Bilateral agreements between Switzerland and the European Union

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  • The bilateral treaties between Switzerland and the European Union (colloquially known as bilaterals ) were put into effect to regulate relations between Switzerland and the members of the European Union (EU) on a political, economic and cultural level. After the first bilateral agreement in 1957 with the European Coal and Steel Community (Montanunion), various contracts were concluded in order to be able to determine economic and political issues with it even without Switzerland being a member of the European Union (see Switzerland going it alone ). Switzerland's contractual partner was the European Communities , since the European Union of States did not have its own legal personality until the Treaty of Lisbon in 2009. The Swiss federal administration describes the individual components of the “bilateral agreements” as “sectoral agreements between Switzerland and the EU”.

    Today the free trade agreement of 1972, the insurance agreement of 1989 as well as the seven bilateral agreements of 1999 ("Bilateral Agreement I") and the agreements of 2004 ("Bilateral Agreement II") are significant.

    Free trade agreement with the European Economic Community

    With the establishment of the European Economic Community (EEC) in 1957 on the one hand and the European Free Trade Association (EFTA) in 1960 on the other, two different integration models emerged in Western Europe. In order to prevent a split into two separate economic blocs, numerous free trade agreements were concluded between the European Economic Community and the member states of the EFTA at the beginning of the 1970s; The Free Trade Agreement (FTA) between the Swiss Confederation and the EEC was signed on July 22, 1972, approved by the people and the cantons on December 3, 1972, and came into force on January 1, 1973. The FTA allowed Switzerland to deepen its relations with the EEC without relinquishing its treaty making power .

    With the FTA of 1972, tariff trade barriers (import and export duties and quotas) for industrial products that were produced within the free trade area were dismantled. The 1972 Swiss-EEC Treaty essentially lowered border barriers, especially customs duties, for industrial products. The free trade agreement between Switzerland and the meanwhile 28 states of the European Community (as legal successor to the EEC) is traditionally of great importance for Switzerland, since 62 percent of Swiss exports go to this area and 80% of imports come from the common area (status: 2007).

    Insurance agreement

    On October 10, 1989, the agreement between the Swiss Confederation and the European Economic Community on direct insurance with the exception of life insurance was signed (entered into force on January 1, 1993), which guarantees the mutual freedom of establishment for agencies and branches of insurance companies. Life insurance, reinsurance and statutory social security systems are expressly not affected by this agreement; In addition, only the freedom of establishment, not the free cross-border provision of services, is guaranteed.

    Although the insurance agreement only partially liberalized the insurance market, the agreement is of great importance because the EU area is an extremely lucrative market for the Swiss insurance sector with its 47,000 employees in Switzerland (as of 2008).

    Bilateral agreements I

    After the Swiss voters narrowly refused to join the European Economic Area on December 6, 1992 , Switzerland pushed for sectoral agreements to be concluded with the European Communities in order to expand existing cooperation and prevent Switzerland from becoming economically isolated. The negotiations between the European Union and Switzerland, which began at the end of 1994, led to success on June 21, 1999, when seven sectoral agreements on freedom of movement, technical barriers to trade, public contracts, agriculture, land transport, air transport and research were concluded:

    Although the contracts are legally independent of one another, they are linked to one another by linking or “guillotine” clauses ; in the event of termination or non-renewal, not only the contract in question but all seven agreements would become void. This regulation was intended to prevent Switzerland from “ cherry picking ” and explains why the agreements did not reach a referendum individually, but as an overall package.

    After these contracts had been approved by the Federal Assembly , they were accepted in a referendum by the Swiss voters on May 21, 2000. On the part of the European Community, the approval of the Council of the European Union and the European Parliament was required in accordance with Art. 300, Paragraph 3 of the EC Treaty. The agreement on the free movement of persons also required the approval of all member states, and the research agreement requires the approval of Euratom before the agreements could come into force on June 1, 2002.

