New World Order (Conspiracy Theory)
As a New World Order ( English New World Order ) is in several conspiracy theories the alleged target of elites and secret societies called an authoritarian , supranational world government to build. Such theories became popular in the United States in the early 1990s . They are mainly disseminated by Christian fundamentalist , right-wing extremist and esoteric authors. It is controversial whether the use of the term in the left critical of globalization should also be classified as conspiracy theory.
End of the cold war
The widespread notion that social elites are secretly working on a “New World Order” goes back to US political discourse in the early 1990s. After the end of the Cold War and the fall of the Soviet Union , the idea was widespread that a new age was dawning. The American political scientist Francis Fukuyama presented in 1989 to hypothesize that the end of history had come: the democratic , market- authored liberalism had triumphed, there was no global contrasts more that could drive a further development of the story. The American President George Bush made a similar statement during the Second Gulf War . On January 29, 1991, in his second State of the Union Address , he said before both Houses of Congress:
“What is at stake is more than one small country; it is a big idea: a new world order, where diverse nations are drawn together in common cause to achieve the universal aspirations of mankind - peace and security, freedom, and the rule of law. Such is a world worthy of our struggle and worthy of our children's future. "
“It's about more than just a small country; it's a big idea: a new world order where different nations come together in the common goal of achieving the universal hopes of humanity - peace and security, freedom and the rule of law. This is a world that is worth fighting for and worth being the future of our children. "
The catchphrase of the “New World Order” was actually older. Already at the time of World War I. President had Woodrow Wilson with his Fourteen Points taken a "new world order" in the eye, in a League of Nations effectively collective security should ensure HG Wells had in 1940 published a book with this title, and Bush had the wording in used in a speech on September 11, 1990. From 1991 onwards, evangelicals and Christian fundamentalists, as well as supporters of the conspiratorial political right, took it up as evidence that the United States government was itself part of a conspiracy to abolish the civil liberties of its citizens. This seemed plausible to them insofar as Bush, as a member of Skull and Bones and as a former director of the CIA, had already been repeatedly associated with secret societies. Ever since it was founded in 1958, the extreme right-wing John Birch Society had repeatedly warned against a “New World Order” under the communist auspices. With the collapse of the Soviet Union and the end of the Cold War, all of these predictions seemed falsified . In order to be able to maintain its ingrained thinking in clearly defined friend-foe categories, the conspiracy theory switched from anti-communism , which had seen the enemy mainly outside the United States, to fighting its own government. The American communication scientist Charles J. Stewart explains the ease of this change of subject with the fact that communism for the John Birch Society had been part of a larger conspiracy since the 1960s, which supposedly for the expansion of state power ("Big Government"), for collectivism and globalization work. In this respect, without having to give up her central narrative , she was able to interpret the collapse of international communism as a mere change of tactics on the way to the allegedly still threatening “one-world tyranny”.
The American political scientist Michael Barkun explains that the idea that there was a threat of a “New World Order” also became popular in American evangelical and fundamentalist Protestantism at the beginning of the 1990s, with the difficulties that its prognoses also encountered: In the dispensationalist interpretation of the eschatological one Texts of the New Testament had so far always foretold the increase in international conflicts, which would intensify up to the Great Tribulation and the world domination of the Antichrist . Only the return of Jesus Christ would this time of horror end. The Soviet Union and Israel had always been seen as the focus of these conflicts . But now the Soviet Union was no longer an enemy and the conflicts in the Middle East were no longer about Israel, but about Iraq . The conspiracy theory of the "New World Order" offered itself to fill this prophetic vacuum.
Because of the widespread conspiracy theories, the catchphrase "New World Order" soon fell out of use among American politicians.
