Decimus Junius Brutus Albinus

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Decimus Iunius Brutus Albinus (* around 81 BC; † September 43 BC ) was a Roman politician and soldier. He was a longtime officer and close confidante of Gaius Julius Caesar , under whom he made a career. For reasons unknown, he joined the conspiracy against the dictator and was one of the most prominent Caesar killers . Soon after the successful assassination attempt (March 15, 44 BC) he went to his province of Gallia cisalpina and at the end of the year refused to hand it over to the consul Marcus Antonius . Then besieged by this in Mutina , he was in April 43 BC. Freed from the new consuls and Octavian (later Emperor Augustus ). He pursued the defeated Antonius, but Octavian changed course and had him ostracized like all Caesar murderers. While on the run, he was caught and killed on Antony's orders.

Parentage and date of birth

A by Brutus Albinus 48 BC. A denarius, coined as a mint master, who symbolized the Clementia Caesar's propaganda during the civil war against Pompey with a Pietas head and handshake.

Decimus Junius Brutus was a son of the consul of the same name from 77 BC. And his wife Sempronia . He was adopted by a Postumius Albinus, whose cognomen he has been leading since then, and thus entered the patrician class . His second epithet Albinus is only very rarely mentioned by some historians who write in Greek. In the inscription on the coins he minted, he describes himself as Albinus Bruti f.

Since Decimus Brutus of Caesar still 52 BC. Chr. Is characterized as a youth ( adulescens ), his year of birth, which has not been recorded, is perhaps about 81 BC. To apply. If this assumption is correct, then he was allowed to hold the higher offices by Caesar's favor before the legal minimum age. If he had to adhere to the latter, he would have been in 85 BC. Was born in BC. According to a remark by the speaker Marcus Tullius Cicero , Decimus Brutus had his birthday around April 27th, because this coincided with the day on which the defeat of Mark Antony at the Battle of Mutina (April 21, 43 BC) in Rome got known.

Career under Caesar

At a young age, Decimus Brutus embarked on a military career under Caesar, perhaps as early as 61 BC. When Caesar, as governor of the province of Hispania ulterior, waged war against the Lusitan and Gallaeker tribes . In any case, Decimus Brutus took part in the Gallic War and earned military service. For the first time he is 56 BC. Mentioned as commander of the fleet used against the Venetians in Brittany , some of which were provided by allied Gallic tribes such as the Osismians . In the bay of Quiberon north of the mouth of the Loire in the Atlantic Ocean , a sea battle broke out between the Romans and the Venetians. Decimus Brutus tried to eliminate the in some respects superior nature of the more than 220 enemy ships for the fight off the coast of Gaul by cutting the sail ropes of the Venetians' ships from a great distance using specially built tools. If these were deprived of their maneuverability, they were boarded by Roman soldiers. So Decimus Brutus succeeded, aided by an unexpectedly onset of doldrums, to beat his opponents decisively. The Venetians had to submit.

Decimus Brutus probably took part in the Gallic War almost to the end, but there is no record of his military career for the next few years - probably because he did not serve in the rank of legate due to his youth . 52 BC In any case, he commanded cavalry units and parts of the legions in the fight against the Arverni chief Vercingetorix and in the siege of Alesia .

50 BC Decimus Brutus may have held the office of quaestor . In that year he also intended - as Marcus Caelius Rufus mentions in a letter to Cicero, who was staying in Cilicia - to marry Paulla Valeria , the sister of a triarius. Paulla Valeria had previously divorced her unnamed first husband, allegedly for no reason. A later letter from Cicero from 43 BC. Chr. Confirms that this marriage was really entered into.

As early as 49 BC When the civil war broke out between Caesar and Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus , Decimus Brutus fought on Caesar's side. After he had become master of Italy after the Pompeians withdrew to the Balkans, he fought against the Pompeian generals stationed in Spain. Meanwhile, he had the city of Massalia (now Marseille ) besieged by his legates Gaius Trebonius and Decimus Brutus. The higher-ranking, the supreme command exercising Trebonius led the operations on land with three legions, while Decimus Brutus commanded the navy and quickly established a small squadron at Arelate . With these twelve warships he defeated the end of June 49 BC. BC (according to the pre-Julian calendar) a first clear victory against the numerically superior fleet of 17 vessels led by Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus of the Massaliots, although they were experienced marines.