    Free Movement Agreement

    With the 1999 Agreement on the Free Movement of Persons, the gradual introduction of the free movement of persons - as already applied between the members of the European Union - between Switzerland and the EU was decided. The Agreement on the Free Movement of Persons provides for rights of residence for EU citizens and their family members in Switzerland and vice versa under certain conditions.

    The agreement on the free movement of persons gives citizens of Switzerland and the EU the right to freely choose their place of work and residence within the national territories of the contracting parties. The prerequisite for using this right is that they have a valid employment contract, are self-employed or - in the case of people who are not gainfully employed - have sufficient financial resources. Furthermore, the agreement allows entry and residence without financial means for up to six months in order to look for a job. The introduction of a transitional arrangement, during which immigration restrictions are still permitted, will make it possible to introduce the free movement of people in a gradual and controlled manner.

    Forecasts published before the agreement had estimated net immigration from the EU to Switzerland according to the agreement at a maximum of 10,000 people per year, but in retrospect turned out to be wrong. According to observations from 2017, net immigration was seven times greater.

    With the federal popular initiative “Against mass immigration” adopted on February 9, 2014, the majority of the Swiss people commissioned the Federal Council to renegotiate the agreement on the free movement of persons and to introduce long-term quotas. As a result, the question arises whether the European Union allows renegotiation or whether the agreement must be terminated, whereby the EU would apply the guillotine clause and the entire Bilaterals I would be terminated.

    Transitional arrangement

    Transitional periods for the free movement of persons within the framework of the Bilateral I

    In principle, three different transitional regulations can be distinguished for the EU-15, EU-8, Bulgaria and Romania. During these transitional arrangements, immigration restrictions such as priority for nationals, control of wage and working conditions and quota allocation can be maintained. After the quota regulation has expired, the number of work permits (quotas) can be restricted again on the basis of a safeguard clause if a serious disruption to the labor market should be ascertained. By May 31, 2009, Switzerland also had to inform the EU whether it was willing to continue the agreement. A referendum was held against the federal resolution, which supported the continuation and expansion of the free movement of persons, which is why a referendum was held on February 8, 2009, in which 59.6 percent of those who voted were in favor of extending the free movement of persons. In May 2009 the “valve clause” to restrict immigration from the old 15 EU countries was not used.

    In order to prevent the various fears of the liberalization of the labor market, the Swiss Federal Assembly has adopted accompanying measures against social and wage dumping, which are intended to ensure that the wage and working conditions are complied with by all employees and employers. These are regularly checked in all regions and industries. The accompanying measures include the following institutions:

    • Posting Act: Foreign employees temporarily posted to Switzerland by a foreign company are subject to the minimum working and wage conditions applicable in Switzerland. Compliance with these requirements is checked by means of random checks.
    • Simplified general binding declaration of collective employment agreements: If the minimum requirements are repeatedly undershot in an industry, the provisions on minimum remuneration and their corresponding working hours can be made generally binding more easily.
    • Standard employment contracts with mandatory minimum wages: For sectors without a collective labor contract (or without a generally binding, declarable collective labor contract), the Confederation and the cantons can introduce mandatory minimum wages in a fixed-term standard employment contract in the event of repeated abuse.
    • Tripartite commissions: These are made up of the same number of representatives from authorities, employers and trade unions and monitor the labor market, monitor compliance with mandatory standard employment contracts, report violations to the cantonal enforcement authorities and can apply for measures.

    On April 18, 2012, the Federal Council decided to invoke the so-called valve clause against the states of the EU-8. The category of residence permits B will be allocated to citizens of these countries as of May 1, 2012.


    Critics of globalization , left-wing politicians and trade unions , but also the federal authorities, employer representatives and cantons have discussed the negative consequences of the free movement of people. For example, it is feared that Swiss laws on environmental protection and occupational health and safety will be circumvented as well as the wage pressure resulting from the migration of workers from low-wage countries to Switzerland, as a result of which wage dumping is feared. Fake self-employment is perceived as a particular danger for small and medium-sized companies . Swiss legislation provides for the "accompanying measures" described above to counter these problems. This in turn criticizes the EU.

