crew strength will be reduced from 12 to 10 men (3 + 7).
In 1964, the third generation of the armored personnel carrier followed with a new catalog of requirements, adapted to the new requirements of the Bundeswehr. The armored personnel carrier became longer and wider. In addition, the vehicle got a rear MG and spherical covers on the sides for use with weapons under armor protection. Another insight from the second generation showed that the one-man tower was not the right way to go. Then, a two-man turret was scheitellafettierter automatic cannon developed which could be integrated without fundamental changes in the armored personnel carrier.
In 1967 the last ten prototypes were developed and extensively tested in troop trials. The MOWAG company left in 1968, the launch device for a guided missile was omitted. After two years of successful tests, the serial contract for the delivery of 2,136 armored personnel carriers was signed in 1969. The first production vehicle was delivered to the Panzer Grenadiers on May 7, 1971. The armored personnel carriers were manufactured by Rheinstahl AG and Maschinenbau Kiel (MaK).
From around 2008, three old Marder infantry fighting vehicles with clearing shields were converted into fire fighting tanks (with and without extinguishing arm) by the Airmatic-Systeme company in Hemer as part of conversion projects and presented, for example, at Interschutz 2010. Airmatic-Systeme has been insolvent since the beginning of 2011, the whereabouts of the vehicles are still unclear.
Combat value increases
In the course of its service, the armored personnel carrier was upgraded several times .
In the years 1977 to 1979 all Marder were equipped with the anti-tank weapon MILAN , which could be used on or off. Due to the fact that four guided missiles were carried, the force dropped to six men.
After the completion of the MILAN retrofitting, all martens received a further increase in combat value in the same year. The retrofitting included the installation of a double belt feeder for the on-board machine gun for the optional firing of explosive or armor-piercing sabot ammunition . Another major change was the installation of better passive optics with a first-generation residual light amplifier that was less sensitive to headlights and projectile flashes. 674 Marten 1 were brought to version A1 (+). This meant the additional equipment with a heat locator. With this it was possible to recognize tanks and opponents at greater distances than before. 350 armored personnel carriers were upgraded to Marder 1A1 (-). This meant that these models did not have thermal imaging-based observation optics, but were modified in such a way that retrofitting was possible within a very short time. The remaining 1112 specimens with the designation Marder 1A1A received no corresponding device and were not intended for it. The entire upgrade was completed in 1982.
From 1984 to 1989 there was another increase in combat value. This included the installation of a thermal imaging device ( WBG ) for the gunner, the elimination of the rear mount, the installation of the new SEM 80/90 radio family, the retrofitting to operate the MILAN infrared adapter (MIRA) on the MILAN anti-tank weapon and a corner mirror washer for the Driver. As part of this conversion, the designation for all models of the marten family changed to Marder 1. The designation of the converted vehicles was Marder 1A2.
The next retrofit took place seamlessly in the years from 1989 to 1998 and comprised the improvement of the armor protection and the redesign of the rear fighting compartment. The tub front and the rear tub roof were armored, the hatch behind the driver was omitted and the tub roof only contained three hatches. The tower, its top mount and the thermal imaging device were also armored. The entire additional armor was adapted to be shock-absorbent on rubber elements flush with the surface. The sides were supplemented with additional storage boxes, so that the spherical panels were omitted. The turret machine gun was relocated to the left. A more powerful 720 hp engine was not installed for reasons of cost. The entire upgrade extended to 2097 armored personnel carriers, the designation changed to Marder 1A3.
Some Marder 1A3 were converted by the installation of the crypto-capable SEM 93 as a command tank for the Panzergrenadier battalion commanders and were given the designation Marder 1A4. There are no external differences to the Marder 1A3.
In 2001, Rheinmetall Landsysteme revised the smoke launch system. The throwing cups were rearranged and the programming of the control changed to use all six cups. Due to the design, only five of the six cups were usable until then, as the lower right cup had been aligned in such a way that it had to hit the on-board machine gun when the fog body was fired. The name did not change.
A year later, on December 18, 2002, the increase in combat value planned for the Marder 1A5, which had been planned since 1996, began; it included the installation of a mine protection system against anti-tank and projectile-forming mines . These measures led to a further loss of mobility with a simultaneous increase in weight to a total of 37.5 tons as well as a complete overhaul and redesign of the rear fighting compartment, the packaging plan for the equipment and a revision of the engine cooling system. Rheinmetall delivered the first of a total of 74 vehicles to the Bundeswehr. The Marder 1A5 are used in missions abroad and as a training vehicle at the schools of the army.
