The Luisenstadt is a historic part of the city which is now partly in the Berlin district of Mitte and extends beyond the district border into the district of Kreuzberg . It is named after the Prussian Queen Luise .
Luisenstadt is bordered in the north by the former course of the Berlin fortress ditch and Neu-Kölln as well as by the Spree , in the west along Lindenstrasse by Friedrichstadt and in the south by the Landwehr Canal. The smaller part of Luis city now belongs to the district center of the district of the same , the greater part of the district of Kreuzberg the district of Friedrichshain-Kreuzberg . The Luisenstadt is connected to the Stralauer Vorstadt on the other side of the Spree via the Jannowitzbrücke , Michaelbrücke , Schillingbrücke and Oberbaumbrücke . Another connection was the Brommy Bridge , which was destroyed in the Second World War, but for which there are plans to rebuild.
In the imperial era , Luisenstadt was administratively divided into the two official districts of Luisenstadt on this side of the canal and Luisenstadt on the other side of the canal , based on the Luisenstadt Canal . When Greater Berlin was formed in 1920, the entire Luisenstadt on the other side of the Canal as well as the southern part of the Luisenstadt on this side of the Canal fell to the Kreuzberg district and the northern part of the Luisenstadt on this side of the Canal to the Mitte district. With that, the name Luisenstadt disappeared from the official maps.
Explanation of the name
Middle Ages to the 19th century
The area of the later Luisenstadt was originally called Myrica and was acquired by the city of Kölln in 1261 . Then the first farmers settled there. As Berlin grew in the 16th century, various suburbs emerged, including the Cöllnische or Köpenicker Vorstadt . Originally built outside of what was then Berlin, the area was burned down during the Thirty Years War . As early as 1701, all residents of the Köpenick suburb received full Berlin civil rights, even if the Berlin customs wall, which was built from 1734 to 1736, encompassed the entire area, now known as the Köpenick district . In the 19th century, Peter Joseph Lenné designed the plans for the redesign of Luisenstadt based on the idea of Friedrich Wilhelm IV . In 1841 the Luisenstadt was enlarged to include the area between the customs wall and the Landwehr Canal.
Since the industrial revolution , a close mix of residential and commercial developed, which shaped the typical image of Luisenstadt. The Luisenstadt Canal , completed in 1852, played an important role in the development and during the development of major parts of Luisenstadt.
Since the 20th century
From 1961 to 1990 a section of the Berlin Wall ran right through the historical area of Luisenstadt , since from 1945 to 1990 the Mitte district belonged to East Berlin and the Kreuzberg district to the American sector of West Berlin . Current plans envisage condensing and closing gaps in order to allow the parts of Luisenstadt, which were particularly badly damaged in the Second World War, to visually grow together again.
The population rose from 149,652 in 1867 to a maximum of 306,512 in 1910. With up to 60,000 inhabitants per km², Luisenstadt was one of the most densely populated parts of Berlin.
coat of arms
The coat of arms of Luisenstadt is divided horizontally. In the upper part you can see the red Brandenburg eagle with a blue shield on its chest. The golden "L" stands for the name of the district. In the lower part you can see a city wall with an open city gate as a symbol for the Berlin city wall.
The Embassy of Nigeria, Neue Jakobstrasse 4, and the Embassy of the People's Republic of China, Brückenstrasse 10, are located in Luisenstadt. The latter is located in the trade union building originally built for the Free German Trade Union Federation (FDGB) in the 1980s large meeting room and public restaurants were located.
State of Berlin
Today the Senate Department for Transport, Environment and Climate Protection has its seat at Köllnischer Park 3 in the administration building of the Berlin State Insurance Company, built by Alfred Messel in 1903–1904 .
In the years 1865–1866, the Berlin-Görlitzer-Eisenbahn built the Görlitzer Bahnhof on today's Spreewaldplatz . Luisenstadt had a rail connection, which benefited the local economy. The station was connected to all other long-distance stations in the city via the Berlin connection line until 1871.
Local public transport
In 1902, the newly built elevated railway line was opened by Siemens & Halske . She led from the Warschauer Bridge to the train station knees, now Ernst-Reuter-Platz - the last part as a subway. The route was the starting point for today's widely branched underground network in Berlin.
In 1930, the U-Bahn line D (today: U8) was opened and connects Luisenstadt with Neukölln , Wedding and Berlin-Reinickendorf . The history of this subway line included a subway station built for an older route under Dresdener Strasse , which was never used as such and was filled in in 2015 for structural reasons.
Culture and sights
The former Luisenstadt church was destroyed in the Second World War and its remains were removed in 1964 because of its proximity to the Berlin Wall . Due to the activities of the Luisenstadt Citizens' Association , the floor plan could be recreated with plants and a memorial stele erected.
A vandalized, older memorial plaque was replaced by a new, modern plaque in August 2019. The floor plan of the church was redesigned with floor slabs and thus made recognizable.
The Luisenstädtischer Bildungsverein , which existed from 1991 to 2014 , dealt with the history of all of Berlin and Brandenburg; the naming should make it clear that one feels obliged to the Berlin Enlightenment .
- Ilse Sarneck: Theodor Francke and the Luisenstadt. A contribution to the city and family history . In: Yearbook Der Bär von Berlin , ed. from the Association for the History of Berlin , 18th year, Berlin 1969.
- Johann Friedrich Bachmann: The Luisenstadt - attempt of a history of the same and its church , with a title copper and four plans. Berlin, Oehmigke, 1838. Digitization: Central and State Library Berlin, 2013.
- The Luisenstadt in Mitte. In: District lexicon of the Luisenstädtischer Bildungsverein
- Planning for Luisenstadt by the Berlin Senate Department for Urban Development
- Luisenstadt Citizens' Association
- Culture in Luisenstadt
- Development of the urban area of Berlin
- Friedrich Leyden: Greater Berlin. Geography of the cosmopolitan city . Hirt, Breslau 1933 (therein: Development of the population in the historic districts of Old Berlin , p. 206)
- Senate Department for the Environment, Transport and Climate Protection: Dresdener Strasse tunnel system in Berlin-Friedrichshain / Kreuzberg - backfilling
- Working group on monuments of the Luisenstadt Association