    The political right cites problems with the integration of foreign workers and fears increased crime. The Swiss People's Party (SVP) in particular opposes the principle of free movement of persons , most recently with the popular initiative “Against mass immigration” launched in 2011 , which aims to restrict free movement of persons. The SVP “deportation initiative” accepted by the electorate may also contradict the agreement on the free movement of persons, because this does not provide for the abuse of social welfare as a possible reason for the restriction of the individual right to enter and stay in Switzerland.

    The effect of the free movement of persons on the number of recipients of social assistance is also being discussed : The EU would like to introduce a de facto right of settlement for EU citizens including access to the Swiss social security system. The Swiss authorities reject this.

    The popular initiative “For moderate immigration (limitation initiative)” , which will be voted on on September 27, 2020, requires the Federal Council to renegotiate the free movement of persons with the EU within one year and, if no agreement is reached, terminate it. Due to the guillotine clause , all other bilateral agreements would also be terminated.

    Agreement on the mutual recognition of conformity assessments

    Under the EEA Agreement, Switzerland would have been forced to harmonize its technical requirements with those of the EU. After the EEA no in 1992, the Federal Council decided to largely and autonomously align Swiss technical regulations with those of the EU in order to prevent Swiss companies from being disadvantaged by non-tariff trade barriers on the international market.

    However, a unilateral adjustment remains ineffective if the other side does not recognize these adjustments as such, which is why the Agreement on the Mutual Recognition of Conformity Assessments stipulates that conformity assessments carried out in Switzerland and the EU are mutually recognized. Products that meet the requirements of a test center of one contracting party, which have been agreed as equivalent, are therefore approved for the market without an assessment by a test center of the other contracting party. This leads to lower costs and shorter waiting times for marketing.

    Agreement on certain aspects of government procurement

    The Agreement on Certain Aspects of Government Procurement complements and extends the scope of the Agreement on Government Procurement, GPA, concluded within the framework of the World Trade Organization (WTO). While the WTO rules cover the procurement of the federal government and the cantons as well as those of public companies in the water, electricity and transport sectors, the agreement on certain aspects of public procurement also includes procurement by districts and municipalities, public and public procurement Private clients in the rail transport, gas and heat supply sectors as well as procurement by private companies in the water, electricity and transport sectors included.

    Agreement on land transport

    The Land Transport Agreement (LVA), which replaced earlier regulations, brought about harmonization of the Swiss and Community regulations on road and rail traffic. The LVA "represents a difficult balance of interests between those involved". For example, Switzerland was obliged, after a step-by-step transition period, to allow trucks up to 40 tons (previously 28 tons) total weight (Euro trucks) ; by EC regulation 2888/2000, the EU divided the truck quotas among the member states. In return, Switzerland was given the right to levy transit fees for a transit journey in the form of a performance-based heavy vehicle charge, which Switzerland hoped would have a control effect and shift the transit of goods from road to rail. At the same time, Switzerland was obliged to build new rail tunnels (Gotthard, Lötschberg). In this way, the aim of the LVA, "relieving traffic over the Brenner Pass while at the same time shifting goods transit through Switzerland to rail," was to be achieved.

    As a flanking measure, the Federal Assembly passed a temporary federal law to shift heavy goods traffic across the Alps to rail. In this, the target figure for the heavy goods traffic across the Alps remaining on the transit roads of 650,000 journeys per year was set, which should be achieved no later than two years after the opening of the Lötschberg base tunnel in 2008. In addition, the Federal Council was authorized to take measures that contribute to achieving the relocation goal.

    Agreement on air transport

    With the air transport agreement, the Swiss airlines were given free access to the member states of the EU. Although this possibility existed before the conclusion of this treaty, it was based on agreements that had to be concluded with each member state individually. The aviation agreement simplifies the procedure and also allows Swiss companies to operate connections within the EU.