Despite the loss of a number of ships in this sea battle, the Massaliots again equipped 17 watercraft and set out with them to sea. At the Tauroentum fort (now Tarente) east of Massalia, they combined their fleet with that of the Pompeian Lucius Nasidius , who had sailed here from Dyrrhachium with 16 ships. Now the Massaliots again had a stronger naval power than Decimus Brutus, who nonetheless at the end of July 49 BC. BC (pre-Julian) fought another military conflict before Tauroentum. At first he had to fight off the attack of two triremes on his admiral ship, but was then able to sink or capture several ships of the enemy right wing and achieve a second victory. Nasidius fled with his fleet towards the Iberian Peninsula. For Massalia this meant complete enclosure not only from the land, but now also from the sea. Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus, who could not count on his renewed pardon from Caesar, managed to break through the blockade and escape with a ship. End of October 49 BC BC (pre-Julian) Caesar came to Massalia after his victory in Spain, which now submitted to him.

In the further course Decimus Brutus no longer took part in the Roman civil war. Probably in 48 BC. He was commissioned by Caesar to manage the minting of coins in Rome and issued different types of denarii, on which, among other things, his warlike achievements during the Gallic War are indicated. As a reward for his loyal service, he probably received only 47 or 46 BC. The post of governor of the province of Gallia comata , i.e. the part of Gaul conquered by Caesar . In this position he won a victory against the Bellovak tribe , who had rebelled.

When Caesar had broken the last resistance of the Pompeians in Spain by his victory in the battle of Munda and now from there in August 45 BC. When he returned to BC, he expressed his high esteem for Decimus Brutus by letting him travel with him in his carriage. This honor was otherwise only bestowed on his confidante Marcus Antonius and his 18-year-old great-nephew Octavian . In the second half of 45 BC BC Decimus Brutus may also have acted as praetor .

Caesar also awarded Decimus Brutus other high honors, for example at the beginning of 44 BC. The award of another governor post, this time that of the province of Gallia cisalpina (about today's northern Italy). He should hold this office in 44 BC. During Caesar's absence during his planned campaign against the Parthians . For the year 42 BC He was designated as consul. In addition, in Caesar's last will, he was appointed as a subsequent heir, together with Marcus Antonius, in case the next heirs - Octavian and two other relatives of the dictator - should suddenly die or refuse the inheritance. If Caesar were to have a son after his death, according to a will, he should come under the guardianship of Decimus Brutus.

Role in the conspiracy against Caesar

Why Decimus Brutus, who had made a steep career under Caesar, joined the Caesar murderers, can no longer be determined precisely due to a lack of information about his personality. The sources provide no information about his motives. This also applies to Cicero, who was not familiar with him. In any case, the ancient historians characterize him rather one-sidedly as particularly ungrateful to his patron. There is no evidence whatsoever that Decimus Brutus joined the conspiracy out of envy of other favorites of the dictator or out of disappointed ambition. Perhaps he became increasingly convinced that Caesar's dictatorship was illegal and contrary to republican tradition.

According to the ancient biographer Plutarch , the assassins tried to win Decimus Brutus for their company because he had a large group of gladiators in Rome and Caesar's absolute trust. But he was only ready to take part in the plot when he learned that Marcus Junius Brutus was also involved in it. Besides this and Gaius Cassius Longinus , he was the most respected Caesar murderer.

