The Moravian Slogans consist of a collection of short Bible texts from the Old and New Testaments . They are considered to be non-denominational because they are written for all Christians, regardless of their denomination.
The creation of the slogans is thanks to Nikolaus Ludwig von Zinzendorf , who gave the brethren the first slogan on the way in the usual “singing hour” on May 3, 1728: “Love drove him here, love tore him from the throne, and I did shouldn't love him? ”From this point on, a brother would go to each of the 32 houses in the town every morning and recite the slogan of the day, not only exchanging slogans, but also practicing real pastoral care . The brother in question presented the intercessions and concerns of the congregation in the singing class that evening. With the publication of the first printed version in 1731, the daily motto was no longer drawn every day, but for a whole year in Herrnhut . Christian David described this drawing of the slogans for the whole year in 1735 in such a way that at the end of the year an extraordinary meeting takes place in the presence of the elders, with brothers and sisters of every class being present and every daily slogan being drawn. The slogans in the sense of Count von Zinzendorf: "Slogans are what one calls the slogan in war , from which brothers and sisters can see how they can walk towards a goal." . The other form was a hymnal verse with reference to individual Bible passages, which was later dropped. It is noteworthy that many readers of the solutions have come to a daily Bible reading by reading them.
The Moravian Slogans during the National Socialist era
In 1943 the allocation of paper was refused, so that the Moravian Brethren received a generous paper donation from the brothers in Sweden. However, even after the paper had arrived, the necessary printing permission was not granted. Only after the Brethren asked the Swedish researcher Sven Hedin for help and he wrote a letter to Joseph Goebbels stating how much he cared about the appearance of the slogans, was permission to print the slogans in October 1943 for the years 1943, 1944 and 1945 granted. In response, Goebbels wrote to Sven Hedin on April 1, 1943:
“In response to your letter of March 20th, as in the previous year, I am ready to approve the production of the 'Slogans and Teaching Texts of the Brethren' despite the very limited printing capacities in Germany. I am particularly pleased to be able to fulfill a personal wish for you. "
The Moravian Slogans in the GDR era
Of the 720,000 copies in 1946 for the whole of Germany, 145,000 were intended for the Soviet occupation zone. In 1947 and 1948 there were 320,000 of 1.1 million copies in total, whereby the circulation was not limited by demand but by the lack of paper. In the GDR the slogans could then appear in a print run of 350,000 copies. State permission to print and import the paper for the following year was not granted until the end of the year until the 1950s. Then censors, who had been assigned to the main administration of publishing and bookshops at the Ministry of Culture since 1963, examined the manuscripts two years in advance. The costs for the expert work had to be borne by the Evangelische Verlagsanstalt Leipzig . For example, Gerhard Bassarak criticized verses of a song in the slogans in 1972:
“Even verse 1 with the call to increase 'justice and faithfulness with us'  is sufficiently misleading. Verse 2 but ideologically even more problematic: freedom, peace, law. "
There were probably no direct bans on verses that had already been drawn. Nevertheless, there were repeated objections to the mention of " godless " mentioned in biblical contexts , which the congregation took into account by removing these offensive sayings from the lot pool. Third texts were cleaned by the censors of "overly western or decadent tendencies" and "[f] romme [n] complaints about the world". The Ministry of Culture did not always follow the reports submitted. The occupation of the position of the solution processor with the state-loyal theologian Wolfgang Caffier , then in 1988 with Christian Weber, who had worked with the Stasi , had a direct influence on the design of the third-party texts . On the other hand, the publisher exercised a "decisive preliminary censorship [...] thanks to relevant experience and in order to clear up 'misunderstandings' in advance." The clear awareness of the problem in the Brethren was contrasted with a limited scope for action, which was shaped by the contradiction between constitutional freedom of the press and actual censorship and self-censorship .