In December 2010 the first ten Marten 1A5A1 were delivered. They have a room cooling system, CG12 jammers and multispectral camouflage equipment, this equipment was developed especially for missions abroad, such as the Afghanistan mission. The room cooling system reduces the high temperature load, while the jamming transmitter and the Barracuda camouflage equipment with a heat transfer system increases survivability.
Due to the phasing out of the Milan F2 anti-tank guided weapon and the slow introduction of the Pumas , the Marder 1A5 and 1A5A1 were equipped with the MELLS anti-tank weapon system (multi-role light guided missile system).
By August 2011, another 25 martens had been brought to booth 1A5A1.
As part of an extension of the service life of the marten, the drive train of 78 vehicles of equipment level A5 will be replaced by 2023 and a new motor with an output increased to 750 PS (552 kW) will be installed and a more modern thermal image / target detection device will be integrated. Rheinmetall will receive a total of 110 million euros for this modernization program.
Armored personnel carrier Marder 1
The Marder 1 infantry fighting vehicle is a front-wheel drive full-track vehicle. It is used by the tank grenadiers as a combat vehicle and command tank . With the installation kit VB and designated as Marder 1A3 VB, it was used in the heavy companies of the armored infantry battalions until their disbandment as an observation tank for the advanced observer (VB) of the steep fire component ( 120 mm tank mortar ) and replaced the cannon hunter tank . The installation kit contains a TZG 90 A1 (portable target location device), a fire control computer Art / Mrs MRT 86 (militarized computer, portable) as well as two SEM 90 (transmitter / receiver, mobile) and one SEM 80 . The TZG can be mounted on the marten with a suitable bracket instead of the MILAN, but it can also be used separately.
Since the operating license expired on December 31, 2002, the Marder 1A3 VB replaced the artillery observation tank on the M113 optronic until the introduction of the new observation vehicle for the Joint Fire Support Teams (JFST) based on the Fennek and GTK Boxer . Since the Marder 1A3 is not suitable as an observation tank for artillery and the necessary conversion measures would be too expensive, it is only used as a transport tank for the artillery troops. The name is Marder 1A3 / ArtBeob.
In addition, the hull in the 1A3 version is also used as the basis for the Marder driving school tank as well as in a slightly modified form for the Argentine armed forces under the name Tanque Argentino Mediano ( German: "Argentinian medium-heavy tank"), Vehiculo de Combate Transporte de Personal ( German " Vehicle for the transport of people in combat ”). The anti-aircraft missile tank Roland also used a modified hull of the Marder, which was similar to the Marder 1A3 because of the side storage boxes, but was constructed differently. In addition, numerous prototypes based on marten were created, such as mortar carriers with 120 mm or 160 mm mortars, radar tank DOOR, artillery observation tanks, experimental vehicles for vertex mounted 105 mm cannons, escort tanks with 35 mm Oerlikon or 57 mm Bofors Gun with additional PzAbw-FK launcher, Dragon flak tank with two 30 mm HSS 831A automatic cannons, light tank Combat Tank DF 105 (with AMX-13 turret) and Flarak tank Rapier. However, none of these projects was taken into series production.
The hull of the armored personnel carrier is welded from several types of rolled armor steel and designed as solid armor. The hull front, the sides and the stern are bevelled and offer the crew limited protection against fire from 20 mm automatic cannons (frontal), shrapnel and infantry weapons (up to 7.62 mm). In addition, it reduces the effects of radioactive radiation. The additional armor installed since the Marder 1A3 was designed as spaced armor and increased the resistance at critical points against fire from 30-mm machine guns. To protect against NBC weapons , the armored personnel carrier has an NBC protective ventilation system with an output of three cubic meters per minute. For driving at night, the driver has a low-light amplifier driver device that can be used instead of the central angle mirror. Commander and gunner are against it equipped the Marder 1A3 with a common thermal imaging device, which the commander over a light tube (English light-pipe ) can be used.
Drive and drive
The armored personnel carrier has a torsion bar sprung support roller drive with hydraulic shock absorbers on the first, second, fifth and sixth rollers. He has a "living" end connector caterpillar with replaceable chain pads from Diehl . When driving in snow, on ice or to increase the grip of the chain, some of the chain pads can be exchanged for cast iron snow grippers.
Driven by a liquid-cooled V6 four-stroke pre-chamber diesel engine of the type MB 833 Ea-500 with two exhaust gas turbochargers from MTU Friedrichshafen , the engine achieves an output of 441 kW (600 hp) at 2200 rpm from a displacement of 22.4 liters. It accelerates the marten from expansion stage 1A3 to a maximum speed of officially 65 km / h. The armored personnel carriers up to expansion stage 1A2, however, reached top speeds of 75 km / h.
