The Commercial Coordination Department (BKK) , or KoKo for short , was founded on October 1, 1966 in what was then the GDR's Ministry for Foreign and Inner German Trade (MAI) . The KoKo division had the task of generating maximum profit in currency outside the state plan by coordinating commercial activities , and thus assumed a special position in terms of both content and law. The KoKo division thus generated over 25 billion currency marks and contributed to limiting the deficits in the GDR's trade balance sheet and meeting acute credit needs at short notice.
The KoKo division was structured in main departments, departments and sectors and had over 3000 employees. He had a network of companies and contacts to politics, business, secret services and dealers, with whose help the commercial activities were coordinated.
In 1989 the KoKo division comprised more than 150 trading companies, mailbox companies and other companies. Particularly noteworthy here are the companies F. C. Gerlach, G. Simon, Forgber and Camet of the Ministry for State Security and the Central Enlightenment Administration (HVA) as well as the arms export company Imes Import-Export GmbH (IMES) with its main warehouse in Kavelstorf near Rostock.
The service profile of the KoKo division included fiscal transactions, commercial transactions, embargo-breaking technology imports, arms exports, import of hazardous waste from the Federal Republic of Germany and West Berlin, commission income through the forced involvement of agents, transit and tourism businesses, so-called cold expropriations, church transactions and prisoner purchases , export of art and Cultural objects , so-called account clearings, the supply of western consumer goods and credit for industrial investments .
The state supervisory authorities only had very limited access to the KoKo area. Controls only took place in selected KoKo segments through special audits by the Ministry of Finance , the Ministry of State Security and the management of the KoKo division itself. This was due to the hybrid role between (illegal) foreign trade and the Ministry of State Security.
The complex nature of the KoKo area and its classification between foreign trade, business and the secret service were the cause of numerous conflicts, including within the GDR institutions. The reasons for this were, among other things, the competition between KoKo and the responsible ministries, the conflict of competencies within the Ministry for State Security and, last but not least, the threefold subordination of the head of the KoKo division, Alexander Schalck-Golodkowski , namely in economic issues under Günter Mittag , in security policy matters under Erich Mielke and in questions of German-German relations under Erich Honecker .
The general aim of the establishment of the KoKo division in 1966 was foreign exchange profit management, which was to be coordinated according to planned economy guidelines. Until then, these were rather uncoordinated, just like the illegal imports of goods, which were also carried out completely unsystematically. There were already large numbers of companies through which relevant business with the knowledge of the MfS ran in the 1950s, for example the company F. C. Gerlach Export-Import, which had emerged from a black market ring. So also was German Handelsbank AG implicated previously in various dubious foreign exchange and financial transactions and there existed the so-called Church business and party companies.
The initiative to found the KoKo division evidently came from Alexander Schalck-Golodkowski himself, who advertised it in a letter of December 29, 1965 to Hermann Matern and described himself as predestined for such a task. The idea should come from Hans Fruck , who pursued his own interests for his HVA companies.
From 1957, Schalck-Golodkowski gained experience in various positions in the Foreign Trade Ministry in Western trade, including intra-German trade and related illegal practices. As first secretary of the SED district leadership of the Ministry for Foreign and Inner German Trade (MAI) from 1962 to 1966, he also got to know the economic and trade policy background that set the GDR restrictions, and systematized these findings in his dissertation from 1970, which he wrote together with Heinz Volpert and which bore the title To Combat Imperialist Disruptive Activity in the Field of Foreign Trade .
In the late summer of 1966, Schalck-Golodkowski received the order to start building the KoKo division in the Ministry for Foreign and Inner German Trade.
The focus of the practical founding activities was the creation of a joint umbrella organization for the trading companies Genex , Transinter , Intrac , Zentral-Kommerz and Intershop . Designated as commercial relations , the area was initially subordinated to HA XVIII (Safeguarding the National Economy) in the MfS.
The KoKo division was established on October 1, 1966 in accordance with a Council of Ministers decree of April of the same year and was directly subordinate to the Ministry for Foreign and Internal German Trade. In November, Schalck-Golodkowski took over the management as an authorized representative until he was confirmed by a Council of Ministers decision of December 7, 1966 in the rank of deputy minister. The general tasks in accordance with ruling 61/66 were:
- the maximum generation of capitalist currencies outside the state plan
- the conduct of church affairs
- the influence of trade policy on the MfS companies F. C. Gerlach and G. Simon
- the use of material funds from State Reserve B for additional currency income (via speculative transactions on international commodity futures exchanges)
Development and expansion
The establishment of the KoKo division was completed by 1969 and in the following years its powers were gradually expanded. In July 1969 a kind of compulsory representative system was established, the so-called Organization of State Commercial Agents . This means that KoKo was now in possession of the request monopoly and was thus able to collect the commissions that had previously flowed to Western sales representatives and agents. The responsible foreign trade company, Transinter, received around 350 million DM annually in the late 1980s. However, the goal of displacing all non-state commercial agencies from the market could not be achieved.
