Christoph Wolfram Blocher (born October 11, 1940 in Schaffhausen ; entitled to live in Meilen , Zurich , Schattenhalb and honorary citizen of Lü GR ) is a Swiss entrepreneur , financier and politician ( SVP ).
Christoph Blocher grew up as the seventh of eleven children of the parish family Wolfram and Ida Blocher-Baur in Laufen ZH . He is married to the former primary school teacher Silvia Blocher geb. Kaiser (* 1945). Christoph and Silvia Blocher live in Herrliberg and at Rhäzüns Castle and have three daughters - Magdalena , Miriam and Rahel - and a son, Markus.
Blocher's great-great-grandfather Johann Georg Blocher (1811–1899) immigrated as a poor teacher from Beuggen in Baden near the border and was naturalized in the canton of Bern in 1861. A great uncle, Eugen Blocher , was also active in politics; he belonged to the Basel SP. Blocher's father and two of his siblings were active in pastoral care. The father was a village pastor in Laufen ZH from 1933 to 1959 and was then voted out of office.
Blocher's brother Gerhard Blocher (1934–2016) served as pastor in Hallau (Canton Schaffhausen) until he retired . He repeatedly caused a stir with his harsh statements (including on Swiss television ) to his brother's political opponents. His brother Andreas Blocher was a historian and high school teacher; he has published an essay on his brother Christoph. Blocher's oldest sister Judith Giovannelli-Blocher was a social worker and now lives in Biel . In her autobiographical novel The Frozen Sea , she describes their childhood together in the rectory in Laufen ZH. His sister Sophie Blocher was a nurse, midwife, headmistress, member and later president of the Basel Mission and pastor in Muttenz ; She also built a home for the homeless and looked after her mother in the last years of her life. His youngest sister Brigitte Blocher had a fatal accident while hiking in April 2020.
education and profession
After attending primary and secondary school in Uhwiesen , Christoph Blocher completed an agricultural apprenticeship in Ossingen from 1956 to 1958 , which he completed with the final exam at the Strickhof Zurich. He then attended the agricultural winter school in 1958/59 and completed three internships in Buch am Irchel , Pampigny and Knonau . From 1961 he was preparing for the Federal Matura . In 1963 he passed the exams for the Matura type C and in 1964 an additional examination in Latin . From 1964 to 1969 he studied law at the Universities of Zurich , Montpellier and Sorbonne . In 1969 he completed this with a licentiate degree , followed by his doctorate in 1971 .
In 1969 Blocher joined the legal department of Ems-Chemie AG (formerly Emser Werke), where he was promoted to chairman of the board in 1973. In 1979 the company owner Werner Oswald died. The company had already run into difficulties due to delayed product range adjustments and the poor economy, whereupon the dividend was canceled in 1981/82. This moved the heirs to sell. Blocher, who was entrusted with the sale by two of Oswald's sons, finally bought the company himself, after he said he could not find a buyer who would have continued to run it without massive job cuts. The company then recovered quickly. This, as well as the favorable price, which was only around a quarter of the company's intrinsic value, and the secrecy of the buyer's true identity from the other members of the heir family led to the suspicion that Blocher had secretly and cheaply seized the company thanks to his position of trust. In Karl Lüönd's company portrait , it is claimed that Blocher took a great risk in view of his limited assets at the time and the uncertain economy and therefore clearly struggled with himself before making the purchase. Christoph Oswald, son of the company's founder and spokesman for the family, at the time of the sale, General Secretary of the Ems Group and Chairman of the Board of Oswald Holding AG, which held the shares in the group, justifies the secrecy of Blocher as the buyer with the fact that the takeover of a majority voting rights should not be jeopardized. The sales price paid by Blocher was the highest possible income at the time, while at the same time keeping jobs and Blocher was "the dearest buyer" for the family.
The Ems became the first customer of Martin Ebner's BZ Bank and almost every year found a new instrument to transfer company profits tax-free to the owners. Blocher came to a private fortune of approximately two to three billion Swiss francs, whereby it is assumed that the majority of this income does not come from profits of Ems-Chemie, but from financial transactions with Martin Ebner, namely from the takeover and break-up of Alusuisse . For his board of directors in Ebners Pharma Vision alone (which held a huge portfolio of Roche shares), he received a total salary of CHF 67 million between 1991 and 1996 (more than 1 million per meeting). Such bonus payments were not previously common in Switzerland. This made Blocher one of the richest Swiss.
After his election to the Federal Council at the end of 2003, Blocher severed all formal ties to the company. The management of the company was taken over by his eldest daughter Magdalena Martullo-Blocher . Blocher gave the majority of the shares to his children, partly as a gift and partly through sale. In 2008 he founded the company Robinvest AG, which, according to the entry in the commercial register, aims to provide advice, provide services in the areas of corporate management and conduct financial transactions.