    Agreement on trade in agricultural products

    After a five-year transition period, the agricultural agreement brought full liberalization of trade in cheese and the removal of tariffs for numerous other agricultural products such as fruits, vegetables and horticultural products, and to a lesser extent also for dried meat, wine specialties and dairy products. In addition, technical barriers to trade in the agricultural sector were dismantled and the mutual protection of the names of wines and spirits ensured.

    Framework Agreement on Scientific and Technical Cooperation (Research Agreement)

    Switzerland and the European Communities concluded a framework agreement on scientific and technical cooperation in 1986, which included agreements for closer cooperation between the contracting parties. One such agreement was the research agreement signed in 1999, which, however, became obsolete with the expiry of the EU's fifth research framework program. However, the 1999 research agreement provided for negotiations on Switzerland's participation in the successor programs. These negotiations came to a successful conclusion in the summer of 2003. Switzerland is also involved in the seventh and current research framework program.

    The agreement on scientific and technical cooperation obliges Switzerland to make a financial contribution to the research framework program and gives Swiss institutions and companies the opportunity to participate in all programs and activities of the research framework program as equal partners. Conversely, researchers from the EU are also entitled to take part in Swiss projects.

    The agreement also includes questions of ownership, use and dissemination of information and intellectual property rights in connection with research projects.

    Payments made by Switzerland to the EU in connection with the agreement

    Just like the non-EU country Norway , Switzerland also makes payments to the EU. They amount to around 2 billion euros per year.

    Bilateral agreements II

    The term bilateral negotiations II refers to the negotiations that Switzerland should bring closer to the states of the EU beyond the status of the bilateral agreements I. The European Commission was initially rather reluctant to conclude a second contract package. Due to the unilateral interests of the EU (taxation of interest and the fight against fraud) and Switzerland (accession to the Schengen Agreement and resolution of the remaining issues from Bilateral Agreements I ), an agreement was reached on further agreements, which include:

    • Switzerland's accession to the Dublin and Schengen agreements on security and asylum ; Swiss banking secrecy is preserved under all circumstances;
    • Expansion of cooperation to investigate fraud; However, there are also special conditions for Switzerland here;
    • Conclusion of negotiations on agricultural products, the environment, media, education, pensions, statistics and services.

    On June 25, 2004, the agreements were initialed and then submitted to the consultation process . The results of the consultation showed a clear picture: The Bilaterals II were unanimously supported by business circles as well as by the majority of parties, organizations and associations. The cantons unanimously supported the Bilaterals II . However, the agreements were clearly rejected by the SVP . The Federal Democratic Union (EDU) and the Action for an Independent and Neutral Switzerland (AUNS) spoke out against Schengen / Dublin. Numerous rifle associations have taken a critical stance on the planned revision of the Weapons Act as part of Schengen.

    The Federal Council responded to the main concerns, adjusted its proposals for the revision of the Weapons Act accordingly and on October 1, 2004 passed the dispatch on the Bilaterals II . The agreements were signed in Luxembourg on October 26, 2004. Parliament then dealt with the message and the agreement in the winter session: all agreements were adopted by a clear majority in the National Council and, with the exception of Schengen / Dublin, even unanimously in the Council of States . The Schengen / Dublin Association Agreement met with somewhat greater resistance. In the National Council this was adopted with 129 yes to 60 no votes, in the Council of States with 36 yes to 3 no votes.

    In accordance with the Federal Council's proposal, the Federal Assembly subordinated seven agreements (statistics, pensions, environment, media, Schengen / Dublin, fraud prevention, taxation of interest) to the optional referendum on the treaty . None of the agreements was submitted to the mandatory referendum . The referendum period began to run with the publication of the federal resolutions on December 21, 2004 in the Federal Gazette . On March 31, 2005, at the end of the referendum deadline, it was clear that only the referendum against Switzerland's Schengen / Dublin Association Agreement had come about. The Federal Chancellery confirmed a total of 86,732 valid signatures. In the referendum on June 5, 2005, the Swiss people confirmed the bill with 54.6 percent yes votes (with a participation of 56 percent).