In 1971 the Council of Ministers of the GDR granted the KoKo area customs sovereignty. Thus the commercial border traffic was ensured under own responsibility. The status of non-resident made it possible for the KoKo division to participate in international payment transactions via foreign exchange accounts of Deutsche Handelsbank AG and Deutsche Außenhandelsbank . At that time, the Minister of Foreign Trade no longer had any right of access to the KoKo area. With the Ministerial Council Decree 15/75, the powers and tasks of the KoKo area were fundamentally revised. Only a year and a half later, however, they were amended again by Schalck-Golodkowski via an internal regulation . At the turn of the year 1976/77, the KoKo division was finally removed from the Foreign Trade Ministry, although it remained formally assigned to it. The now independent service area was subordinate to the Secretary of the Central Committee of the SED, Günter Mittag . By the Politburo resolution of the Central Committee of the SED of November 2, 1976, the head of the KoKo division, Schalck-Golodkowski, was given the status of State Secretary with his own business division.
Schalck-Golodkowski thus had a unique special position in the state and party leadership, after all he was a negotiator in German-German relations, a member of numerous commissions and, as head of the KoKo division, State Secretary with his own division dealing with the day -to-day business of KoKo companies no longer cared, except when something went wrong . At the end of the 1970s, the KoKo division was a large state-owned corporation with international business relationships .
The KoKo area was expanded even further when a regulation of the MfS came into force in 1980, which ordered the allocation of the HVA companies Asimex, Camet, Gerlach and Interport. The Deutsche Handelsbank AG was subordinated to the KoKo division in 1981 and in 1986 it was granted the right to use State Reserve A for profit generation.
Role and importance
In the mid-1970s, a decision by the Politburo entrusted the area with the economic control of the companies established in the Federal Republic of Germany and in other western countries with funds from the GDR, contrary to the provisions of Military Government Ordinance No. 53, which until then had been carried out by the Central Committee's Transport Department the SED had been looked after.
The standard of living in the GDR, which has been rising steadily since the 1970s, was made possible not least by imports from the West. The costs for this could only be generated temporarily through regular exports of current production goods. The oil price shock took place in Germany in 1972. The GDR initially benefited from this, and the leadership saw the crisis as a "gift from heaven". Because of the different transfer prices (a five-year mean of the world market price) in the Council for Mutual Economic Aid (COMECON) , it was able to purchase crude oil supplies from the USSR cheaply through the friendship oil pipeline, which was completed in 1962, until 1977 and, after refinement, achieved important profits for the entire Comecon through internal German trade . The subsequent drop in oil prices on the world market later coincided with the Comecon-internal price increase and the early 1980s throttled deliveries, the previously significant profit margins fell away. As early as 1977, the SED (cf. corresponding resolutions of the IX Party Congress) tried to develop a microelectronic cluster . The Kombinat Mikroelektronik Erfurt , the VEB Kombinat Robotron Dresden and the Kombinat VEB Carl Zeiss Jena became the industrial basis of a GDR high-tech program. The COMECON wanted to become a kind of monopoly supplier and thus break away from the dependence on raw materials. In the final phase of the GDR, the KoKo agreed to finance investments in this area amounting to 1.2 billion currency marks as a loan. Attempts to increase arms deliveries in the electronics sector also failed because of the peace and reform policy under Gorbachev.
The lack of acceptance of the SED dictatorship in the East German population, not least because of the experiences of the popular uprising of June 17, 1953 and the construction of the Berlin Wall of August 13, 1961 , was tried by Honecker from the 1970s through his consumer program (unity of economic and social policy). However, this overstrained the efficiency of the East German planned economy , which was slow to innovate, and increased the GDR's foreign debt to the point of threatening international insolvency in the early 1980s. The area of commercial coordination seemed to provide a remedy through its increasing influence in foreign trade and not least in domestic German trade . So KoKo achieved considerable export revenues with partly illegal methods. From the point of view of the closest leadership circle around Honecker, necessary reforms of the centrally controlled, rigidly planned economy could be avoided and the monopoly of power of the SED political elite was preserved.