By drawing lots , an Old Testament verse from a collection of 1824 verses is determined for each day of the year , which the reader can use as a motto or good thought for the day. A so-called “teaching text” is selected from the New Testament by an employee of the Moravian Brethren , which is usually directly or thematically related to the drawn Old Testament verse. A suitable song or prayer, the “third text”, is also selected by the employees.
Are also attached
- a reading that relates to the church year ( church year reading );
- a seminal reading of the Ecumenical Study Group for Bible Reading , which leads through the entire New Testament in four years and through the Old Testament in eight years.
The annual motto - a biblical word for the whole year - is reported in the motto, but does not come from the tradition of the Brethren. It is determined in advance and is the responsibility of the Ecumenical Study Group for Bible Reading .
The solutions appear in various print editions and on electronic media. In addition to the normal edition and the large print edition, there has also been a special edition for young people with space for notes since 2009. In addition, a new website was launched especially for this target group. There is also an original language edition in which the Old Testament verse in Hebrew (possibly Aramaic ) and the New Testament verse in Greek can be read, supplemented by a lexical-grammatical language key as a translation aid. Johannes Luithle is co-editor . The daily, weekly and monthly solution is also provided as an RSS feed.
Since 2013, the solutions are also in Braille (alternatively in plain language with explanations) and on CD in DAISY format (in addition to continuous Bible reading and daily prayer from the devotional book a sun and shield. Protestant daily calendar ) from the Protestant Federation of Protestant Blind and Pastoral care for the visually impaired (DeBeSS). There is also free software available for displaying the solutions on computers and mobile devices. In 2014, the Moravian Brethren in cooperation with Friedrich Reinhardt Verlag published the daily solutions as an app. Due to license fees, this became chargeable, and free apps published by free developers could no longer be used. These changes and technical inadequacies in the new app have led to sometimes violent reactions from numerous users, especially in the customer reviews of the app stores - coupled with fundamental questions on the subject of commercialization - there was criticism.
The slogans are spread throughout Christianity worldwide and are being translated into many languages (61 languages in 2018). If possible, the Bible texts are selected from the Bible editions in the respective language; in Germany the texts follow the current Luther translation. The third text is chosen from the songs and the piety of the respective cultural area. In some editions there are two more song verses, one each for the solution and the teaching text. Since 2016, the slogans have also been available in Aramaic - the language of Jesus Christ - with an initial edition of 10,000.
The solutions appear in German in over a million copies. Other languages are:
|language||Name of the solutions||since|
|Afrikaans||Teksboek van die Broederkerk|
|Albanian||Fjalët e ditës||2005|
|American||Daily Texts of the Moravian Church - Daily Watchwords||1743|
|Arabic||آيات كتابية يومية للغذاء الروحي||2000|
|Basaa||MÌNTƆLƆ̂K MI BIƁÀŊGA NÌ MÌNLÒŊ MI KAÀT PUBI||1980|
|Bemba||Amashiwi Ya Kubelenga Cila Bushiku||2010|
|Bulgarian||С Божието слово всеки ден - лозинги|
|Chinese||Christian Watch-Word - Hong Kong Edition||1953|
|Danish||Guds ord til hver dag - Løsenbogen||1888|
|German||The daily slogans and doctrinal texts of the Brethren||1731|
|English||Daily Watchwords (The Moravian Text Book)||1740|
|Farsi||راه حل هاى روزانه||2014|
|French||Paroles et Textes||1741|
|Greek (New Testament)||Original language edition slogans (together with Biblical Hebrew)||1995|
|Hebrew (Old Testament)||Original language edition slogans (together with Biblical Greek)||1995|
|Indonesian||Puji dan janji||1981|
|Italian||Letture Quotidiane Bibliche dei fratelli moravi. Un giorno, una parola|
|Korean||말씀, 그리고 하루 헤른 후트 기도서||2009|
|Miskito||Yua Bani Bila Nani|
|Plattdüütsch||Slogans in Low German||2016|
|Polish||Z Biblią na co dzień|
|Russian||Слово Божье на каждый день ( Eng . "God's word for every day")|
|Sranan Tongo ( Surinamese )||Bijbel-Almanac ofoe Dei Boekoe|
|Timbuku ( Mbukushu )|
|Tok Pisin||Givim Mipela Kaikai Bilong Dispela De||2016|
|Czech||Hesla Jednoty bratrské||1758|
|Hungarian||Útmutató - A Biblia rendszeres olvasásához|
- Heinz Renkewitz : The solutions. Origin and history of a devotional book. 2., ext. Edition. Wittig, Hamburg 1967, .