On the Ides of March , Decimus Brutus had to see to it that Caesar actually appeared at the scheduled Senate session. On the evening of the previous day (March 14, 44 BC) he dined with the dictator at the Magister equitum Marcus Aemilius Lepidus . When Caesar hesitated on the morning of March 15 because of the nightmares of his wife Calpurnia , other bad grannies and warnings and decided to stay at home, Decimus Brutus, who had come to his house, urged him to make the fatal Senate visit after all. He scoffed at the fortune tellers and reproached Caesar that the senators who had been summoned by himself were already waiting and would feel snubbed. That they should go back home just because Calpurnia had a bad dream could also be interpreted as tyranny. If he really did not wish to hold the session, he should at least personally inform the senators of their adjournment. After that he literally pulled Caesar away with him. So the dictator came to Pompey's curia, where he was murdered. This insidious behavior, by which Decimus Brutus played the innocent ruler into the hands of his murderers, made him extremely hated by the followers of Caesar.

It is not known what role Decimus Brutus played in the murder itself. Plutarch's statement in his Caesar-Vita that Decimus Brutus had a long talk with the consul Marcus Antonius in front of the meeting room of the Curia in order to prevent this physically very strong man from helping Caesar is wrong, because this task became reality done by Gaius Trebonius, as Plutarch rightly notes in his Brutus vita.

After the ides of March

It soon became apparent that the conspirators had no plan of action for the time after their successful attack. They evidently expected that the removal of the "tyrant" and the appeal to freedom would be enough to restore the old republican order. However, since they did not find any listeners with their slogans for freedom and felt threatened, they holed up on the Capitol , where they were protected by Decimus Brutus' gladiators. Otherwise there was no large number of armed men in the capital in the first hours after the murder. Marcus Aemilius Lepidus occupied the forum with his soldiers soon afterwards, but did not attack the Capitol on the orders of Marcus Antonius.

On March 16 or the morning of March 17, 44 BC BC Decimus Brutus wrote a letter to his co-conspirators Gaius Cassius and Marcus Brutus, in which he expressed his fear that an extremely bad development was threatening the assassins. A copy of this letter was preserved in Cicero's correspondence - although it was not addressed to the speaker at all - as were some other documents from the correspondence between Decimus Brutus and Cicero. That the conspiracy, despite the successful elimination of the dictator, had not led to the desired result as expected and that influential men like Antonius and Lepidus took sides against the Caesar murderers, perhaps so appalled Decimus Brutus that he was now concerned about his involvement in the assassination of his province Gallia cisalpina cannot be preserved. In the mentioned letter of the 16th or On March 17, he also announced that he had had talks with Aulus Hirtius , and also gave Antony's opinion that the people and soldiers did not tolerate murderers of Caesar in Rome. Only with Quintus Caecilius Bassus and Sextus Pompeius could the assassins really feel safe.

In the by Antonius on March 17, 44 BC At the meeting of the Senate, the Caesar murderers were assured of impunity and, on the other hand, all of Caesar's orders were declared valid. So Decimus Brutus remained nominated as governor of Gallia cisalpina . Around the middle of April he left Rome for his province and was warmly received by the soldiers of two legions stationed there. He sought to bind his army to himself by forays into neighboring Alpine tribes and the booty they had captured. He reported extensively on his military activities to the Senate and in November 44 BC. BC also Cicero by letter in short words. In this letter, which is the first initiation of direct correspondence with the speaker, Decimus Brutus denied having undertaken the fighting mainly because he was seeking the title of emperor. Nevertheless, he adorned himself with this title in the letter. The successes he claimed against the Alpine peoples are not mentioned anywhere else and were probably insignificant.

By owning the central province of Gallia cisalpina , Decimus Brutus was an important support for his like-minded people. But this area was also very attractive for Mark Antony because it allowed him to control Italy well. Beginning of June 44 BC He succeeded in passing a law on a provincial exchange, according to which he renounced the Macedonia that had been awarded to him and was to become governor of Gallia cisalpina and, in addition, of Gallia comata , conquered by Caesar, for five years . Decimus Brutus would have had to cede his province to Antonius. High-ranking, republican-minded senators then asked him in confidence to prepare for resistance against Antonius. In fact, the Caesar murderer recruited another legion, so that he now had a total of three legions.