Pat Robertson: The New World Order
In 1991 Pat Robertson (* 1930), founder of the evangelical Christian Coalition of America , published his work The New World Order . In this he sees the Christian USA in the grip of two conspiracies: On the one hand, "money power", high finance , which - partly out of greed, partly to simplify the procedures - has been striving for a dictatorship for decades : To this end, it would have had President Abraham Lincoln murdered in 1865 for allegedly pursuing interest-free currency plans, enforced the 16th Amendment to the United States Constitution in 1913 to collect income tax, and established the Federal Reserve System that same year . The other conspiracy is aimed at American morality : Here Robertson sees Illuminati , Freemasons and supporters of the New Age movement at work who " destroy the Christian faith " and sought to bring the world "under the rule of Lucifer ". To this end, they are striving for "a world government, a world army, a world economy under a British financial oligarchy and a world dictator supported by a council of twelve faithful". All of these plans would be run by the Council on Foreign Relations and the Trilateral Commission . The unification of Europe , the collapse of communism and the Gulf War, which improved the image of the UN , would all serve this anti-Christian goal. For the future Robertson predicts an economic crisis in which the USA would be forced to transfer its sovereignty to the UN, which would install a socialist world president who would rule according to the principles of a religion of humanity instead of Christianity. As evidence of this allegedly centuries-old double conspiracy, Robertson refers to the motto Novus ordo seclorum in the Great Seal of the United States , which he translates as the new world order . Robertson moved along the lines of older suspicions against the Illuminati and other secret societies, made them known to the American mainstream through the narrow circles in which such conspiracy theories had been received up to then . His book, which was also to be had in reputable bookstores and at airports, became a bestseller with several hundred thousand copies sold .
In the political right
The John Birch Society has declared since 1991 that globalization and the worldwide dismantling of trade barriers through GATT , NAFTA and other trade agreements are steps towards a "New World Order" in which American troops would ultimately only be used to suppress any resistance to the global super-government . The United Nations peacekeeping forces were a preliminary exercise for this future practice. Its chairman, John McManus, stated in 1995:
“The goal is the breakdown of national sovereignty via economics. In the end, unless all of it will be stopped, the 'new world order' will emerge and freedom will be a mere memory. "
“The goal is the collapse of national sovereignty over the economy. In the end, if all of this is not stopped, the 'new world order' will arise and freedom will only be a memory. "
As early as 1990, the libertarian journalist William T. Still (* 1948) published a version of the well-known anti-illuminatic conspiracy theory, according to which Adam Weishaupt received the financial resources for his plans from the Jewish banking house Rothschild , but the Masons provided the camouflage ; in this way he had succeeded in setting the French Revolution in motion; in the present day the Illuminati would rather use international organizations such as the Council on Foreign Relations.
The Christian fundamentalist preacher Texe Marrs (* 1944) also believes that the Illuminati would strive for a "New World Order", but interprets this not financially, but eschatologically: The Illuminati are the Antichrist , the beast from the Revelation of John , and would in the In the year 2000 they began their end-time rule. The author John Coleman, allegedly a former employee of the British MI6 secret service , describes the "New World Order" as the rule of the Antichrist. He sees a "revised form of international communism and a brutal and cruel dictatorship" looming, behind which a "Committee of 300" is stuck that supposedly controls all other secret societies and conspiracies, from Illuminati, Freemasons and Rosicrucians to the Bilderberg Conference , Skull and Bones and the Thule Society to Bolsheviks and Zionists . Coleman took over the idea of the "three hundred men" who supposedly control the world from Walter Rathenau , who had formulated something similar in the newspaper article Our Offspring in 1909 and has since been repeatedly cited by anti-Semites as key witnesses for an alleged Jewish world domination. Coleman very often mentions Jews as servants of the satanic plans of the “Committee of 300”: Theodor W. Adorno is said to have invented rock and roll on his behalf as a means of mind control and mass anesthesia, the Israeli secret service Mossad could control any country control the local Jewish minority, the Rothschilds are responsible for numerous wars, in which they also make good money, Henry Kissinger is the committee's “ court Jew ”, etc. Coleman uses anti-Semitic clichés like the allegedly typical Jewish plutocracy , “Jewish Bolshevism” ” And the Protocols of the Elders of Zion , a 1903 forgery purporting to depict plans for a world Jewish conspiracy .
