Glitter-throated Amazonia when brooding
|( Gmelin, JF , 1788)|
The glitter-throated amazily ( Amazilia fimbriata ), sometimes also called glitter amazily , is a species of bird in the hummingbird family (Trochilidae). The species has a large range that includes the South American countries Colombia , Venezuela , Guyana , Suriname , French Guiana , Brazil , Ecuador , Peru and Bolivia . The IUCN assesses the population as Least Concern .
The glitter-throated amazilie reaches a body length of about 8 to 12 cm with a weight of 3.5 to 6.2 g. The male has a straight, medium-sized bill, with the upper bill black and the lower bill pale pink with black spots. The top is bronze green. The neck and chest glitter golden green, rarely with a turquoise sheen. The middle of the lower chest and the belly are white. The under tail-coverts are white with a brownish center. The tail is bronze-green to blackish bronze. The females have a white subterminal band on the throat feathers. The outermost control springs have green spots. Juvenile glitter-throated amacillas are less white on the belly and so the color is more grayish-brown.
Behavior and nutrition
Usually the birds fly to flowering trees in the lower strata very close to the ground. Often they sit there and take their nectar at the same time . They get their nectar from a wide variety of plants. As trapliners, they regularly fly to very specific, scattered flowers in quick succession. The spectrum of plants ranges from bromeliads to legumes , passion flowers , heliconias , mallow plants , silver trees , cactus plants and reddish plants . In gardens you can often see them on herb-like flowers such as Malvaviscus , Abutilon , Genipa or Stachytarpheta . In addition, the flower nectar of Inga , citrus plants and Thunbergia is one of their food sources. In addition, it hunts insects such as smaller flies from the genus of the two-winged species and beetles.
The call, which the birds usually only emit at dusk, is a continuous repetition of individual bright-sounding, lively tzi ... tzi ... trz sounds. During the day, in territorial defensive flight, they utter a repeating high and thin tsii.tsi-tsi-tsitsitsi or a tsli-tsli-tsli-tsli . The call of bright tsi sounds varies with that of a gentle chirping.
distribution and habitat
The birds are usually found in open to semi-open areas with little vegetation. Usually they are not found inside or near dense forest. Their habitat varies from dry and moist forests to forest edges, gallery forests , secondary vegetation, open forests, savannas, scrub to plantations and gardens. In central Brazil they are typical inhabitants of caatinga and low vegetation known as capoeira. They can also be found in the mangroves along the Atlantic coast. They stay at altitudes between sea level and 1100 meters, but mostly below 500 meters.
The goblet-shaped nest is placed on a horizontal branch, rarely between a fork of a branch. The nest is made of plant wool, cobwebs and lichen. It is usually less than 4 meters from the ground, occasionally less than 1 meter, and very rarely up to 8 meters high. A nest of the subspecies A. f. nigricauda was discovered in undergrowth and consisted of cattails - and bromeliads kapok and a mixture of different leaves. The nests are approx. 60 mm high. The outer radius is approx. 40 mm, the inner radius approx. 22 mm with a nest depth of approx. 18 mm. Building the nest takes about 6 to 12 days. The two eggs that are laid are approximately 13.5 × 8.8 mm in size. The incubation period is 14 to 17 days. The nestlings fledge at around 18 to 22 days. The glitter-throated amazily can brood up to two times per year. In Guyana and northeastern Brazil it breeds all year round, in central Brazil from November to February and in eastern Brazil from November to April.
The subspecies A. f. tephrocephala regularly migrates along the Atlantic coast and on this way reaches Rio Grande do Sul . The other subspecies only seem to move locally, but there is too little research material on this.
There are seven known subspecies:
- Amazilia fimbriata elegantissima Todd , 1942 occurs in northeast Colombia and in the north and west of Venezuela. It differs in its copper-colored to purple under tail-coverts.
- Amazilia fimbriata fimbriata ( Gmelin, JF , 1788) is common in northeastern Venezuela, the Guyanas, and northern Brazil.
- Amazilia fimbriata apicalis ( Gould , 1861) occurs in eastern Colombia. This subspecies has a significantly longer beak.
- Amazilia fimbriata fluviatilis ( Gould , 1861) is widespread in southeast Colombia and eastern Ecuador. This subspecies has a turquoise to bluish shimmering throat and a significantly longer beak.