Mutinensic War

On the night after November 28, 44 BC. BC Antony left Rome to take over his northern Italian province. Since Decimus Brutus did not show himself ready to hand them over to him, a military confrontation loomed. Initially, Antony demanded that Decimus Brutus submit to the will of the Roman people and withdraw to Macedonia. The Caesar murderer countered with alleged Senate decrees that had not yet been made, according to which he was allowed to keep his province. He also ignored a deadline by which to comply with the consul's wishes. Ultimately, he acted on his own, in which he was influenced and encouraged by Cicero. The speaker wrote to him that he did not have to wait for a legitimation by the Senate in order to proceed, as the Senate was not yet free in its decisions. He should also help to save the republic. Decimus Brutus announced by edict that he would defend Gallia cisalpina against Antony and be available to the Senate and people of Rome. The news of this decree reached Rome on December 20th. On the same day, the demand made in Cicero's Third Philippian Speech that the unlawful conduct of Decimus Brutus, but also that of Octavian, was in the interests of the state and should therefore be commended, was raised to a Senate resolution. This confirmed Decimus Brutus also until a different senate order was issued in the possession of his province.

Around this time Antony advanced with about five legions into Gallia cisalpina , whose cities were leaning towards him. Decimus Brutus was militarily much weaker and therefore shied away from open combat. Fearing that he would no longer be admitted to the cities of his province, he forged letters from the Senate allegedly calling him back to Rome. Then he evidently moved to Italy, on the way entered the solid, difficult to conquer Mutina (today Modena ) and holed up there with his three legions and gladiators. He confiscated the city treasury and slaughtered the residents' cattle to survive a long period of confinement. Antony marched on this city and began its siege, which would drag on for several months. The so-called Mutinensian War had begun.

Cicero, who saw Antonius as a new tyrant, sought to further consolidate and legitimize the combat alliance forged against him, to which Decimus Brutus, Octavian and the new consuls Aulus Hirtius and Gaius Vibius Panza belonged. In his on January 1, 43 BC The fifth Philippian speech given in the 5th century BC, the speaker demanded, among other things, to commend Decimus Brutus for not having given his province to Antonius without legal cover. Cicero was able to get this motion through as well as the resolution of great privileges for Octavian, which greatly promoted his career. The conflict with Antony preoccupied the Senate for the first few days of January and, against Cicero's will, an embassy was sent to Antony to seek a negotiated solution, but it was unsuccessful. Antony also did not allow the ambassadors to visit Decimus Brutus. Octavian and Hirtius moved with their troops to northern Italy in January to relieve Decimus Brutus, but until February there was a state of limbo between war and peace.

In the meantime, Antonius tried to starve his opponent. He succeeded in cutting off Decimus Brutus almost completely from all supplies. As a result, the Caesar murderer found himself in an increasingly difficult supply situation, but defended himself vigorously and prevented his soldiers from being persuaded to change sides by Antony's agents who had sneaked into Mutina. Later, conversely, he made Antony's soldiers sway by not being angry with a fallen senator, but on the contrary having his luggage sent to him that had remained in Mutina. However, as the siege continued, the lack of food became more and more noticeable in Mutina and diseases spread. Brutus' armed forces were accordingly already very weakened when finally at the end of March 43 BC. The relief troops commanded by Octavian and Hirtius advanced without major resistance. These threatened to involve Antony in a two-front war. They tried to get food supplies to the trapped men of the Caesar murderer and to contact them by fire signals.

On April 14 or 15, 43 BC In BC Antonius was able to beat and severely wound the second consul Panza, who was marching against Mutina with newly recruits to strengthen the Senate army in the battle of Forum Gallorum , but then suffered a defeat even against the hurried Hirtius. A week later (April 21), Antonius suffered another setback at the Battle of Mutina and then quickly withdrew from Mutina to the west. According to some passages in Cicero's correspondence, Decimus Brutus helped significantly in the victory of the "Republicans" in the Battle of Mutina by failing, while the historians Cassius Dio and Velleius Paterculus are unaware of such a contribution. The ancient historian Friedrich Münzer considers the statement of Brutus' failure to be historical, but the importance attached to him by Cicero and his friends is exaggerated.