    On September 25, 2005, on the occasion of a referendum, the extension of the bilateral agreement on the free movement of persons to the 10 countries that joined the EU on May 1, 2004 (extended free movement of persons) was approved with 55.95 percent, the lowest percentage of votes in favor The canton of Ticino accounted for 36.09 percent, the highest for the canton of Vaud with 65.26 percent. If the referendum had been successful, the other six bilateral agreements I would also have been jeopardized because of the “guillotine clause”. In addition to the Ticino only the three rejected original cantons , and Glarus and the half-canton of Appenzell Inner Rhodes from the original so that also (with an optional referendum unnecessary) cantons has been achieved. According to a study by the KOF economic research center at ETH Zurich , the Swiss gross domestic product rose by 5.5 billion francs by the end of 2007 as a result of the agreement.

    Demand from the European Union for dynamic legal approximation

    As early as 2006, Commission President Barroso signaled that the best way to reduce the administrative burden in the legal relationship between the EU and Switzerland could be through Switzerland's accession to the EEA or an association agreement. In its conclusions on relations between the EU and the EFTA countries of December 2008, the EU Council of Ministers stated that participation in the internal market requires a uniform and simultaneous application and interpretation of the constantly evolving acquis. In July 2010, the President of the European Council , Herman Van Rompuy , confirmed this in an interview with the Swiss President Doris Leuthard . He mentioned u. a. the wish of the EU that Switzerland should in future follow further developments of European law in a dynamic system like in the EEA (which would not be synonymous with automatic follow-up). This is intended to make cumbersome renegotiations of the bilateral agreements unnecessary and to simplify relations between Switzerland and the EU. Such a dynamic implementation of European law would correspond to the functioning of the European Economic Area . The accession to this, which was rejected in a referendum in 1992, was therefore discussed again increasingly. The criticism of the "static contracts, which represented an obsolete model" was renewed at the end of 2010 by Commissioner Viviane Reding . In December 2012, the Council of the European Union reaffirmed this point of view and decided that there will be no more bilateral agreements based on the model of the previous agreements with Switzerland. EU Commission President José Manuel Barroso joined the Council's position a little later.

    In December 2013, the Federal Council passed a negotiating mandate for an EU-Switzerland framework agreement , and the Union followed suit in May 2014 with a decision by the EU Council . Negotiations on the framework agreement began on May 22, 2014. As a result of the negotiations, a draft contract has been available since November 2018.

    See also: Legal harmonization in the European Union , EU-Switzerland framework agreement .

    Debate on joining the European Union

    Switzerland's application for membership (1992)

    On May 20, 1992, the Federal Council had applied to the European Economic Community , the European Coal and Steel Community and the European Atomic Energy Community , the predecessor organizations of the EU, to begin accession negotiations .

    However, since the no to joining the EEA in December 1992, the application for membership has not been pursued by either side. After an initiative (Federal People's Initiative “Yes to Europe”) that tried to enforce the immediate start of accession negotiations suffered a severe defeat in the referendum of March 4, 2001 (only 23.3% of Swiss voters supported the project), the bilateral path that has been followed since 1994 is currently clearly a priority. In its 2006 report on Europe, the Federal Council downgraded EU accession from a strategic goal to an option among others.

    On the occasion of the EEA vote on December 6, 1992, the SVP , the Swiss Green Party , Swiss Democrats and some smaller left-wing parties campaigned for a rejection in a very emotional debate, but in the 1999 vote on the Bilateral I majorities the SVP (including their spokesman Christoph Blocher ) and the Greens in the supportive camp. The SVP then again drew no slogans to the Bilaterals II 2005 (plus Schengen / Dublin) and the extension of the free movement of persons to Bulgaria and Romania in 2009. The reason for the differing acceptance of the individual treaties by this party (it had taken an unequivocal position in favor of the bilateral path in the EEA vote) is the assessment of their economic benefits: immigration from the richer old EU countries turned out to be economically useful on balance while those from poorer Eastern Europe are viewed with skepticism. Only the Swiss Democrats and the EDU remained consistently in the No camp .