- Evangelical Brothers Unity : The slogans of the Moravian Brethren. History - origin - distribution - use. Comenius Buchhandlung, Herrnhut 2002, ISBN 3-9807197-0-7 ; Reinhardt, Basel 2002, ISBN 3-7245-1253-8 .
- Hedwig Richter : Pietism in Socialism. The Moravian Brethren in the GDR (= Critical Studies in History . Volume 186 ). Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen 2009, ISBN 978-3-525-37007-0 , p. 335–346 ( limited preview in the Google book search - also Univ.-Diss. Cologne, 2008).
- Evangelical Brethren Unity: The slogans. A magazine on the slogans of the Moravian Brethren. Special edition of the Moravian Messenger. Herrnhut 2010, .
- Peter Zimmerling : The slogans: A success story through the centuries. 1st edition, new edition Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen 2014, ISBN 978-3-525-63053-2 ( scan of the online edition in the Google book search).
- Official website of the solutions
- Languages in which the solutions appear
- Solutions for young people
- Official website of the Evangelical Brothers Union
- The only online version for deaf people is available at Combib .
- God's Word for Every Day - The Solutions. Matthias Brender in conversation with Peter Zimmerling . Director: Fabian Tobies, 25:07 min., Germany 2014. In: Bibel-TV . 5th January 2015
- Graf Zinzendorf Foundation: The slogans. In: zinzendorf.de, accessed on February 14, 2015.
- God's word for every day - the slogans for 2016 are fixed. (No longer available online.) Evangelical Lutheran Church of Saxony , May 9, 2013, archived from the original on July 15, 2013 ; accessed on April 14, 2018 .
- See also Peter Zimmerling: The slogans: A success story through the centuries. 1st edition, new edition Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen 2014, ISBN 978-3-525-63053-2 , p. 44 f. ( Scan the online edition in the Google book search).
- Hedwig Richter : Pietism in Socialism. The Moravian Brethren in the GDR (= Critical Studies in History . Volume 186 ). Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen 2009, ISBN 978-3-525-37007-0 , p. 337 ( limited preview in the Google book search - also Univ.-Diss. Cologne, 2008).
- Hedwig Richter: Pietism in Socialism. The Moravian Brethren in the GDR (= Critical Studies in History . Volume 186 ). Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen 2009, ISBN 978-3-525-37007-0 , p. 335 f . ( limited preview in the Google book search - also Univ.-Diss. Cologne, 2008). See also p. 102
- Expert opinion by G. Bassarak on Losungen 1972, September 12, 1970, BA DR 1 / 2537a; quoted n. Hedwig Richter: Pietism in socialism. P. 343 and note 266 ( limited preview in Google Book search).
- Hedwig Richter: Pietism in Socialism. The Moravian Brethren in the GDR (= Critical Studies in History . Volume 186 ). Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen 2009, ISBN 978-3-525-37007-0 , p. 343 ( limited preview in the Google book search - also Univ.-Diss. Cologne, 2008).
- Hedwig Richter: Pietism in Socialism. S. 343: “On a third text for 1970 Bassarak remarked: 'Prayer for the heathen, the dark places of the world (GDR?), Drive away the night of error (of Marxism ?), And of fear (of it?). - Change! '"( Limited preview in Google Book search)
- Hedwig Richter: Pietism in Socialism. The Moravian Brethren in the GDR (= Critical Studies in History . Volume 186 ). Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen 2009, ISBN 978-3-525-37007-0 , p. 345 ( limited preview in the Google book search - also Univ.-Diss. Cologne, 2008).