Persecution of Antony

Antony had been defeated before Mutina, but of the two consuls, Hirtius had lost his life in the second battle and Panza was badly injured, so that only Decimus Brutus and Octavian remained as general leaders of the Senate. Between the two men it happened on April 22nd, 43 BC. For a cool conversation marked by mutual distrust. Decimus Brutus is said to have shown remorse for his involvement in the conspiracy in order to reconcile Caesar's adopted son. But Octavian did not want to obey Brutus' appeal to cross the Apennines in pursuit of Antonius , but stayed in northern Italy. Called by Pansa, Decimus Brutus made his way to Bononia (now Bologna ) on April 23, but received the message on the way that the consul had died. So he turned back.

Then the antagonism between the murderer and Caesar's heir intensified due to the attitude of the Senate, which was dominated by Cicero. On the false assumption that Antonius was essentially defeated, he decided to drop Octavian and instead massively upgrade the position of Decimus Brutus. Although the latter had contributed little or nothing to the victory over Antony, he received a decree triumph on April 27 , while Octavian had to be content with an Ovatio . According to the will of the Senate, Decimus Brutus should also rise to the rank of commander-in- chief in the further war against the now declared enemy of the state Antonius and to fulfill this task take over the command of the troops of the fallen consuls of Octavian. However, only Pansas military inexperienced recruits submitted to the command of the Caesar murderer, but not two battle-tested legions that had defected from Antonius to Octavian, so that Octavian could maintain his militarily strong position. Decimus Brutus now had a total of seven legions, but they only consisted of the recruits and his own warriors, emaciated due to the long siege. With these troops, which he could not pay enough, he was not able to successfully pursue Antonius without Octavian's support.

On April 24, 43 BC BC and thus two days after Antony, Decimus Brutus set out from Mutina to pursue the fugitive. During his tour of persecution, he wrote to Cicero several letters he had received about his situation. He did not have enough horses and provisions, followed Antonius very slowly and could not overtake him. After a few days in Regium Lepidum, he moved via Parma , which he reached on April 30th, Placentia and Clastidium to Dertona . At this time, however, Antonius had received reinforcements from three legions that had been brought to him by his loyal follower Publius Ventidius Bassus on May 3 in Vada Sabatia west of Genoa .

When Decimus Brutus learned that Ventidius' soldiers allegedly did not march west with Antonius, but wanted to stay in Italy and move to Pollentia , he turned there and left the place on May 10, 43 BC. Occupy. The murderer of Caesar was thus faster than a troop of cavalrymen from Antony who had ridden ahead to Pollentia under the command of Trebellius. Although he thought he had achieved an important stage victory, he was more likely to have fallen for a deception by his opponent, since Antonius could now easily move along the coast west to Gaul with his soldiers.

As a result, Decimus Brutus made fairly discouraging reports to the Senate. He intended to meet Lucius Munatius Plancus , who was waiting for him near Cularo (now Grenoble ) . Together with this governor of Gallia comata, who commanded five legions, he wanted to try to prevent Antonius from associating himself with Marcus Aemilius Lepidus. The latter administered the provinces of Gallia Narbonensis and Hispania citerior at that time . In Vercellae , Decimus Brutus wrote on May 21, 43 BC A letter to Cicero complained about having to get along with poorly equipped, inexperienced recruits instead of having battle-tested soldiers subordinated to him by the Senate - but who had stayed with Octavian - at their disposal. However, he only heard consolation from Cicero.

On May 24, 43, Decimus Brutus wrote another letter to Cicero in Eporedia, mentioning that a malicious joke allegedly uttered by the speaker was very much discussed in Octavian's circle. Accordingly, Cicero had noticed about the Caesar heir that the young man had to be praised, honored and promoted. The joke lay in the ambiguity of the Latin word tollere used by Cicero, which can mean “to convey ” but also to “send to death”. In response to this play on words, Octavian replied that he knew how to be careful about such a promotion. In the same letter, Decimus Brutus also reported to Cicero with concern about the great annoyance of the veterans at the Senate, because Octavian was not supposed to be able to become a member of the ten-man commission responsible for distributing the land to the soldiers to be released. Therefore, the Caesar murderer wanted to stay in Italy with his army for the time being to observe the threatening situation for the Senate.