As a student, Blocher co-founded the middle-class student group Studenten-Ring at the University of Zurich. During his student days he was also president of the legal department and member of the large student council. From 1974 to 1978 he was a member of the city council of Meilen and from 1975 to 1980 he was a member of the Zurich Cantonal Council .
From 1977 to 2003 Christoph Blocher was President of the Swiss People's Party (SVP) of the Canton of Zurich and from 1979 to 2003 a member of the National Council . In 1986 Blocher co-founded the Action for an Independent and Neutral Switzerland (AUNS), which emerged from the Action Committee against UN membership , and was its president until 2003.
In 1982 Blocher founded the Southern Africa Working Group (ASA), which he chaired until 1990. The ASA saw South Africa as an economically and geopolitically important outpost of the West and wanted to influence reporting by the Swiss media. She supported the view of the ruling white minority and partially justified apartheid . In the 1980s, Blochers Ems-Patvag did business with the South African state arms company Armscor and sold it a license to build military ignition systems.
As a speaker and discussion participant as well as with financial contributions, he made a significant contribution to the success of the SVP in the cantons and at the federal level. Blocher was the driving force behind the party's repositioning. He turned a predominantly German-Swiss, Protestant and commercial-peasant party into a right-wing civil force active throughout Switzerland. While the SVP received 9.9 percent of the votes in the 1975 National Council elections as the smallest of the four Federal Council parties, in 2007 it was the party with the largest share of the vote with 28.9 percent.
The milestones in his career as a National Councilor include:
- 1985: A right-wing civil society committee around Blocher fought the new marriage law, which guarantees the equality of men and women in marriage, but was defeated in a referendum on September 22nd.
- 1988: Under Blocher's leadership, a compromise to abandon the planned nuclear power plant in Kaiseraugst was decided, which met with broad resistance.
- 1992: Blocher played a prominent role in the discussion leading up to the vote on Switzerland's accession to the European Economic Area (EEA) , which was finally rejected by the people on December 6, 1992. Because of his involvement against the EEA, the Swiss Bank Corporation (now part of UBS ) did not nominate him for re-election in 1991 after ten years as a member of the Board of Directors.
On December 10, 2003, Christoph Blocher was elected to the Federal Council with 121 of 237 votes (with an absolute majority of 119 votes and 5 votes ahead of the incumbent Ruth Metzler ) . With this election, the SVP received a second Federal Council seat and blew the so-called magic formula . It was only the third time in the history of the Swiss Confederation that a Federal Council who had stood for re-election was not re-elected (this had only happened before with Ulrich Ochsenbein in 1854 and with Jean-Jacques Challet-Venel in 1872). The election was made at the expense of the CVP , which has only had one seat since then. On January 1, 2004 Blocher took over the Federal Department of Justice and Police from Ruth Metzler . Contrary to the principle of collegiality stipulated in the federal constitution , according to which government decisions are supported externally by all members of the government, Blocher appeared at the same time as a member of the government and as a leader of the opposition. This unusual double function was described by SVP parliamentary group leader Caspar Baader on the occasion of a party dinner as “our party leader”. It was also one of the key points of criticism of Blocher's behavior (see below ).
In the general election of the Federal Council on December 12, 2007, Christoph Blocher was not re-elected. He was defeated in the second ballot by his SVP party colleague Eveline Widmer-Schlumpf (115 against 125 votes, with an absolute majority of 122 votes). When Widmer-Schlumpf announced the acceptance of the election after a one-day reflection period, Blocher's departure from the Federal Council on December 31, 2007 was certain. This was the fourth time in the history of Switzerland that a Federal Council was not re-elected by parliament.
On March 1, 2008 Blocher was elected one of several vice-presidents of the SVP. As such, he was responsible for research, strategy and campaigns until the vice-presidential elections in May 2012. After the abolition of the fixed departments under the vice-presidents in May 2012, Blocher is no longer responsible for the strategic direction of the party, he remains in the vice-presidency. On January 10, 2016, it was announced that he would be retiring from this in April 2016 as the last of his political offices.
On November 27, the SVP parliamentary group nominated Christoph Blocher alongside Ueli Maurer as a candidate for the Federal Council seat vacated by Samuel Schmid's resignation . However, Blocher was not elected in the Federal Council election on December 10, 2008 .
In the 2011 parliamentary elections , he applied for a seat on both the Council of States and the National Council in the canton of Zurich . Blocher was elected to the National Council, he missed the seat of the Council of States in the first and second ballot in third place.