As with the Leopard battle tank, the drive system is designed as a complete engine block, consisting of a motor and flanged shift, reversing and steering gear, which enables the complete drive train to be changed in a short time with the support of a recovery vehicle. The supply lines to the vehicle are equipped with self-sealing quick release couplings. The cooling system, however, is located in the vehicle; Due to the front engine and the tailgate, the fans are located on the left and right facing upwards in the rear of the vehicle. The on-board network voltage is 24 volts and thus corresponds to the standard in the Bundeswehr. Power generator is a three-phase generator with an output of 9 kW.
A hydromechanical shift, reversing and steering gear (HSWL 194) from Renk is used as the gearbox. Equipped with a torque converter with lock-up clutch, reversing gear, manual and steering gear, it also has a built-in hydrodynamic flow brake ( retarder ). The four forward and four reverse gears are shifted manually or with an automatic gearshift, with the transmission being controlled electro-hydraulically. A hydraulic dual-circuit brake system serves as the brake system .
The Marder has a 20 mm on- board machine cannon (BMK) MK 20 Rh 202 housed in the two-man turret, a turret machine gun (TMG) MG3 (7.62 mm) and a smoke-throwing system with six throwing cups. Optional guided missiles (LFK) of the type MILAN (Marder 1A3 and A5) or MELLS (only Marder 1A5) can be attached and fired. An integration of the MELLS system into the A3 and A5A1 setup stands is planned.
The side and height adjustment of the main and secondary weapon is carried out using an electro-hydraulic straightening system or, in emergency mode, mechanically by hand. They enable a side adjustment range of 360 degrees and a height adjustment range of −17.5 degrees to +65 degrees. The recommended speed of the 3.2 ton tower is four seconds for 180 ° in normal operation. The main weapon can be used against unarmored targets up to a distance of 2000 meters. Here comes explosive incendiary ammunition (HEI) are used. Sabot ammunition (APDS) is used against lightly armored targets below 1000 meters. Use against heavily armored targets is possible under 600 meters in good conditions. When fighting a battle tank, it is possible to mask with HEI in order to enable the use of the MILAN and the Panzergrenadiers. Shelling with armor-piercing ammunition is unsuccessful. The area of action is limited against flight targets and the use is then only made against directly attacking flight targets. The maximum combat range is up to 2000 meters for helicopters and up to 1200 meters for jet aircraft. The maximum firing range of the main weapon is 6,000 to 11,000 meters regardless of the combat range.
For maneuvers , the entire pipe can be exchanged for a maneuver cartridge device (MPG). This is a lot thicker and looks like the barrel for armed use, but is closed at the end of the barrel. The safety area in front of the weapon is 10 meters with maneuver ammunition and maneuver cartridge device, 70 meters without MPG.
The secondary weapon is tracked axially parallel to the main weapon. With the conversion to the Marder 1A3, the MG3 sits on the left outside of the crest mount. Installed in a weapon container, the MG3 is fired electrically and used against infantry. Furthermore, the tank grenadiers housed in the rear fighting compartment can fight with their hand weapons (G36, MG3, MP2A1 , 40 mm grenade pistol ) from three hatches over the ship's side , or they can be dismounted.
Crew in Marder 1A3
The crew of the tank grenadiers consists of: Commander , gunner (both in the turret), driver (in the front in the hull) and six grenadiers in the rear combat area, specifically: squad leader ( G36 ), rifleman 1 ( MG3 ), rifleman 2 (G36 + MILAN ), contactors 3 (G36 + MILAN loaders ), contactors 4 (G36, Pzf 3 ), contactors 5 (G36, GraPi , radio operator).
The task of the commander is to lead the tank or the group. To do this, he observes the present area from the tower and can intervene in combat with the tower weapons. If the main focus is on the dismounted fight, he leads the rifle squad while the squad leader takes his place in the tower.
The task of the gunner is to operate the turret weapons, to observe the surrounding area with the optics of the tank, and to conduct radio communications . To aim the turret weapons, the commander and gunner each have a periscope sight with double and six times magnification and, optionally, a shared thermal imaging device. The tower is operated by hydraulic motors that are fed by a 108 bar hydraulic system. In the event of failure of the hydraulic system, the gunner can straighten the tower using hand cranks and build up hydraulic pressure for further functions using a hand pump.