Meanwhile, on May 29, 43 BC, Antonius used The fact that his legions and those of Lepidus did not want to fight each other, to overthrow the governor and to unite their troops. This further strengthened Antony's military situation.


Upon hearing of Antonius' alliance with Lepidus, Decimus Brutus decided to move with his 10 legions to Gaul and to unite with Plancus. He crossed the Alps , paying the Salasser people large sums to pass through their territory. When he was still on the march to Plancus, he wrote on June 3, 43 BC. His last surviving letter to Cicero, betraying his anxious condition. Around June 9th, he and his troops joined the army of Plancus near Cularo. Both generals, however, were militarily inferior to Antonius together, isolated and did not receive the hoped-for reinforcements. Their spirits were low and they noticed that Octavian was definitely beginning to turn away from the Republican party. Therefore, they were the last military pillar of the Senate in the western part of the Roman Empire. But they knew that their soldiers were reluctant to fight against former comrades who now served with Antonius and Lepidus. So they stayed in the camp for two months.

Finally, Octavian and his army moved against Rome and, on August 19, 43 BC, forced His election as consul by a military coup. He had his cousin and co-consul Quintus Pedius pass a law to try the murderers of Caesar ( Lex Pedia ). All the conspirators fell victim to the death penalty and, since they were volatile, were for the time being ostracized. Decimus Brutus was sentenced right after Marcus Brutus and Gaius Cassius. On the other hand, Octavian had the ostracism of Antony and Lepidus lifted and thus initiated an alliance with them that would lead to the second triumvirate . Shortly after the overthrow in Rome, Gaius Asinius Pollio , governor of Hispania ulterior , joined Antonius and Lepidus and set the course for Plancus to join them and separate from Decimus Brutus.

In his distress, Decimus Brutus tried to escape to his relative Marcus Brutus in Macedonia. Since Octavian's troops were blocking the march through northern Italy, he wanted to get to the east on a more northerly route across the Alpine regions. But now the legions of recruits left him first and switched to Octavian's side, and soon afterwards the veterans, whom Antonius was able to incorporate into his armed forces. So Decimus Brutus only had to flee accompanied by Gallic horsemen, but his entourage quickly became even smaller. Running on in Celtic clothing, he finally fell into the hands of a Helvetic Celtic chief who was probably called Camulos at a place that could not be precisely located (perhaps on the Col de Jougne ) . He apparently received him in a friendly manner, but secretly informed Antonius of his capture. Antony renounced an encounter with the Caesar murderer, but ordered his killing and the sending of his severed head.

Those sent by Antonius to carry out the murder order killed Decimus Brutus in Camulos' house. According to the Roman historian Titus Livius , it was a Sequan named Capenus who carried out the execution. Capenus probably belonged to the men of Furius , who after Valerius Maximus was the leader of the captors sent by Antonius. A Servius Terentius tried in vain to save his friend Brutus by pretending to be him. According to Cassius Dio, Decimus Brutus himself behaved very cowardly in the face of death, but a Helvius Blasio had voluntarily passed away before him and had shown him how to die bravely. Antonius had the head of Decimus Brutus brought to him buried. To the delight of the Caesarians, after Gaius Trebonius, another leading murderer of Caesar had - probably in September 43 BC. - atone for his deed with his life.

Despite the extensive source material available about Decimus Brutus, including some surviving letters from his hand to Cicero, relatively little is known about his personality.