On May 9, 2014, Blocher announced his resignation from the National Council on May 31, 2014 in the Teleblocher program . He drew Thomas Matter by.
On March 24, 2018, he resigned as a member of the party leadership committee and Vice President of the SVP together with Oskar Freysinger and Walter Frey . Blocher's daughter Magdalena Martullo-Blocher and Marco Chiesa were newly elected as Vice-Presidents .
Blocher's friends and opponents unanimously acknowledge that he had extraordinary rhetorical skills and a broad political impact; for this reason he was often referred to as a tribune of the people . He polarizes like no other Swiss politician. While his commitment to the integration of Switzerland in supranational organizations and a tightening of the asylum law is seen by his supporters as a legitimate reaction to undemocratic claims to power and criminal machinations, his opponents and most of the media accuse him of demagogic style, right-wing populism and xenophobia . Since his election to the Federal Council, there have been increasing discussions about the meaning and content of the principle of collegiality and the separation of powers . On the day after he was not re-elected, the other parliamentary groups asserted his lack of respect for the institutions, his already mentioned dual role as opposition leader and member of the government and thus his disregard for collegiality , as well as the personality cult practiced by his supporters , as the main reasons for refusing re-election.
Like every Federal Councilor who has at least a 4-year term of office, he is entitled to a Federal Council pension. When he was voted out of office in 2007, Christoph Blocher waived a Federal Council pension. In July 2020, Christoph Blocher changes his mind and demands around CHF 2.77 million retrospectively. To legitimize, Christoph Blocher uses his rhetorical skills and denigrates the state as a red-green money-squanderer who does not have to give presents. He also criticizes the incumbent Federal Councilor Karin Keller-Sutter (FDP) as the mouthpiece of interest groups against the SVP's limitation initiative. Christoph Blocher's claim is undisputed and has been approved by the Federal Council. The FinDel of Parliament has to decide whether the claim can be granted, since it must be ensured that any additional income has not exceeded the pension. The explosiveness is due to the retroactive claim for the pension. This is a novelty and the publication leads to criticism, even within the party base, that even the SVP leader has to protect Christoph Blocher.
On March 19, 1994, the Lucerne News revealed that Christoph Blocher had also pressed two voting buttons in the National Council in the absence of his seat neighbor Lisbeth Fehr (SVP / ZH) and thus voted twice. After a criminal complaint, his immunity was not lifted, but after consulting the National Council's office, National Council President Gret Haller condemned the violation of the regulations in every form. A second button for voting in the National Council was already installed before this incident, so it is not a “Blocher button”, as is rumored from time to time.
In a report dated July 10, 2006, the Audit Commission of the Council of States reprimanded Christoph Blocher for having described two Albanian refugees as criminals at the Albisgüetli conference on January 20 of the same year. The GPK further described the fact that Christoph Blocher tried to present the facts differently in parliament and said the untruth as unacceptable.
In a report published on September 5, 2007 by the FDJP / BK sub-commission of the Business Audit Commission on what happened during the departure of Federal Prosecutor Valentin Roschacher , Federal Councilor Blocher was accused of having issued the Federal Prosecutor with inadmissible instructions regarding media information in the course of the ongoing proceedings and of having granted severance payments without a legal basis. This is "problematic in terms of the rule of law". The Federal Council distanced itself from the GPK report and stood behind Blocher. At the presentation of the GPK report, Lucrezia Meier-Schatz , the president of the responsible sub-commission, also assumed Federal Councilor Blocher to be involved in a plot against Roschacher ( Roschacher affair ). The allegations turned out to be untrue shortly afterwards, whereupon the SVP in turn accused the SP and CVP of intrigue . The heavily criticized Lucrezia Meier-Schatz withdrew from the GPK in the following legislative period.
As a result of this dispute, the evaluation of Blocher's achievements as a member of the government became the dominant topic of discussion with regard to the parliamentary elections on October 21, 2007 , in which the SVP was finally able to increase its share of the vote.
Political statements from family members
In the public statements of family members on Christoph Blocher's politics, approval and rejection are balanced. While the aforementioned essay by Brother Andreas and various statements by Sister Judith in books and mass media criticize Blocher's policies, Gerhard Blocher vehemently supported his brother's policies. A report on Swiss television about Gerhard and Christoph Blocher, broadcast shortly before the Federal Council elections in December 2007 , was received with great controversy, mainly due to the bellicose rhetoric of the two brothers. In 2005, Silvia Blocher unconditionally stood behind her husband in a television interview. She also follows a similar line in her own requests to speak on current issues.
Blocher plays a key role in the " Hildebrand Affair ", in which Philipp Hildebrand subsequently resigned as President of the Board of Directors of the Swiss National Bank following allegations of insider trading .