- Amazilia fimbriata laeta ( Hartert , 1900) occurs in northeastern Peru and western Brazil. This subspecies has a turquoise to bluish shimmering throat.
- Amazilia fimbriata nigricauda ( Elliot, DG , 1878) occurs from eastern Bolivia to central Brazil. This subspecies has pure white under tail-coverts and a greenish-black to bluish-black tail.
- Amazilia fimbriata tephrocephala ( Vieillot , 1818) occurs in southeastern Brazil. This subspecies has pure white under tail-coverts and a greenish-black to bluish-black tail. It is significantly larger than the other subspecies.
Amazilia fimbriata obscuricauda Zimmer, JT & Phelps, WH , 1951 is now considered a synonym of Amazilia fimbriata elegantissima . Amazilia fimbriata alia Zimmer, JT , 1950 and Thaumatias maculicaudus Gould , 1861 are synonyms of the nominate form . Amazilia distans Wetmore & Phelps Jr. , 1956 is now considered to be a hybrid of the glitter -throated amacilia and the white-chin sapphire hummingbird ( Hylocharis cyanus ( Vieillot , 1818)).
Etymology and history of research
Johann Friedrich Gmelin described the glitter-throated amazily under the name Trochilus fimbriatus . He gave Cayenne as the location of the type specimen . In 1843 René Primevère Lesson introduced the new generic name Amazilia for the gold - masked hummingbird , the striped - tailed hummingbird , the cinnamon-bellied hummingbird (syn .: Ornysmia cinnamomea ), the blue-throated star hummingbird (syn .: Ornymia rufula ) and the longuemare sun nymph . He did not mention the rust-bellied amazilia ( Amazilia amazilia ). The name comes from a novel by Jean-François Marmontel , who wrote about an Inca heroine named Amazili in Les Incas, Ou La Destruction De L'empire Du Pérou . The species name "fimbriata" is derived from the Latin "fimbriatus, fimbriae" for "fringed, fringed, bordering". "Elegantissima" is the Latin word for "very fine". »Apicalis« means » apical , pointed towards«. "Fluviatilis" can be derived from the Latin "fluvius, fluere" for "river, flow". “Laeta” has its origin in the Latin “laetus” for “bright, joyful”. "Nigricauda" is a Latin combination of "niger" and "cauda" for "black" and "tail". "Tephrocephala" is derived from the Greek "tephros τεφρος " for "ash-colored" and "cephalos κεφαλη " for "-headed".
»Distans« is derived from the Latin »distantis, distare« for »distant, apart«. "Obscuricauda" is a Latin combination of "obscurus" and "cauda" for "dark" and "tail". "Maculicaudus" is made up of "macula" and "cauda", where "macula" means "spot". Finally, “alia” is derived from “alius” for “another, different”.
- André-Alexander Weller , Guy Maxwell Kirwan, Peter Boesman in: Josep del Hoyo , Andrew Elliott, Jordi Sargatal, David Andrew Christie , Eduardo de Juana: Glittering-throated Emerald (Amazilia fimbriata). In: Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive . Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.
- Walter Edmond Clyde Todd: List of the Hummingbirds in the Collection of the Carnegie Museum . In: Annals of the Carnegie Museum . tape 29 , no. 12 , 1942, pp. 271-370 ( biodiversitylibrary.org ).
- Johann Friedrich Gmelin: Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, Secundum Classes, Ordines, Genera, Species, Cum Characteribus, Differentiis, Synonymis, Locis . tape 1 . Georg Emanuel Beer, Leipzig 1788 ( biodiversitylibrary.org ).
- John Gould: An introduction to the Trochilidae, or family of humming-birds . Taylor & Francis, London 1861 ( biodiversitylibrary.org ).
- Ernst Hartert: General and special about hummingbirds (explanations, additions and additions to the 9th delivery "Trochilidae" of the animal kingdom.) . In: Journal for Ornithology (= 5 ). tape 48 , no. 3 , 1900, p. 350-368 ( biodiversitylibrary.org ).
- Daniel Giraud Elliot: Notes on the Trochilidae. The genus of Thaumatias . In: The Ibis (= 4 ). tape 2 , no. 5 , 1878, p. 35-53 ( biodiversitylibrary.org ).