Further technical data
|Technical data (Marder 1A3)|
|Tower weight:||approx. 3.2 t|
|Fuel quantity:||approx. 650 l|
|Fuel consumption and driving range :||Road: approx. 3.4 l / km, approx. 340 km
Terrain: approx. 5.3 l / km, approx. 220 km
Average: approx. 4.1 l / km approx. 280 km
stationary: 12.5 l /H
|Automatic cannon MK 20 RH 202|
|Manufacturer:||Rheinmetall AG / Weapons and Ammunition division|
|Caliber :||20 mm × 139|
|Weight:||75 kg (with single belt feed ) 83 kg (with double belt feed )|
|Overall length:||2612 mm|
|Pipe length :||2002 mm|
|Recoil force:||5.5-7.5 kN|
|Cadence :||880-1030 rounds / min|
|Helix angle:||6 °|
|Penetration performance of the APDS ammunition||44 mm (RHA) at 1000 m|
|Penetration performance of the API-T ammunition||40 mm 30 ° NATO plate on 200 m|
As part of the KFOR mission, Marder 1A3 and Marder 1A5 were used as property protection vehicles by the multinational Task Force South in Prizren . After Afghanistan , four Marder 1A5 were relocated to Mazar-e Sharif at the end of 2006 . After being ready for action in January 2007, they were intended to protect the Camp Marmal camp and, from July 2008, to support the QRF association of the regional command north of the ISAF protection force. Due to the increased threat, the armored reserve was moved to Kunduz in spring 2009 and equipped with a total of ten Marder 1 for two trains. During a large-scale operation by Afghan security forces together with German units and Belgian mentors in the Chahar Darreh district on July 19 and 20, 2009, armored personnel carriers were used for the first time to combat insurgent positions. After the death of three soldiers in an attack on April 2, 2010, the number was increased by a further 15 armored personnel carriers. On February 18, 2011, an AFV Marder was shot at with RPG in Afghanistan near Kunduz . Four soldiers were wounded in the incident. The vehicle caught fire and broke down.
On June 2, 2011, a marten was "completely destroyed" by an improvised explosive device in an attack in the village of Qandahari in Baglan province . One German soldier was killed and five others wounded, two of them seriously.
The combat units of Task Force Kunduz III ( training and protection battalion ), which operated in the troubled district of Char Darah in Afghanistan in the second half of 2011 , said they had converted their Marder armored personnel carriers into rolling fortresses . Rifle supports and covers for the fight against the insurgents were created by improvised structures made of Hesco grids ( entrenchment ) on the rear fighting area. Due to the resulting additional combat weight, the marten even "bent its knees" a little when viewed from a distance.
Overall, the Marder armored personnel carrier, which many already considered a relic of the Cold War, seems to have proven itself once again in the opinion of most combat soldiers in Afghanistan.
The "marten lath" is a provisionally made wooden pole that is used by the crew to check whether the Marder armored personnel carrier, which is in a depression, can still observe and work from there. For example, the height of the hull, the on-board machine cannon, the optics and the top of the tower are marked on this "lath".
Marder 2 and M12 armored personnel carriers
In the late 1980s, a prototype of a new armored personnel carrier was presented, the Marder 2 , which had many parts in common with the Leopard 2 . Due to the German reunification , it was not introduced. The prototype is in the Defense Technology Study Collection in Koblenz .
The Federal Office for Defense Technology and Procurement continued to look for solutions with the armaments industry to improve Marder 1. The plans provided for the installation of a more powerful engine, improvements to the drive, changes in the fighting compartment and the installation of a new tower. A potential and well advanced project was the M12. Manufactured by Keller and Knappich Augsburg (KUKA) (KUKA Wehrtechnik GmbH since 1999, part of Rheinmetall), this prototype was equipped with a new two-man tower. This E4 turret, developed by Rheinmetall, contained a 30 mm automatic cannon ( MK 30-2, predecessor of the Puma's armament ), a stabilized line of sight with day and night vision and a modern fire control system. Due to the high costs, it was decided not to pursue the project any further. The mine protection was taken over to increase the combat value of the Marder 1A5. In addition, the New Armored Platform project was initiated, on the findings of which the Puma is based.
Unlike the Leopard series, the marten has only been able to be exported to a very limited extent so far. In 2008 the Chilean army decided to purchase a total of 237 martens (200 AFVs, 7 driving school tanks and 30 vehicles as spare parts donors); In 2013 42 martens were delivered to Indonesia. In December 2016, Federal Defense Minister Ursula von der Leyen ceremoniously handed over 16 armored personnel carriers to the Jordanian armed forces . A total of 50 tanks were delivered to Jordan.
Greece was interested in purchasing 422 martens in 2009, but the deal failed due to funding. Switzerland decided against the modernized KUKA M12 and in favor of the CV 90 ; the main reason against the marten was the lower engine power.
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