In January 2012, Blocher was questioned by the Zurich Public Prosecutor's office as a so-called person providing information on what is a position between the accused and the witness in the code of criminal procedure. In March 2012, the Zurich Public Prosecutor's Office opened criminal proceedings against Blocher for violating the banking law and had his villa in Herrliberg and the offices of his Robinvest AG in neighboring Männedorf searched. The subject of the proceedings is to examine whether Blocher was involved in the disclosure of stolen bank data by the IT staff at Bank Sarasin , which is relevant under criminal law . Blocher invokes his parliamentary immunity , which is controversial. The examination was carried out on April 25, 2012 by the National Council's Immunity Commission. The commission decided that, despite being elected to the National Council, Blocher cannot invoke immunity for his actions before he was sworn in to the National Council on December 5, 2011. For acts after being sworn in, however, according to the will of the commission, he should be covered by the scope of immunity. On May 31, 2012, the Council of States legal commission on Blocher's immunity met. The commission was of the same opinion on one point that Blocher had no immunity before he was sworn in to the National Council. Furthermore, the commission decided that after Blocher was sworn in, he was not entitled to immunity. The business then went back to the National Council commission to adjust the differences and then back to the Council of States Legal Commission. If in this second round even one of the two bodies does not respond to the request for immunity, Blocher will be denied immunity entirely. Since the legal commission of the Council of States on May 31, 2012 clearly with ten to three votes did not respond to Blocher's request, it can be assumed that the public prosecutor's office can investigate all allegations against Blocher. On June 7, 2012, the National Council's Immunity Commission upheld its view of April 25, 2012. Blocher interprets the parliamentary law differently than the previous reading, he assumes the decision of the immunity commission of the national council the case is completely closed and the request of the public prosecutor to investigate against him is "definitely rejected". The legal commission of the Council of States should “no longer decide”. On June 11, 2012, the legal commission of the Council of States met and decided, as on May 31, 2012, that Blocher has no immunity. The commissions of both councils did not follow Blocher's interpretation of the law. The decision on immunity cannot be challenged.
Christoph Blocher has built up an important art collection, which mainly includes works by the Swiss painters Ferdinand Hodler and Albert Anker . This collection was presented for the first time at the Museum Oskar Reinhart in autumn 2015 . He owns the largest private anchor collection. With CHF 20 million from his private fortune, he is funding the project of a music center on the Rheinau monastery island .
Since 2007, " Personal " editor-in-chief Matthias Ackeret has been speaking to Blocher about the current issues of the week for around 20 minutes once a week. The conversation is usually recorded on Friday and broadcast on Teleblocher.ch and on Schaffhausen television .
In 2009 Blocher took part in the Bilderberg Conference .
Christoph Blocher was a colonel in the air raid troops and regimental commander in the Swiss Army . Some became famous for a blitz, at which Blocher his regiment at the 1992 Sechseläutenwiese the middle of the city of Zurich , for a flag handover had to pit.
Of the four children of the Blocher couple, three have also become entrepreneurs so far. Magdalena Martullo-Blocher heads Ems-Chemie (manufacture of plastics ). Markus Blocher took over the fine chemicals division Dottikon ES. Miriam Blocher bought the Dalasta holding company and became the head of the traditional Basel confectionery company “ Läckerli- Huus”.
After Moritz Suter resigned as Chairman of the Board of Directors and publisher at Basler Zeitung in December 2011 and sold his block of shares to Christoph Blocher's daughter Rahel, the media saw this as proof that Christoph Blocher had been in charge of the newspaper for a long time, despite his denials in the past. This was confirmed by Tito Tettamanti , whose “MedienVielfalt Holding” had bought the shares from Rahel Blocher, in an interview with the Tages-Anzeiger , by pointing out that Christoph Blocher had contacted him on October 13, 2011. In the same interview he also said that Christoph Blocher had given a guarantee for “possible losses” “that could arise in connection with the renovation of the industrial part”; in addition, the "Blocher family" has nothing to do with BaZ . Since the end of June 2014, one third of the Basler Zeitung has officially been owned by Christoph Blocher.
- Hansjürg Zumstein : The election - the secret operation against Christoph Blocher. In: Schweizer Fernsehen , DOK from March 6, 2008 (50 minutes)
- Jean-Stéphane Bron : L'Expérience Blocher . CH / FR 2013, 100 minutes. World premiere at the Locarno International Film Festival 2013.
- Roland Huber: Blocher Brothers. Video in: Reporter (SRF) Sélection, July 20, 2014 (22 minutes)
Blocher published numerous speeches and political situation assessments. Some were sent as direct mail to Swiss households. Previous publications:
- The function of the agricultural zone and its compatibility with the Swiss property guarantee . Schulthess, Zurich 1972 (dissertation).