The monetary resources obtained through KoKo were not used to a sufficient extent for urgently needed investments in East German industry, but for consumer spending, etc. This industrial loss of substance had a detrimental effect on the East German economy. That is why the GDR continued to lose competitiveness in western markets. This made KoKo more and more indispensable for those in power and gained further influence in exports and thus also in trade with the Federal Republic of Germany. This development got its own momentum, stabilized the SED rule for a short time, promoted the decline of the GDR industry in the long term and thus contributed to the end of the GDR dictatorship.
The fall of 1989 and the liquidation
A meeting resolution of the Central Committee of the SED on October 24, 1989, made KoKo subordinate to the General Secretary of the Central Committee of the SED Egon Krenz . From November 1989 KoKo was increasingly questioned. Even if Egon Krenz spoke out in favor of the continued existence of KoKo, he pleaded for inevitable structural changes and personal consequences. On 6 December 1989, the issued Minister of Finance and Prices nickel Uta and the Minister of Foreign Trade ( Ministry of inner-German trade, foreign trade and material supply ) Gerhard Beil of the Modrow government a "Joint Statement" in which Karl-Heinz Gerstenberger than with immediate effect Acting Head of Commercial Coordination has been appointed. The task of the acting head was to classify the area in the national and financial economy of the GDR.
The investigation was subject to the Independent Commission to Review the Assets of the Parties and Mass Organizations of the GDR (UKPV), the fiduciary administration of the Treuhandanstalt or its successor organization, the Federal Agency for Unification-Related Special Tasks . When the department was disbanded in March 1990, the KoKo network seemed inscrutable, and only a few had any insight into the secret KoKo deals. For ordinary citizens of the GDR, the area was completely unknown until the fall of the Wall and the peaceful revolution in 1989 .
Processing by the Treuhandanstalt
The Treuhandanstalt privatized or processed the following Koko companies and their holdings:
The long-standing legal disputes over the assets of Novum GmbH are well known, according to which Rudolfine Steindling, as trustee, withdrew around 450 million DM from the Novum accounts, the whereabouts of which could never be clarified.
From December 6, 1989 to February 28, 1990 95 of 171 KoKo employees were transferred to other economic areas. Because the state financial audit of the GDR had no control rights for KoKo, there was no sufficient evidence and therefore there was no transparency of business data. In addition, the individual work areas were isolated from one another and there were no work regulations, internal directives with clear stipulations on accounting and statistics, responsibilities or authorities for the entire area or for the individual main departments and departments. The service building contained 19,970 tons of gold that had been purchased since October 1988. The disposal assets also included single-family houses, motor vehicles, cash, jewelry, high-quality consumer and cultural goods, weapons and ammunition.
Originally, KoKo was supposed to be liquidated as a state body by March 31, 1990, which could not be realized for technical, financial and economic policy considerations. The liquidation of the Forgber company, which opened on March 31, 1990, was not yet completed by the end of May 1991, as the collection of claims against West German companies that subsequently refused to pay the agreed commissions with reference to existing forced representation was unsuccessful. There were similar problems with IMES GmbH, whose liquidation ended on April 30, 1991. However, an open claim against the Iranian Ministry of Defense for an extensive tank repair business of around US $ 23 million remained. This was assigned to the Federal Ministry of Finance.
The entire area of commercial coordination was the subject of the 1st committee of inquiry of the 12th German Bundestag under the chairmanship of CDU MP Friedrich Vogel . There were extensive reports on the results of the investigations, in particular: recommendation for a resolution and report printed matter 12/7600 of May 27, 1994 with three annex volumes and an appendix volume.
The main task was the procurement of foreign currency with all legal and illegal means, beyond the possibilities of normal foreign trade .
Procurement of foreign currency
The supply of foreign currency to cover imports was based on several areas:
- On the one hand , money could be generated with the Intershops , which were located in train stations, airports and at border crossings and transit routes and were supposed to meet the needs of travelers from Western countries. The advantage here was that the travelers could usually purchase the goods cheaper than in the country of manufacture.
- Foreign exchange was also earned through the "mail order company" Genex . The Genex catalog trade was aimed at German citizens with relatives and friends in the GDR. If GDR citizens could not buy all the products or if they sometimes had to wait years for consumer goods , delivery was possible within a few weeks if the order was placed through Genex and the invoices were paid in foreign currency. Food, clothing, houses and vehicles of the brands MZ , Trabant , Wartburg and VW were offered in the catalogs . Even with the GDR vehicles, these were delivered at short notice, while GDR citizens had to wait over ten years to pay with GDR marks.