    In March 2016, the National Council , and in mid-June 2016 also the Council of States , voted in favor of a motion by National Councilor Lukas Reimann mandating the government to withdraw the application. Federal Councilor Didier Burkhalter confirmed that the EU would be informed that the application was to be regarded as settled.

    List of Swiss referendums on relations with the European Union

    date theme Title (abbreviated) Yes No Participation reference
    3rd December 1972 Free trade agreement CH – EEC Federal resolution on the agreements between the Swiss Confederation and the European Economic Community 72.50% 27.50% 52.93%
    December 6, 1992 European Economic Area Federal Decree on the European Economic Area (EEA) 49.70% 50.30% 78.73%
    June 8, 1997 Accession negotiations only after a vote Federal popular initiative "EU accession negotiations before the people!" 25.90% 74.10% 35.44%
    May 21, 2000 Bilateral agreements I Federal resolution on the approval of the sectoral agreements between the Swiss Confederation and the European Community 67.20% 32.80% 48.30%
    March 4, 2001 Start of accession negotiations to the European Union Federal popular initiative "Yes to Europe" 23.20% 76.80% 55.79%
    June 5, 2005 Schengen and Dublin agreements Federal resolution on the bilateral agreements between Switzerland and the EU on association with Schengen and Dublin 54.60% 45.40% 56.63%
    September 25, 2005 EU enlargement in 2004 Federal resolution on the protocol on the extension of the agreement on the free movement of persons to the new EC member states 56.00% 44.00% 54.51%
    November 26, 2006 Enlargement contribution and aid to the East Federal law on cooperation with the states of Eastern Europe 53.40% 46.60% 44.98%
    February 8, 2009 Free movement of people and extension to Bulgaria and Romania Federal resolution on the continuation of the agreement on the free movement of persons between Switzerland and the EC and on the extension to Bulgaria and Romania 59.62% 40.38% 50.90%
    February 9, 2014 Limiting immigration
    (bilateral agreements I)
    Federal popular initiative "Against mass immigration" 50.30% 49.70% 55.80%
    19th May 2019 Adoption of the EU Weapons Directive Federal resolution on the approval and implementation of the adoption of the EU weapons directive 63.70% 36.30% 43.30%
    September 27, 2020 Termination of the Free Movement Agreement with the EU Federal popular initiative "For moderate immigration"


    • Christa Tobler, Jacques Beglinger: Basics of bilateral (commercial) law in text and tables . St.Gallen / Zurich 2013 (see
    • Bilateral agreements: Switzerland - European Union . FDFA / FDEA integration office, Federal publication 201.337.d, Bern 2008.
    • Hans-Peter Duric: The EC-Switzerland free trade agreement - the legal problem . 3. Edition. Freiburg (D) 1998
    • Dieter Freiburghaus, Königsweg or Dead End? Swiss European Policy from 1945 to the Present. Zurich: Verlag NZZ 2015; 2., revised. Ed .; ISBN 978-3-03810-018-8
    • Nicolas G. Hayek, Josef F. Kümin (editor); Freedom & Responsibility Foundation (Ed.): Freedom, Responsibility and Switzerland's Accession to the EU. Speech on the occasion of the “Head of Missions Lunch Meeting” by Boris Lazar, Ambassador of the Czech Republic, on March 16, 2009 in the Kursaal Bern. In: Freedom & Responsibility series. Volume 4, Society and Church Where to? Membership letter No. 233. Lachen SZ / Freedom & Responsibility Foundation, Kriens LU 2009.
    • Hartwig Schulz: Regulation of origin of the free trade agreements between EEC-EFTA states . 7th edition. Purschke and Hensel publishing house (D), 1991
    • Burkard Steppacher: The EFTA states, the EEA and Switzerland, in: Weidenfeld, Werner / Wessels, Wolfgang (Ed.): Yearbook of European Integration. Baden-Baden 2015, pp. 315-320.
    • Willy Zeller: Switzerland in the European free trade regime, commentary on the agreement with the European Communities . Zurich 1972