- Rolf Wunderer (Ed.): Middle Management - Leading or Suffering? Papers of a conference (contribution). Industrielle Organization Verlag, Zurich 1990, ISBN 3-85743-943-2 .
- Peter Rupper (Ed.): Corporate logistics . A manual for the introduction and expansion of logistics in companies (participation). Industrielle Organization Verlag, Zurich 1987; 3rd ext. A. Orell Füssli, Zurich 1991, ISBN 3-85743-953-X .
- Ways out of unemployment (contribution). Utzinger, Zurich 1995, ISBN 3-908688-10-8 .
- Andreas Blocher: My brother Christoph. An essay . Weltwoche, Zurich 1994, ISBN 3-85504-156-3 .
- Christoph Schilling: Blocher. Rise and mission of a Swiss politician and entrepreneur. Limmat, Zurich 1994, ISBN 3-85791-226-X .
- Wolf Mettler: Liebi women and men ... Christoph Blocher - a picture of life. Meier, Schaffhausen 1995, ISBN 3-85801-137-1 .
- Judith Giovannelli-Blocher : The frozen sea. Pendo, Zurich 1999, ISBN 3-85842-341-6 .
- Andreas Iten: Blocher's populism + contradiction: about the truth content of the Albisgüetlirede '99. Werd, Zurich 1999, ISBN 3-85932-298-2 .
- Fredy Gsteiger : Blocher - a non-Swiss phenomenon. Opinio, Basel 2002, ISBN 3-03999-015-2 .
- Andreas Gross , Fredi Krebs, Martin Stohler (eds.): Another Switzerland is possible. Thoughts beyond autumn. Editions le Doubs, St-Ursanne 2003, ISBN 3-9522627-1-4 .
- Thomas Buomberger: Fight against unwanted strangers. From James Schwarzenbach to Christoph Blocher . Orell Füssli, Zurich 2004, ISBN 3-280-06017-6 .
- Lukas Zollinger: The middle class on the edge. Christoph Blocher, the people and the suburbs. Institute for Sociology at the University of Bern, Bern 2004, ISBN 3-9523100-4-2 .
- Matthias Ackeret : The Blocher principle. A guide book. Meier, Schaffhausen 2007, ISBN 978-3-85801-188-6 .
- Andreas Gross, Fredi Krebs, Felix Lautenschlager, Martin Stohler (eds.): Timetable change. For more democracy and solidarity and less Blocher. Editions le Doubs, St-Ursanne 2007, ISBN 978-3-9522627-2-6 .
- Markus Somm : Christoph Blocher. The conservative revolutionary. Appenzeller Verlag, Herisau 2009, ISBN 978-3-85882-482-0 .
- Karl Lüönd : Success as a mission: Ems-Chemie: The story of an impossible company. Stämpfli, Bern 2011, ISBN 978-3-7272-1311-3 .
- Andrea Hämmerle : The election - facts and figures. Rüegger Verlag, 2011, ISBN 978-3-7253-0981-8 .
- Christoph Blocher in the Munzinger archive ( beginning of article freely accessible)
- Thomas Zaugg: Blochers Switzerland - sentiments, ideas, myths. NZZ Libro, Zurich 2014, ISBN 978-3-03823-885-0 ( NZZ review ).
- Helmut Hubacher : Hubacher's Blocher. Zytglogge, Oberhofen am Thunersee 2014, ISBN 978-3-7296-0880-1 .
- Hans Jörg Hennecke : The salt in the wounds of concordance. Christoph Blocher and Swiss politics. In: Nikolaus Werz (Ed.): Populism: Populists in Übersee und Europa (= Analyzes. Vol. 79). Leske and Budrich, Opladen 2003, ISBN 3-8100-3727-3 , pp. 145-162.
- Hodler Anker Giacometti: Masterpieces from the Christoph Blocher Collection. Catalog of the exhibition in the Museum Oskar Reinhart , Winterthur. Hirmer, Munich 2015.
- Christoph Blocher on the website of the Federal Assembly
- Political profile of Christoph Blocher (voting behavior in the National Council, 46th legislature, 1999–2003) ( Memento from July 17, 2012 in the web archive archive.today )
- Website by Christoph Blocher
- Teleblocher (video) , weekly interview by Matthias Ackeret
- Show «Schawinski». Roger Schawinski in conversation with former Federal Councilor Christoph Blocher. Video in: SRF 1 from December 2, 2013 ( online, 29 minutes )
- Show «Schawinski». Roger Schawinski in conversation with Federal Councilor Christoph Blocher. Video in: SRF 1 from November 3, 2014 ( online, 28 minutes )
- Fredy Gsteiger : Blocher - a non-Swiss phenomenon. Opinio, Basel 2002, ISBN 3-03999-015-2 , p. 13.