  1. ZB Plutarch , Caesar 64, 1; 66, 2 and ö .; Cassius Dio 44, 14, 3; among others
  2. ^ Caesar, Gallic War 7, 9, 1 and 7, 87, 1.
  3. Cicero, Epistulae ad familiares 11, 14, 3; Epistulae ad Brutum 1, 15, 8.
  4. Friedrich Münzer : Junius 55a). In: Paulys Realencyclopadie der classischen Antiquity Science (RE). Supplement V, Stuttgart 1931, column 370.
  5. ^ Caesar, Gallic War 3, 11, 5 - 3, 16, 4; Cassius Dio 39, 40, 1-39, 43, 5; Orosius 6, 8, 7-16.
  6. ^ Caesar, Gallic War 7, 9, 1f. and 7, 87, 1.
  7. Cicero, Epistulae ad familares 8, 7, 2.
  8. Cicero, Epistulae ad familiares 11, 8, 1.
  9. ^ Caesar, Civil War 1, 36, 4f .; 1, 56, 3.
  10. ^ Caesar, Civil War 1, 56, 1–1, 58, 4; Cassius Dio 41, 21, 3.
  11. ^ Caesar, Civil War 2, 3, 1 - 2, 7, 3; Cassius Dio 41, 25, 1.
  12. ^ Caesar, Civil War 2:22, 1-4; Cassius Dio 41, 25, 2.
  13. ^ Wolfgang Will : Brutus [I 12]. In: The New Pauly (DNP). Volume 6, Metzler, Stuttgart 1999, ISBN 3-476-01476-2 , Col. 61 f .; Friedrich Münzer: Iunius 55a). In: Paulys Realencyclopadie der classischen Antiquity Science (RE). Supplement V, Stuttgart 1931, Col. 371.
  14. Titus Livius , periochae 114.
  15. Plutarch, Antonius 11, 2.
  16. Nikolaos of Damascus , Life of Augustus 22:77; 28, 112; Appian , Civil Wars 3, 2; 3, 16; 3.98; Cassius Dio 44, 14, 4; 45, 9, 3; 46, 53, 1; Suetonius , Augustus 10, 1; among others
  17. ^ Suetonius, Caesar 83, 2; Plutarch, Caesar 64, 1; Appian, Civil Wars 2, 143; Cassius Dio 44, 35, 2.
  18. Friedrich Münzer : Junius 55a). In: Paulys Realencyclopadie der classischen Antiquity Science (RE). Supplement V, Stuttgart 1931, Col. 373 f.
  19. Plutarch, Brutus 12, 5f.
  20. ^ Appian, Civil Wars 2, 115.
  21. ↑ In detail Plutarch ( Caesar 64, 1ff.) And Nikolaos of Damascus ( Leben des Augustus 23, 84; 24, 87); see. also Suetonius, Caesar 81, 4; Appian, Civil Wars 2, 115; Cassius Dio 44, 18, 1f.
  22. Plutarch, Caesar 66, 2.
  23. Plutarch, Brutus 17: 1; on this Luciano Canfora , Caesar, the democratic dictator , German Munich 2001, ISBN 3-406-46640-0 , p. 322 and p. 428, note 25.
  24. Luciano Canfora, Caesar, the democratic dictator , pp. 328f .; Helmut Halfmann , Marcus Antonius , Darmstadt 2011, ISBN 978-3-89678-696-8 , p. 64.
  25. Cicero, Epistulae ad familiares 11, 1; Friedrich Münzer: Junius 55a). In: Paulys Realencyclopadie der classischen Antiquity Science (RE). Supplement V, Stuttgart 1931, Col. 375 f.
  26. See Cicero, Epistulae ad Atticum 14, 13, 2.
  27. Cicero, Epistulae ad familiares 11, 4.
  28. ^ Appian, Civil Wars 3:27 ; 3, 30; 3, 55; Cicero, Epistulae ad Atticum 14, 14, 4; 15, 17; Cassius Dio 45.9; among others
  29. ^ Appian, Civil Wars 3, 27.
  30. Cicero, Epistulae ad familiares 11, 7, 3; 5. Philippine discourse 36; Appian, Civil Wars 3, 6; 3, 49; 3, 59.