- Solutions as RSS feed. (XML) (No longer available online.) In: hradetzkys.de. January 28, 2016, archived from the original on January 28, 2016 ; accessed on December 6, 2018 .
- Solutions. In: debess.de, accessed on December 7, 2018.
- New solutions app started problematically. In: losungen.de. January 3, 2014, accessed December 7, 2018 .
- Languages in which the solutions appear. In: losungen.de/weltweit, accessed on February 11, 2018 ("Worldwide in 60 languages"; the number (61) increases if the English (British or American) editions are counted individually).
- Answers in Aramaic. Evangelical Church in Württemberg . April 2, 2016, accessed April 16, 2016.
- Albanian. In: losungen.de, accessed on June 6, 2017.
- In various editions: z. B. The Moravian Daily Texts in the USA and Germany, the Daily Watchwords in Great Britain, the Daily Texts in South Africa and India. English. In: losungen.de, accessed on June 6, 2017.
- In Standard Arabic , ed. from the Evangelical Lutheran Church in Jordan and the Holy Land . Entry in WorldCat under OCLC 891689451 . - Since 2015 there has also been an edition in “Arabic for Egypt”, ed. of the Presbyterian-Coptic Church in Egypt (Nile Synod) . See Arabic slogans in Egypt. In: herrnhuter-projekte-weltweit.de, accessed on January 17, 2017.
- Over 35 years of Bible translation . In: herrnhuter-projekte-weltweit.de. Retrieved on June 6, 2017 (with title page and excerpt from the 2013 solutions).
- Basaa. In: losungen.de, accessed on February 12, 2018.
- Bemba. In: losungen.de, accessed on June 6, 2017.
- Bulgaria increases slogans . In: herrnhuter-projekte-weltweit.de. Retrieved June 6, 2017 .
- Chinese. In: losungen.de, accessed on June 6, 2017 (in traditional characters ).
- Danish. In: losungen.de, accessed on June 6, 2017.
- issues. In: losungen.de. Retrieved December 7, 2018 .
- Persian / Farsi. In: losungen.de, accessed on June 6, 2017. Online edition: PDF; 1.14 MB.
- Solutions in the Persian language. In: schwarzwaelder-bote.de. January 21, 2015, accessed January 17, 2017.
- Finland. In: losungen.de, accessed on February 12, 2018.
- French. Paroles et Textes. In: losungen.de, accessed on February 12, 2018.
- Georgia. Georgian slogans. In: losungen.de, accessed on February 12, 2018.
- Indonesia. Puji dan janji. In: losungen.de, accessed on February 12, 2018.
- Solutions 2013 for the first time in Kirundi. In: losungen.de, accessed on June 6, 2017.
- Korean. In: losungen.de, accessed on June 6, 2017.
- Croatian. Lozinke. In: losungen.de, accessed on June 6, 2017.
- Latvian. Lozungi - fraternal church. In: losungen.de, accessed on June 6, 2017.
- Dutch. Dagtksten. In: losungen.de, accessed on February 12, 2018.
- German. In: losungen.de, accessed on June 6, 2017.
- Solutions in Low German. In: plattduetsch-in-de-kark.wir-e.de, accessed on January 17, 2017. - Bible words for every day also appear in Low German. In: landeskirche-hannovers.de. October 27, 2016. Retrieved January 17, 2017.
- Portuguese. In: losungen.de, accessed on June 6, 2017.
- Swedish. In: losungen.de, accessed on June 6, 2017.
- Slovak. In: losungen.de, accessed on June 6, 2017.
- Sorbian. In: losungen.de, accessed on June 6, 2017.
- Spanish. Lecturias Diarias. In: losungen.de, accessed on February 12, 2018.
- Swahili. In: losungen.de, accessed on June 6, 2017.
- First solutions in Tok Pisin . In: herrnhuter-projekte-weltweit.de. Retrieved June 6, 2017 (A trial version was released in 2015).