    Web links

    Individual evidence

    1. Agreement between the European Economic Community (EEC) and the Swiss Confederation of July 22, 1972 ( OJ L 300 of December 31, 1972, p. 189).
    2. a b List of Agreements, OJ. 2002, L 114 , with links to the individual agreement texts (PDF files)
    3. FHA (PDF; 156 kB)
    4. The relationship between Switzerland and the EU in figures. ( Memento of April 11, 2009 in the Internet Archive ) (PDF) Swiss Confederation, November 26, 2008.
    5. Agreement between the Swiss Confederation and the European Economic Community on direct insurance with the exception of life insurance (PDF; 704 kB).
    6. Figures and facts 2008 of the private insurance industry. (No longer available online.) Swiss Insurance Association, December 21, 2007, formerly in the original ; Retrieved January 9, 2009 .  ( Page no longer available , search in web archivesInfo: The link was automatically marked as defective. Please check the link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.@1@ 2Template: Dead Link /  
    7. Referendum of May 21, 2000. Swiss Confederation, January 8, 2009, accessed on January 9, 2009 .
    8. since December 1, 2009: Art. 220 TFEU
    9. Since these were multilateral agreements, strictly speaking it was not exactly precise to subsume them under bilateral agreements I.
    10. Integration courses for EU citizens voluntary . NZZ Online, November 3, 2010.
    11. Agreement between the Swiss Confederation, on the one hand, and the European Community and its member states, on the other hand, on freedom of movement (PDF; 302 kB), Art. 6 ff.
    12. Agreement between the Swiss Confederation, on the one hand, and the European Community and its member states, on the other hand, on freedom of movement (PDF; 302 kB), Art. 12 ff.
    13. Agreement between the Swiss Confederation, on the one hand, and the European Community and its member states, on the other, on freedom of movement (PDF; 302 kB), Art. 24
    14. Agreement between the Swiss Confederation, on the one hand, and the European Community and its member states, on the other hand, on freedom of movement (PDF; 302 kB), Annex I, General Provisions Art. 2
    15. Heidi Gmür: "I underestimated the attractiveness of Switzerland". In: Neue Zürcher Zeitung. from June 1, 2017.
    16. Federal Decree (PDF)
    17. Majority of almost 60 percent for the continuation and expansion of the free movement of people NZZ online, February 9, 2009
    18. Roland Schlumpf: Struggle for valve clause - so voted the federal councilors. In: Tages-Anzeiger online. May 22, 2009, accessed May 15, 2011 .
    19. ^ Dense control network over freedom of movement , NZZ Online, April 24, 2009.
    20. Posting of Workers Act (PDF; 133 kB) Art. 1
    21. Posting of Workers Act (PDF; 133 kB), Art. 7
    22. Federal Act on the Declaration of General Application of Collective Employment Agreements (PDF; 125 kB), Art. 2 ff.
    23. Swiss Code of Obligations (PDF; 1.4 MB), Art. 360b
    24. ^ Press release of April 18, 2012 , accessed on April 24, 2012
    25. Werner Vontobel, Claudia Gnehm: Hourly wage 2.85 francs! The extended free movement of people is in force - trade unions and businesses fear dumping wages that will plow up the Swiss salary model. May 1, 2011, accessed July 12, 2019 .
    26. ↑ Free movement of persons: wage dumping in Switzerland is increasing. In 2010, 38 percent of short-term residents posted by EU companies had to work for less than the Swiss CLA minimum wage. May 3, 2011, accessed July 12, 2019 .
    27. a b awp / sda: CH / Free Movement of Persons: BR wants to better implement accompanying measures. (No longer available online.) Swissinfo, May 1, 2011, formerly the original ; Retrieved May 30, 2011 .  ( Page no longer available , search in web archivesInfo: The link was automatically marked as defective. Please check the link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.@1@ 2Template: Dead Link /  