- The Art and Antiques GmbH exported cultural objects from state and private property against foreign currencies . To track down these works of art among private individuals and to secure the business, we worked closely with the specialist departments of the MfS, customs and tax investigations.
But the money generated in this way could not cover the foreign exchange requirements: With the introduction of the forum checks in 1979, sales in the Intershop chain of stores fell to 774 million euros (1978: 896 million euros). From 1985 onwards more than one billion D-Marks (i.e. more than 511 million euros) were turned over. For comparison: the GDR's foreign debts amounted to 26.5 billion US dollars at the end of the 1980s - this sum was offset by own assets and claims of 15.7 billion US dollars. The KoKo empire, headed by Alexander Schalck-Golodkowski , to which the Intershop chain also belonged, earned a considerable share of this .
KoKo also bought smaller companies in western countries, managed SED party operations in western countries (mostly in the Federal Republic of Germany, Austria; trust companies also in Liechtenstein, Luxembourg and Switzerland) and operated arms trading . KoKo also benefited from the money from prisoner purchases , garbage imports from West Berlin , blood and blood plasma exports, textiles and cigarette smuggling and the like. a. In addition, there was speculation with money in the millions on Western commodity and time exchanges .
Procurement of Embargoware
An essential business area for which the generated foreign currency was spent again was the procurement of embargo goods from non-socialist countries and West Berlin ( CoCom list), in particular high technology for the development of the GDR microelectronics industry (see Robotron combine ), complete IT -Plants and military technology; Between 1986 and 1990 alone there were purchases for allegedly DM 900 million .
Support from DKP and SEW
Since the two German states were not allowed to be economically active on the territory of the other state due to Allied reservations, but on the other hand there was a strong mutual need for economic exchange and political influence. Partly handled by German companies. These companies took on indispensable and mutually valued functions in east-west trade. Under the given conditions, however, complicated shareholder structures and the like were required. a. also with the help of Liechtenstein foundations under the supervision and direction of KoKo. In consultation with the traffic department of the Central Committee of the SED, members of the DKP who held shares in them on a fiduciary basis were also active as managing directors and authorized signatories of such companies. As a result, it was possible to e.g. B. through advertisements of such companies in newspapers and magazines of the DKP (including our time ) to make contributions not only to the financing of these media, but to the DKP as a party.
This support was well known in politics and the media, as these companies were generally considered to be GDR or DKP-run. The BStU stated: "In fact, the West German public was well informed about these companies."
The area since the creation of was led alexander schalck-golodkowski , a longtime employee of the Ministry of Foreign Trade, since 1975. Secretary of State for Foreign Trade . His deputy was initially Horst Roigk and then for many years Manfred Seidel , both, like Schalck-Golodkowski himself, officers on special operations (OibE) of the MfS.
The structure of the headquarters
The headquarters of the KoKo division consisted of the State Secretary's division, the main departments I, II and III as well as the independent departments of trade policy and tourism . The headquarters were located at Wallstrasse 17-22 in Berlin-Mitte. The inconspicuous prefabricated building was demolished in 2018 in favor of a new building.
The State Secretary's area
This management area comprised ten employees and the secretariat, management department, security, customs and procurement departments were subordinate to it, as well as other functional bodies such as couriers, finance, special representatives and buyers.
Management / State Order, Security and Protection of Secrecy Department
This department consisted of 10 employees and was divided into the sectors information and documentation, management, order and security as well as customs. The VS headquarters and the property guard were also subordinate to it.
The main department I
The management of the main department I comprised 48 employees and they were responsible for the domestic export department as well as the Letex sector with the task profile of supplying the forest settlement (also known as Wandlitzsiedlung), for which the KoKo area annually had around 6 million currency marks and Sigrid Schalck -Golodkowski was under. Furthermore, the Ministry of Foreign Trade working group and, although this has not been unequivocally clarified, the Companies department or working group were assigned to Main Department I.
The main department I was assigned or attached to 35 institutions in Germany and abroad. She also acted as a manager for the foreign trade company Kunst- und Antiquitäten-GmbH as well as the companies F. C. Gerlach, Camet, Forgber and Asimex Import-Export-Agency . The range of activities included various monetary transactions, consumer goods imports as well as special transactions in the fields of construction, churches, motor vehicles and office technology. Through her own financial stocks she held stakes in foreign companies such as Befisa S. A. Lugano, Intrac S. A. Lugano and Salinas S. A. Luxembourg .