- Andreas Staeger: How Christoph Blocher got a home . In: Tages-Anzeiger . December 13, 2014, ISSN 1422-9994 (  [accessed March 30, 2017]).
- Website of the city of Rosenfeld (without author) ( Memento of the original from January 7, 2014 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- How Christoph Blocher got a home, Tages-Anzeiger , December 13, 2014.
- Gerhard Blocher is dead. St. Galler Tagblatt , December 28, 2016.
- Dossier for the session “Media Regulation” in the introductory seminar “Media Studies” - “From falling into the Rhine Falls - considerations of Blocher's worldview”, Swiss television SF, Reporter, December 5, 2007. ( Memento of the original from April 7, 2014 in the Internet Archive ) Info : The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- Sophie Blocher House
- «One woman slipped away and carried the other with her». In: 20 minutes. May 3, 2020, accessed May 3, 2020 .
- René Donzé: With them Blocher learned to cramp and save. Tages-Anzeiger, November 24, 2011.
- Entire section according to Christoph Blocher's personal website: Christoph Blocher: Career ( memento of the original from November 4, 2015 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- Christoph Blocher: The function of the agricultural zone and its compatibility with the Swiss property guarantee . Dissertation . Schulthess, Zurich 1972.
- Karl Lüönd: Success as a mission: Ems-Chemie: The story of an impossible company. Stämpfli, Bern 2011, ISBN 978-3-7272-1311-3 , p. 41.
- Markus Somm: Christoph Blocher. The conservative revolutionary. Appenzeller Verlag, Herisau 2009, ISBN 978-3-85882-482-0 , p. 184.
- Karl Lüönd: Success as a mission: Ems-Chemie: The story of an impossible company. Stämpfli, Bern 2011, ISBN 978-3-7272-1311-3 , p. 42/45/46.
- Karl Lüönd: Success as a mission: Ems-Chemie: The story of an impossible company. Stämpfli, Bern 2011, ISBN 978-3-7272-1311-3 , p. 46.
- Wolf Mettler: Liebi women and men ... Christoph Blocher - a picture of life. Meier, Schaffhausen 1995, ISBN 3-85801-137-1 , p. 47.
- Fredy Gsteiger: Blocher - a non-Swiss phenomenon. Opinio, Basel 2002, ISBN 3-03999-015-2 , p. 36.
- Karl Lüönd: Success as a mission: Ems-Chemie: The story of an impossible company. Stämpfli, Bern 2011, ISBN 978-3-7272-1311-3 , p. 48.
- Fredy Gsteiger: Blocher - a non-Swiss phenomenon. Opinio, Basel 2002, ISBN 3-03999-015-2 , p. 43.
- Fredy Gsteiger: Blocher - a non-Swiss phenomenon. Opinio, Basel 2002, ISBN 3-03999-015-2 , pp. 41/42.
- Karl Lüönd: Success as a mission: Ems-Chemie: The story of an impossible company. Stämpfli, Bern 2011, ISBN 978-3-7272-1311-3 , p. 58.
- Fredy Gsteiger: Blocher - a non-Swiss phenomenon. Opinio, Basel 2002, ISBN 3-03999-015-2 , p. 42.
- Markus Somm: Christoph Blocher. The conservative revolutionary. Appenzeller Verlag, Herisau 2009, ISBN 978-3-85882-482-0 , p. 187.
- Fredy Gsteiger: Blocher - a non-Swiss phenomenon. Opinio, Basel 2002, ISBN 3-03999-015-2 , p. 36.
- Christoph Schilling: Blocher: Rise and Mission of a Swiss Politician and Entrepreneur. Limmat Verlag, Zurich 1994, ISBN 3-85791-226-X , p. 72.
- Hans-Peter Bärtschi: Industrial Switzerland - from the 18th to the 21st century. Built up and sold out, Baden 2011.
- From farmer's son to billionaire. ( Memento of the original from May 25, 2009 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. ORF
- Constantin Seibt : Christoph Blocher - the professional. Tages-Anzeiger, December 26, 2011.
- The facts are as follows on the official website of the Ems Group: History of EMS ( Memento of the original from August 30, 2011 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link has been inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. to read.
- Sergio Aiolfi (ai.): Blocher completely separates from Ems , NZZ , December 31, 2003.
- Robinvest AG on moneyhouse.ch .
- Roger Pfister: Switzerland and South Africa during apartheid. Controversy and “agenda setting” after 1998. ETH Zurich, Zurich 2000, ISBN 3-905648-30-X , doi: 10.3929 / ethz-a-004046723 , p. 6 f.