    28. a b sda / buev: Wage dumping is increasing - Federal Council sounds the alarm. SF Tagesschau, July 7, 2011, accessed July 9, 2011 .
    29. a b Renat Kuenzi: Against wage dumping: " Start where it hurts". swissinfo , July 9, 2011, accessed July 9, 2011 .
    30. awp / sda: CH / EU: Accompanying measures for the free movement of persons. Discussion topic. cash, July 6, 2011, accessed July 9, 2011 .
    31. Patrick Feuz: EU wants more free movement of people, but Bern is declining for the time being. Brussels demands access to social assistance for every EU citizen. The Federal Council must take a position in June. Tages-Anzeiger Online / Newsnetz, May 5, 2011, accessed on July 9, 2011 .
    32. Federal Council does not want to relax the free movement of persons. The free movement of people with the EU should not be revised. Switzerland communicated this to the Union in Brussels. EU citizens should have been given a de facto right of establishment including access to social assistance. SRDRS, June 14, 2011, accessed July 9, 2011 .
    33. Young liberals say no to the SVP's limitation initiative. In: Aargauer Zeitung. January 18, 2020, accessed January 19, 2020 .
    34. ^ Government Procurement Agreement . (PDF)
    35. Agreement between the Swiss Confederation and the European Community on certain aspects of public procurement (PDF; 397 kB) Art. 2 Para. 1
    36. Agreement between the Swiss Confederation and the European Community on certain aspects of public procurement (PDF; 397 kB) Art. 3
    37. ^ Oppermann / Classen / Nettesheim: European law . 4th edition, Munich 2009, ISBN 978-3-406-58768-9 , p. 485, Rn. 17th
    38. Regulation (EC) No. 2888/2000 of the European Parliament and of the Council of December 18, 2000 on the distribution of permits for trucks driving in Switzerland .
    39. ^ Oppermann / Classen / Nettesheim: European law . 4th edition 2009, p. 485, Rn. 17th
    40. Framework Agreement on Scientific and Technical Cooperation (PDF; 497 kB), Art. 10
    41. Agreement on scientific and technical cooperation ( Memento of January 30, 2012 in the Internet Archive ) (PDF; 539 kB)
    42. Compilation of all payments and contributions from Switzerland to the EU , request from the parliamentary group of the Swiss People's Party, March 21, 2014
    43. Marina Delcheva: EU exit referendum - What if? In: Wiener Zeitung , July 2, 2015
    44. Business warns against the termination of the bilateral agreements . swissinfo, December 12, 2008
    45. a b Off for special Swiss requests . In: Die Presse , July 28, 2010.
    46. Once negotiated, already out of date . In: Neue Zürcher Zeitung , November 13, 2010
    47. The EU and Switzerland in search of good ideas . In: Neue Zürcher Zeitung , December 20, 2012
    48. ^ Council conclusions on relations between the EU and the EFTA countries . (PDF; 140 kB) Council of the European Union , January 8, 2013
    49. Barroso's rejection of Switzerland . In: Tages-Anzeiger , January 10, 2013
    50. Draft of a framework agreement between the EU and Switzerland (pdf)
    51. ^ Directorate for European Affairs: Institutional Agreement
    52. ^ Federal Council Message of October 1, 2004 on Bilaterals II
    53. Christoph Blocher: Ten years after the EEA No , 2002; Abstract ( Memento of January 30, 2012 in the Internet Archive ) (PDF)
    54. Simon Gemperli: Switzerland withdraws application to join the EU . In: NZZ , June 15, 2016, accessed on the same day
    55. ^ Vote of December 3, 1972
    56. ^ Vote from December 6, 1992
    57. ^ Vote from June 8, 1997
    58. ^ Vote from May 21, 2000
    59. ^ Vote from March 4, 2001
    60. ^ Vote from June 5, 2005
    61. Vote from September 25, 2005
    62. ^ Vote from November 26, 2006
    63. ^ Vote on February 8, 2009
    64. ^ Vote on February 9, 2014
    65. ^ Vote on May 19, 2019