The main department also included the driving service and the Hönow complex brigade, with a workshop, TV and radio repairs, internal administration and post office. The security-sensitive tasks of the complex brigade included installation and repair work at leading GDR representatives in their residential and leisure properties, as well as the installation and maintenance of communications, security and computer technology in the KoKo area. The number of employees rose from just over 40 in 1984 to 65 at last. In 1989, Department I had a total of 171 employees, including the Hönow complex brigade.
The MAH working group
The AG MAH was concerned with commercial imports for the MfS. This created a common overlap with KoKo's import tasks for the national economy. The imports were carried out (as of March 1984) on the basis of the import regulations of the MfS of December 20, 1978. This stipulated that the working group formed in the KoKo area had to implement the import requirements of the MfS exclusively via the existing procurement lines of the KoKo area . Direct contact with NSW companies should be avoided. As a result, numerous conflicts arose with the MfS and the HVA.
The Companies Working Group
The working group for companies or party companies had 4 employees. Approx. 75 companies of different legal forms could be assigned to this working group, such as those that were directly owned by the SED, holdings, mixed companies and companies in the Ottokar-Hermann complex . There was also a foreign exchange relationship with the state-owned foreign trade company (VE AHB) metallurgy trade and its coordination trade department . Here, through the chemical export and import foreign trade company, business was coordinated with Richard Karl Lämmerzahl-International, which, due to the decisions of the Allied Control Council, could only be carried out on a covered basis.
In 1989 around 16 million currency marks were raised for the party fund of the Central Committee of the SED. The working group held stakes in 20 companies, most of which were based in Germany, as well as in mixed companies (GG) in Italy, Holland, France and Belgium. The political management of the companies was carried out by Department 72, Transport, of the Central Committee of the SED, the economic reporting by Schalck-Golodkowski and the fiscal reporting went directly to Erich Honecker.
The main department II
The main department II, which had to guarantee the financial relations with the foreign trade enterprises on the basis of central decisions and instructions, included about 22 institutions. She was responsible for the economic management of the foreign trade companies Intrac HGmbH, forum HGmbH and Transinter GmbH . The assignment of the foreign trade company Berliner Import-Export GmbH and Video-Sound-Service GmbH is not entirely certain , whereby IMES GmbH was formally assigned to it. The management of main department II had almost 20 employees. It was assigned the departments of Planning and Economics, Intershop and Permit Production, as well as the Central Financing, which was set up on January 1, 1988 and was responsible for investment loans and the GDR balance of payments. The Planning and Economics department was responsible for central planning issues and balance of payments, Intrac, banks and fund processing. In addition, the department was Intershop and licensed production with the management and financial processing forum, Intershop, Genex, licensed production and TransInterQueer and its trading companies Transcommerz and Berlin Import-Export GmbH deals.
Main Department III (WTA)
The main department III, also WTA for scientific-technical work and cooperation, was next to the main department I the most important organizational unit of the headquarters and had 20 employees. It was only assigned to the foreign trade company Electronics Export-Import with the trading areas 4 and 30, but it had numerous working relationships with foreign trade companies in the KoKo area. It was the switching center of the billions in illegal technology transfer, of transport policy with the Federal Republic, continued to be an instrument of strategic economic and political considerations and was also a staff organ for Schalck-Golodkowski. Some executives were commissioned to prepare a daily West press review and to present it by 7.30 a.m., on Saturdays by 9.00 a.m. Another copy went to Günter Mittag, a third remained in the main department. A high proportion of work was relevant to Günter Mittag.
The Trade Policy Department
The management of the trade policy department consisted of 4 to 6 employees in the selected African countries and special technology sectors . The department also had offices in Maputo , Cairo and Tehran . The tasks of the trade policy department lay in the acquisition and maintenance of foreign contacts to economically influential circles in countries of the Third World as well as in the conceptual collaboration on fundamental economic policy issues, e.g. for political bureau proposals. The special technology sector was the foreign trade company IMES , which was focused on arms deals, including its links with the NVA's engineering foreign trade (ITA) . The IMES was assigned to the department of trade policy as regards content and formally to the main department II.
The tourism department
The Tourism Department consisted of the Tourism Sector and a Secretariat. She had 5 employees. The department's business area included organized tourism from the Federal Republic and West Berlin, the sale of accommodation services and tickets for cultural events as well as the advised approval of passenger coaches from foreign tour operators on the rail network of the Deutsche Reichsbahn. As of October 31, 1987, the VEB travel agency of the GDR, the Interhotels and the hotels Metropol, Palasthotel , Bellevue , Merkur and the Grand Hotel generated a total of almost 95 million currency marks.