- Blocher Deal ( Memento of the original from April 7, 2014 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. , Rundschau from July 10, 2002.
- Etienne Strebel: Christoph Blocher: The new Federal Council. Swissinfo , December 10, 2003.
- ap: Fourth deselection in the history of the state. NZZ, December 13, 2007.
- See Swiss Federal Constitution , Article 177.
- Mathieu von Rohr: Mrs. Widmer-Schlumpf beats Blocher. Der Spiegel , September 12, 2007.
- Verena Vonarburg : Will Blocher become party president? ( Memento from September 20, 2011 in the Internet Archive ) Tages-Anzeiger, December 12, 2007.
- Annetta Bundi, Philipp Mäder: The SP successfully pulled the strings behind the scenes. Tages-Anzeiger , December 13, 2007, page 3.
- Toni Brunner confirmed as SVP party president. In: NZZ Online from May 5, 2012.
- Simon Marti, Marcel Odermatt and Joël Widmer: Christoph Blocher: "I belong to the old iron". Sunday view , January 10, 2016.
- bert / sda: SVP parliamentary group nominates Ueli Maurer alongside Blocher. news.ch, November 27, 2008.
- Council of States 2011: extrapolation, results, participation in the vote ( memento of the original of December 21, 2011 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. , Results of the Statistical Office of the Canton of Zurich
- sda: Blocher resigns as National Councilor TeleBlocher, May 9, 2014.
- Three new members sworn in in the National Council. ( Memento of the original from July 14, 2014 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. In: parlament.ch/sda of June 2, 2014.
- The SVP has to save Switzerland once again. In: Neue Zürcher Zeitung . March 24, 2018.
- Markus Knill: Blocher as a rhetorician and tribune of the people. rhetorik.ch
- Blocher on the pension claim - "No gifts to this state". July 5, 2020, accessed July 6, 2020 .
- Blocher is said to have earned no more than 200,000 francs after being voted out of office: Can that be true? Retrieved on July 6, 2020 (Swiss Standard German).
- "a pension that one is entitled to is the most natural thing". July 5, 2020, accessed July 6, 2020 .
- Excerpt from the Tagesschau SF DRS ( Memento of the original from March 4, 2014 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. dated March 19, 1994, accessed March 3, 2014.
- Official Bulletin, Nationalrat, 1994, pp. 1014-1018 ( PDF )
- Parliament. Retrieved September 15, 2018 .
- Official Bulletin, National Council, 1993 p. 491 ( PDF )
- Investigation of public statements by the head of the FDJP on court judgments. Report of the Audit Committee of the Council of States of July 10, 2006 (  , PDF; 616 kB).
- Review of the function of the federal law enforcement authorities. Report of the Audit Committee of the National Council of September 5, 2007 (  , PDF; 547 kB)
- ap: Federal Council stands behind Blocher in the GPK controversy. NZZ Online , September 28, 2007.
- ap / sda: Meier-Schatz announces resignation from GPK. NZZ Online, September 5, 2007.
- Andreas Zumach: Clear victory for right-wing populists. taz , October 23, 2007.
- "I am glad that the SVP is stagnating." ( Memento from September 20, 2011 in the Internet Archive ) In: Tages-Anzeiger. May 14, 2006 (interview)
- Alex Baur: An almost biblical tragedy. Weltwoche 35/2006, January 20, 2012.
- "Reporter" broadcast about Gerhard Blocher did not violate the requirement of factuality. ( Memento of the original from August 8, 2014 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. SRG German-speaking Switzerland, February 12, 2008.
- Sensitive statements by Silvia Blocher. rhetorik.ch, April 22, 2005.
- Silvia Blocher: Anti-authoritarian education and the consequences. In: Tages-Anzeiger. April 1, 2008, reproduced on seniora.org
- fxs: The link between Sarasin and Blocher. NZZ, January 5, 2012.
- Marcel Gyr: Blocher questioned by the public prosecutor. In: NZZ Online from January 13, 2012.
- Criminal proceedings extended to National Councilor Christoph Blocher. Media release in: Zurich Public Prosecutor of March 20, 2012.
- Hildebrand affair grips SVP politician Blocher. FAZ Online, March 21, 2012.
- Christian Brönnimann, Iwan Städler: Christoph Blocher insists on his immunity, but it's no longer that simple . In: Tages-Anzeiger of March 22, 2012.
- Criminal : "Blocher's immunity is a borderline case". ( Memento of March 22, 2012 in the Internet Archive ) In: Schweizer Fernsehen , 10vor10 of March 21, 2012.