- Louis Pierre Vieillot: Nouveau dictionnaire d'histoire naturelle, appliquée aux arts, à l'agriculture, à l'économie rurale et domestique, à la médecine, etc. Par une société de naturalistes et d'agriculteurs . tape 23 . Deterville, Paris 1818 ( biodiversitylibrary.org ).
- John Todd Zimmer : Studies of Peruvian birds. No. 59, The genera Polytmus, Leucippus, and Amazilia . In: American Museum novitates . No. 1475 , 1950, pp. 1–27 (English, digitallibrary.amnh.org [PDF; 2.5 MB ]).
- John Todd Zimmer, William Henry Phelps: New subspecies of birds from Surinam and Venezuela . In: American Museum novitates . No. 1511 , 1951, pp. 1–10 ( digitallibrary.amnh.org [PDF; 1.1 MB ]).
- James A. Jobling: Helm Dictionary of Scientific Bird Names . Christopher Helm, London 2010, ISBN 978-1-4081-2501-4 .
- René Primevère Lesson , Prosper Garnot: Voyage autour du monde exécuté par Ordre du Roi, sur la Corvette de Sa Majesté, La Coquille pendant les années 1822, 1823, 1824 et 1825, sous le ministère et conformément aux instructions de SEM Marquis de Clermont- Tonnerre, ministre de la marine; et publié sou les auspices de son excellence Mgr le Cte de Chabrol, ministre de la Marine et des colonies, par ML Dupppery, capitaine de frégate. chevalier de Saint-Louis et membre de la legion d'honaire, commandant de l'expédition . tape 1 : Zoology , No. 2 . Arthus-Bertrand, Paris 1828 ( biodiversitylibrary.org ).
- René Primevère Lesson: Complément à l'histoire naturelle des oiseaux-mouches . In: L'Echo du Monde Savant (= 2 ). tape 10 , no. 32 , 1843, pp. 755-758 ( biodiversitylibrary.org ).
- Alexander Wetmore, William Henry Phelps, Jr .: Further additions to the list of birds of Venezuela . In: Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington . tape 69 , 1956, pp. 1-10 ( biodiversitylibrary.org ).
- Gary Russell Graves: Diagnosis of hybrid hummingbirds (Aves: Trochilidae). 5. Probable hybrid origin of Amazilia distans Wetmore & Phelps. In: Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington . tape 111 , no. 1 , 1998, p. 28-34 ( biodiversitylibrary.org ).
- Amazilia fimbriata inthe IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2017.2. Listed by: BirdLife International, 2016. Retrieved March 2, 2018.
- BirdLife International: Species Factsheet - Glittering-throated Emerald ( Amazilia fimbriata ) . Retrieved March 2, 2018.
- Videos, photos and sound recordings of Glittering-throated Emerald (Amazilia fimbriata) in the Internet Bird Collection
- Glitter-throated Amazonia ( Amazilia fimbriata ) at Avibase; accessed on March 2, 2018.
- Amazilia fimbriata in the Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS)
- xeno-canto: Sound recordings - Glittering-throated Emerald ( Amazilia fimbriata )
- Glitter-throated Amazonia (Amazilia fimbriata) in the Encyclopedia of Life . Retrieved March 2, 2018.
- André-Alexander Weller u. a.
- IOC World Bird List Hummingbirds
- Walter Edmond Clyde Todd, p. 323.
- Johann Friedrich Gmelin, p. 493.
- John Gould (1861), p. 154.
- Ernst Hartert, p. 360.
- Daniel Giraud Elliot, pp. 37, 47.
- Louis Pierre Vieillot, p. 430.
- John Todd Zimmer et al. a (1951), pp. 9-10.
- John Todd Zimmer (1950), pp. 17-20.
- John Gould (1861), pp. 154-155.
- Alexander Wetmore et al. a, p. 4.
- Gary Russell Graves, pp. 28-34
- René Primevère Lesson u. a. (1843), column 757
- René Primevère Lesson u. a. (1826–1830), p. 683 (plate 31, figure 3)
- James A. Jobling, p. 159.
- James A. Jobling, p. 144.
- James A. Jobling, p. 51.
- James A. Jobling, p. 162.
- James A. Jobling, p. 217.
- James A. Jobling, p. 271.
- James A. Jobling, p. 381.
- James A. Jobling, p. 137.
- James A. Jobling, p. 278.
- James A. Jobling, p. 236.
- James A. Jobling, p. 41.