KoKo has been financing the Warnemünde HO-Hotel Neptun since the late 1960s. Schalck-Golodkowski described this as our entry into the international tourism business with the aim of refinancing and foreign exchange acquisition by western hotel guests. Since January 1, 1978, the central planning and management of the NSW tourism of the VEB travel agency of the GDR and the Interhotels in the field of currency management by the KoKo division.
Its competences vis-à-vis the Ministry of Transport were regulated by the Central Committee decision of October 19, 1977 and the subsequent Ministerial Council decision of October 27, 1977. Both were amended in 1989. KoKo was also responsible for the financing of the construction as well as the reconstruction and maintenance of these hotels.
- Hannes Bahrmann , Peter-Michael Fritsch: Swamp. Privileges, abuse of office, rogue business . LinksDruck, Berlin 1990, ISBN 3-86153-008-2 .
- Klaus Behling : High-tech smuggler in the economic war. How the GDR evaded the embargo of the West. Kai Homilius Verlag, Berlin 2007, ISBN 978-3-15-010629-7 .
- Ulf Bischof: The art and antiques GmbH in the field of commercial coordination (= writings on the protection of cultural property. Volume 9). De Gruyter Recht, Berlin 2003, ISBN 3-89949-048-7 (Zugl .: Berlin, Humboldt-Univ., Diss., 2002).
- Reinhard Buthmann: The working group in the area of commercial coordination (= MfS manual . Part III: Important service units , Volume 11: The working group in the area of commercial coordination ). 2nd Edition. The Federal Commissioner for the Records of the State Security Service of the Former German Democratic Republic, Berlin 2004, ISBN 978-3-942130-18-9 ( bstu.de [PDF; 599 kB; accessed on May 9, 2019] - OCLC 916649292 best title recording).
- Matthias Judt: The commercial coordination area. The GDR economic empire of Alexander Schalck-Golodkowski - myth and reality . Christoph Links, Berlin 2013, ISBN 978-3-86153-724-3 .
- Peter-Ferdinand Koch: The Schalck Empire is alive . Piper, Munich 1992, ISBN 3-492-03564-7 .
- Peter Krewer: Doing business with the class enemy. The GDR in intra-German trade 1949–1989 . Kliomedia, Trier 2008, ISBN 978-3-89890-122-2 (also dissertation at the University of Trier , 2007).
- Gerhardt Ronneberger: Code name »Saale«. High-tech smugglers under Schalck-Golodkowski. Dietz, Berlin 1999, ISBN 3-320-01967-8 (experience report, autobiography 1982–1990).
- Alexander Schalck-Golodkowski: German-German memories. Rowohlt, Reinbek 1999, ISBN 3-498-06330-8 ( limited preview in the Google book search).
- Klaus Schroeder : The SED state . Hanser, Munich 1998, ISBN 3-446-19311-1 .
- André Steiner : From plan to plan. An economic history of the GDR. Structure, Berlin 2007, ISBN 978-3-7466-8153-5 .
- Tobias Wunschik: prison goods for the class enemy. Prisoner Work in the GDR, East-West Trade and State Security (1970–1989) (= Federal Commissioner for the Records of the State Security Service of the Former German Democratic Republic [Ed.]: Analyzes and Documents. Vol. 37). Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen 2014, ISBN 978-3-525-35080-5 ( bstu.de ).
- Billions with KoKo. In: Der Spiegel special. 2/1990, February 1, 1990, p. 58 ff. ( Spiegel.de , accessed December 15, 2017).
- Roger Engelmann , Bernd Florath , Helge Heidemeyer , Daniela Münkel , Arno Polzin, Walter Süß : The MfS Lexicon. 3rd updated edition, Ch. Links Verlag, Berlin 2016, ISBN 978-3-86153-900-1 , p. 41, online version .