  31. ^ Appian, Civil Wars 3:49 .
  32. Cicero, Epistulae ad familiares 11, 7, 2.
  33. ^ Cicero, 3rd Philippine discourse 8 and 37; Epistulae ad familiares 11, 6, 2.
  34. Cicero, 3rd Philippine Discourse 12 and 37ff .; 4. Philippine discourse 8f .; Epistulae ad familiares 11, 6, 2f.
  35. ^ Appian, Civil Wars 3:49 ; Livy, periochae 117; Florus 2, 15, 3; Orosius 6, 18, 3.
  36. ^ Cicero, 5th Philippine Speech 36.
  37. ^ Cicero, 5th Philippine Speech 6; 7. Philippine discourse 26; 8. Philippine speech 20f.
  38. ^ Cassius Dio 46, 36, 1 and 46, 38, 3f.
  39. Cicero, Epistulae ad familiares 12, 6, 2; 11, 13, 2 and ö.
  40. ^ Frontinus , Strategemata 3, 13, 7f .; 3, 14, 3f .; Cassius Dio 46, 36, 4f.
  41. Cicero, Epistulae ad Brutum 1, 2, 2; 1, 4, 1; Epistulae ad familiares 11, 14, 1.
  42. Cassius Dio 46, 40, 1f .; Velleius Paterculus 2, 62, 4.
  43. Friedrich Münzer: Junius 55a). In: Paulys Realencyclopadie der classischen Antiquity Science (RE). Supplement V, Stuttgart 1931, column 380.
  44. Cicero, Epistulae ad familiares 11, 13, 1 and 11, 10, 4; see. Appian, Civil Wars 3, 73 and Orosius 6, 18, 5.
  45. Cicero, Epistulae ad familiares 11, 13, 2.
  46. ^ Livius, periochae 119; Velleius 2, 62, 4.
  47. ^ Appian, Civil Wars 3, 74; 3.76; 3.80; Cassius Dio 46, 40, 1f; 46, 47, 3; 46, 50, 1; among others
  48. ^ Appian, Civil Wars 3, 76; Cicero, Epistulae ad familiares 11, 14, 2 and ö.
  49. ^ Cicero, Epistulae ad familiares 11, 9f.
  50. Cicero, Epistulae ad familiares 11, 13, 3f .; Friedrich Münzer: Junius 55a). In: Paulys Realencyclopadie der classischen Antiquity Science (RE). Supplement V, Stuttgart 1931, Col. 382.
  51. Cicero, Epistulae ad familiares 11, 19 and 11, 14.
  52. Cicero, Epistulae ad familiares 11, 20, 1; see. Velleius 2, 62,6 and Suetonius, Augustus 12; on this Jochen Bleicken , Augustus , Berlin 1998, ISBN 3-8286-0027-1 , p. 118.
  53. ^ Cicero, Epistulae ad familiares 11, 20, 1ff.
  54. Cicero, Epistulae ad familiares 10, 23, 2f .; Appian, Civil Wars 3, 83f .; Plutarch, Antonius 18, 1-6; Cassius Dio 46, 51, 1-4.
  55. ^ Strabon , Geographika 4, 205.
  56. Cicero, Epistulae ad familiares 11, 26.
  57. ^ Livius, periochae 120; Cassius Dio 46, 53, 2.
  58. ^ Appian, Civil Wars 3, 97; Cassius Dio 46, 53, 2f .; Livy, periochae 120; Velleius 2, 64, 1.
  59. Archive link ( Memento of the original from April 2, 2012 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.  @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  60. ^ Appian, Civil War 3, 97f .; among others
  61. Velleius 2, 64, 1.
  62. ^ Livius, periochae 120; see. Orosius 6, 18, 7.
  63. Valerius Maximus 4, 7, 6 and 9, 13, 3.
  64. Cassius Dio 46, 53, 3; see. Valerius Maximus 9, 13, 3.
  65. ^ Appian, Civil Wars 3, 98; Velleius 2, 64, 1f.
  66. Jochen Bleicken, Augustus , p. 136.