- Jositsch: "Blocher has no immunity". ( Memento from March 25, 2012 in the Internet Archive ) In: Schweizer Fernsehen from March 24, 2012.
- Peter Hossli: Mr. Blocher, so much for your immunity. In: SonntagsBlick from March 25, 2012.
- 12.190 Immunity of National Councilor Christoph Blocher. Request for annulment. Information to the councils in accordance with Article 17a paragraph 6 Parliament Act (ParlG; SR 171.10) In: parlament.ch of April 25, 2012 (PDF file; 19 kB)
- Stefan Schürer: Blocher acted two days too early. In: Tages-Anzeiger from 25./26. April 2012.
- Stefan Schürer, Iwan Städler: The public prosecutor's office can investigate all allegations against Blocher. In: Tages-Anzeiger from May 31, 2012.
- Stefan Schürer: Blocher should have informed the supervisory authority. In: Tages-Anzeiger from May 31, 2012.
- way for criminal proceedings. ( Page no longer available , search in web archives ) Info: The link was automatically marked as defective. Please check the link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. Video in: 10vor10 from May 31, 2012 (4 minutes)
- Dissent on Blocher's immunity. In: Neue Zürcher Zeitung of June 1, 2012, p. 12.
- National Council Commission upholds Blocher's partial immunity ( memento from June 9, 2012 in the Internet Archive ) In: Schweizer Fernsehen from June 7, 2012.
- Patrick Feuz: How Blocher wants to save his immunity. In: Tages-Anzeiger from June 9, 2012.
- Why the decision of the National Council Immunity Commission is final. ( Memento of the original from March 15, 2013 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. Letter from Christoph Blocher to the Legal Commission of the Council of States dated June 8, 2012.
- Markus Brotschi: Blocher demands the annulment of the criminal proceedings. In: Tages-Anzeiger from 11./12. June 2012.
- Dorothee Vögeli (vö.): Blocher sponsors music center on the monastery island Rheinau. NZZ, June 23, 2009.
- Tele-Blocher ( page no longer available , search in web archives ) Info: The link was automatically marked as defective. Please check the link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. dated May 20, 2009.
- Official biography of parliamentarians
- Two strong men in comparison "How much Trump is in Blocher?" NZZ, January 6, 2016.
- Radar soldiers are not allowed on Sechseläutenplatz. Tages-Anzeiger , December 30, 2014.
- rp / sda: Ems-Dottikon goes public at the end of March. Nachrichten.ch, March 4, 2005 (with photo by Magdalena Martullo)
- ht / sda: Markus Blocher takes over majority in Dottikon ES. Nachrichten.ch, November 23, 2005 (with picture by Markus Blocher)
- Andreas Möckli: "My father is more consistent." ( Page no longer available , search in web archives ) Info: The link was automatically marked as defective. Please check the link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. Basler Zeitung, September 17, 2007, reproduced on Medienbeobachtung AG / Leckerli.ch (Interview with Miriam Blocher [with picture], PDF; 347 kB)
- Remo Leupin: Comment: Fooled. TagesWoche , December 12, 2011.
- Maurice Thiriet: Rahel Blocher takes over the BaZ shares. Tages-Anzeiger , December 13, 2011.
- Daniel Gerny: Suter gets out, Rahel Blocher takes over. NZZ Online, December 12, 2011.
- Christian Mensch: Expropriated newspaper? The history of the «Basler Zeitung» - a lesson on media change. Schwabe, Basel 2012, ISBN 978-3-7965-2840-8 . With an afterword by Kurt Imhof . (Excerpt.) ( Memento from June 3, 2012 on WebCite )
- Daniel Schindler, David Thommen: "I am for liberal music." Tages-Anzeiger , December 15, 2011.
- Basler Zeitung successfully completes restructuring. Media release in: bzm.ch from April 11, 2014.
- Aroser Zeitung of November 29, 2013, p. 1 ff.
- Website for the film
- Markus Häfliger: Christoph Blocher's shadow. In: Neue Zürcher Zeitung from August 14, 2013.
- Michael Sennhauser: The fight with the subject Blocher. In: srf.ch from August 13, 2013.
- Literature by and about Christoph Blocher in the catalog of the German National Library
- Claudia Blumer: "I wrote her that her name was hot." Tages-Anzeiger, November 15, 2011.
- Philipp Loser: Helmut Hubacher's accounting. In: Tages-Anzeiger from May 25, 2014.
Member of the Swiss Federal Council
|ALTERNATIVE NAMES||Blocher, Christoph Wolfram (full name)|
|BRIEF DESCRIPTION||Swiss entrepreneurs and politicians (SVP)|
|DATE OF BIRTH||October 11, 1940|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Schaffhausen|