- First recommendation for a resolution and first partial report of the 1st committee of inquiry according to Article 44 of the Basic Law, printed matter 12/3462 of October 14, 1992. (PDF)
- Second recommendation for a resolution and second partial report of the 1st committee of inquiry according to Article 44 of the Basic Law, printed matter 12/3920 of December 9, 1992. (PDF)
- Third recommendation for a resolution and third partial report of the 1st committee of inquiry according to Article 44 of the Basic Law, printed matter 12/4500 of March 15, 1993. (PDF)
- Supplement to the third recommendation for a resolution and the third partial report of the 1st committee of inquiry according to Article 44 of the Basic Law, printed matter 12/4832 of April 30, 1993. (PDF)
- Second amendment to the third recommendation for a resolution and the third partial report of the 1st committee of inquiry under Article 44 of the Basic Law, printed matter 12/4970 of May 17, 1993. (PDF)
- Decision recommendation and report of the 1st committee of inquiry according to Article 44 of the Basic Law, printed matter 12/7600 of May 27, 1994. (PDF)
- Decision recommendation and first deviating report to the report of the 1st committee of inquiry according to Article 44 of the Basic Law, printed matter 12/7650 of May 27, 1994. (PDF)
- 1st recommendation for a resolution and second deviating report to the report of the 1st committee of inquiry according to Article 44 of the Basic Law, printed matter 12/7725 of May 27, 1994. (PDF)
- Decision recommendation and supplementary report of the 1st committee of inquiry according to Article 44 of the Basic Law, printed matter 12/8595 of November 2nd, 1994. (PDF)
- Commercial coordination. In: GDR Lexicon
- List of Koko companies. In: GDR Lexicon
- KoKo main department II. In: GDR Lexicon
- MfS-Lexikon: Working group in the area of commercial coordination (AG BKK)
- For the political and economic framework, see: Political and economic framework. In: Drucksache 12/7725 from May 27, 1994. Pp. 77-87.
- Cf. Buthmann: The working group in the area of commercial coordination. P. 6.
- Commercial activities before founding. In: Drucksache 12/7725 from May 27, 1994. Pp. 87–89, here: 88.
- Gerhardt Ronneberger: code name "Saale". High-tech smugglers under Schalck-Golodkowski. Dietz, Berlin 1999, ISBN 3-320-01967-8 , p. 108 f.
- Alexander Schalck-Golodkowski and Heinz Volpert: To combat imperialist disruptive activity in the field of foreign trade. Dissertation 1970.
- Schalck-Golodkowski: German-German memories. P. 171.
- Information from the Minister of the MAI. In: Printed matter 12/3462 of October 14, 1992. Pp. 58/61.
- Resolution of the Council of Ministers of December 7, 1966: Confirmation of the Minister's deputy for the area of commercial coordination in the Ministry for Foreign Trade and Internal German Trade. In: Printed matter 12/3462 of October 14, 1992. Pp. 68-77.
- Schalck-Golodkowski: German-German memories. Pp. 175-178.
- Order 87/71 of the Chairman of the Council of Ministers of June 25, 1971. In: Printed matter 12/3462 of October 14, 1992. P. 342 f.
- Gerhardt Ronneberger: code name "Saale". High-tech smugglers under Schalck-Golodkowski. Dietz, Berlin 1999, ISBN 3-320-01967-8 , p. 110.
- Order 15/75 of the Chairman of the Council of Ministers of August 23, 1975 on the uniform management and control of selected economic tasks by the Commercial Coordination of the Ministry of Foreign Trade. In: Printed matter 12/3462 of October 14, 1992. Pp. 502-514.
- Letter to Mittag of March 10th, 1977 with internal regulations for the work of the commercial coordination area. In: Printed matter 12/3462 of October 14, 1992. Pp. 668-682.
- Letter from Schalck-Golodkowski at noon Measures to enforce the resolution of the Politburo of the SED of November 2nd, 1976. In: Printed matter 12/3462 of October 14, 1992. P. 714 f.
- Sanctioning the process with the internal regulations for the work of the commercial coordination area. In: Printed matter 12/3462 of October 14, 1992. Pp. 668-682.
- Schalck-Golodkowski: German-German memories. P. 192.
- Schalck-Golodkowski: German-German memories. P. 195.
- Regulation of September 1, 1980 for the work with companies of operational service units of the MfS, which are assigned to the area of commercial coordination in the field of foreign trade, which, in addition to the economic subordination of the MfS companies, also included those of the disciplinary ones vis-à-vis their management. In: Printed matter 12/3462 of October 14, 1992. Pp. 885-887.
- Letter noon to Honecker of April 23/24, 1981 as well as stipulations for subordinating the commercial coordination area. In: Printed matter 12/3462 of October 14, 1992. Pp. 898-902.
- Order 178/86 of November 14, 1986. In: Printed matter 12/3462 of October 14, 1992. P. 1338.
- Rainer Karlsch, Raymond G. Stokes: Factor oil. The mineral oil industry in Germany 1859–1974. C. H. Beck, Munich, 2003, ISBN 3-406-50276-8 , p. 340 ff.
- Peter Salomon: The history of the microelectronic semiconductor industry in the GDR. Funk-Verlag Hein, Dessau 2003, ISBN 3-936124-31-0 .
- Hans-Hermann Hertle : The discussion of the economic crises in the leadership of the SED . In: Theo Pirker, M. Rainer Lepsius, Rainer Weinert, Hans-Hermann Hertle (Hrsg.): The plan as command and fiction. Economic management in the GDR. Conversations and analyzes . VS Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften, Wiesbaden 2013, ISBN 978-3-322-97052-7 , p. 309–345, here: 338 , doi : 10.1007 / 978-3-322-97052-7 ( google.de [accessed December 17, 2016]).
- Peter Krewer: Business with the class enemy. The GDR in intra-German trade 1949–1989. Trier 2008, pp. 289, 297 ff.
- Letter from Schalck-Golodkowskis to Krenz dated October 19, 1989, submission for the Politburo of the SED Central Committee (undated) and Minutes No. 45 of the SED Politburo meeting of October 24, 1989. In: Printed matter 12/3462 of October 14, 1992. Pp. 1635–1641, here: 1640.
- Printed matter 12/7600 German Bundestag 12th electoral period 1. Final report of the committee of inquiry under Article 44 of the Basic Law May 27, 1994 (PDF).
- Buthmann: The working group in the area of commercial coordination. P. 9 f.
- German Bundestag (ed.): Drucksache 12/3920 . Bonn December 9, 1992, p. 8 ( dipbt.bundestag.de [PDF; 6.1 MB ; accessed on July 28, 2008]).
- Andreas Dunte: Shopping like in the west. In: Leipziger Volkszeitung . March 1, 2014, p. 3.
- West money for Ostdoping: DDR financed its Doping Analysis with prisoner ransom money from the Federal Republic. In: Deutschlandfunk . July 25, 2010. Retrieved December 14, 2017.
- Garbage imports from the GDR and a new landfill in Thuringia? In: East-West Discussion Forum. No. 8-9, October 1989, p. 19 f. and p. 20, archive.org (taken from: Umweltblätter . 3/1989 and 5/1989).
- Rainer Erices : GDR health system: blood for foreign currency. In: Deutsches Ärzteblatt . 2014, 111 (4), pp. A-112 / B-96 / C-92 ( aerzteblatt.de, accessed on December 14, 2017.
- German Bundestag (ed.): Drucksache 12/7600 . S. 505 f . ( dipbt.bundestag.de [PDF; 30.0 MB ; accessed on July 28, 2008]).
- Stefan Wolle: The ideal world of dictatorship . Econ Tb., Bonn 1999, ISBN 3-548-75067-2 , pp. 209 .
- Reinhard Buthmann: The working group in the area of commercial coordination (MfS manual). 2nd Edition. Edited by BStU. Berlin 2004, ISBN 978-3-942130-18-9 , p. 17 ( PDF; 599 kB [accessed on May 9, 2019]).
- Buthmann: The working group in the area of commercial coordination. P. 18.
- Schalck-Golodkowski: German-German memories. Pp. 212-227.
- Buthmann: The working group in the area of commercial coordination. P. 12.
- Group of companies; BStU, ZA, MfS BKK 361, Bl. 4–6. Companies. In: Printed matter 12/3920 of December 9, 1992. P. 51.
- Buthmann: The working group in the area of commercial coordination. P. 11.
- Schalck-Golodkowski's report to Honecker from December 9, 1988 on the economic results of companies "owned by the SED". In: Printed matter 12/3462 of October 14, 1992. Pp. 1500-1510.
- Company. In: Printed matter 12/3920 of December 9, 1992. P. 14 and 73.
- Buthmann: The working group in the area of commercial coordination. P. 13.
- Company. In: Printed matter 12/3920 of December 9, 1992. Pp. 13-82.
- Buthmann: The working group in the area of commercial coordination. P. 14.
- The WTA was the main department in 1981 at the latest: structural overview of the area on alert in the state of defense. In: Printed matter 12/3462 of October 14, 1992. P. 1021.
- Company. In: Printed matter 12/3920 of December 9, 1992. P. 39 and 72.
- On the function, cooperation and division of labor with the KoKo division: Regulation for the implementation of exports of special technology to the NSW from November 26, 1982. In: Printed matter 12/3462 of October 14, 1992. Pp. 1076-1082.
- Company. In: Printed matter 12/3920 of December 9, 1992. P. 43.
- Schalck-Golodkowski: German-German memories. P. 181.
- Buthmann: The working group in the area of commercial coordination. P. 17.