In 1991 the right-wing extremist radio presenter Milton William Cooper (1943–2001) developed a “super-conspiracy theory” in his book Behold a pale horse , the focus of which - alongside the Illuminati and the Bilderbergers - this time are extraterrestrials who have allegedly been in secret connections since the reign of President Eisenhower with the American government. In their “New World Order”, the number of people living would be significantly reduced, economic growth slowed down, meat consumption prohibited and emigration into space prepared. Without these drastic measures, a complete collapse of civilization, which Cooper predicted shortly after the year 2000, would threaten. In these fantasies, Cooper relied partly on documents that he claims to have viewed while working in the secret service, and partly on Alternative 3 , a satirical TV show from 1977, which ufologists took at face value. He also cited the Protocols of the Elders of Zion as evidence, which, however, would in truth prove not a world conspiracy by Jews, but by Illuminati.
In the far-right American militia movement , these conspiracy theories have become a central ideologue with which the legitimacy of the government is denied. In the process, it was radicalized, charged with anti-Semitism and spun on. Supporters of the militia now see “ the Jews ” as the main conspirators behind the “New World Order” and abuse the German government as “ Zionist Occupied Government ”. Allegedly, the conspirators planned to exterminate half of the world's population through wars and epidemics in order to enslave the other half. Signs on highways are interpreted as secret clues to invading troops that the Federal Emergency Management Agency , a federal agency for disaster control , is a cover for planned concentration camps , into which "patriots" who refused to obey the new world government, and the unmarked "black ones" would be sent Helicopters, which have been sighted repeatedly, allegedly belonged to the UN and were preparing for its military seizure of power. In 1996, United Nations Secretary-General Boutros Boutros-Ghali publicly mocked the myth of the black helicopters when, on his return from vacation, he declared that vacations are actually boring:
"It's much funnier to work here [in New York], preventing reforms, flying in my black helicopters, and introducing a world tax."
The unsuccessful storming of Ruby Ridge in August 1992 and the settlement of the Branch Davidians in Waco , Texas on April 19, 1993 by federal authorities, as well as the tightening of gun laws such as the 1994 Brady Bill , were taken as evidence of the plans of the government in Washington, enforce the “New World Order” and gained a large following for the militias. The ideology that the true Christian patriots must defend themselves against this anti-Christian, internationally-directed conspiracy was also behind the 1995 Oklahoma City terrorist attack , which the bomber Timothy McVeigh deliberately put on the anniversary of the Waco tragedy. Another terrorist attack inspired by the conspiracy theory of the “New World Order” was prevented the following year: Seven members of the West Virginia Mountaineer Militia planned to blow up the building of the FBI's Criminal Justice Information Services Division in Clarksburg (West Virginia) , which they considered a command center of the "New World Order". They were arrested on October 8, 1996.
The paleoconservative Pat Buchanan (* 1938), who had unsuccessfully applied for a nomination as a presidential candidate for the Republican Party in 1992 and 1996 , held the protectionist slogan “ America First ” against Bush's “New World Order”. For him, this term is a cipher for everything negative in American politics: open borders, illegal immigration, gun laws, homosexuality, abortion, etc. In his opinion , multilateral agreements such as NAFTA or the Maastricht Treaty represent the “architecture of the New World Order”. 1998 he accused the Council on Foreign Relations, the Trilateral Commission and the Bilderbergers of subscribing to the “deeply un-American” agenda of free trade, disarmament and world government.
The also paleoconservative radio presenter Alex Jones (* 1974), who contributed an interview to the German edition of Coleman's anti-Semitic work Das Komitee der 300 , spreads the conspiracy theory of the "New World Order" in his programs, on DVDs and on websites such as infowars.com . This is used by him and the guests in his programs as a narrative framework in which they embed other conspiracy theories, such as the attacks of September 11, 2001 . The attacks on the twin towers appear to be the work of the Illuminati or greedy money barons who wanted to bring about or maintain the "New World Order". The election of Barack Obama and the supposedly deliberately created financial crisis of 2008 would serve the same goal, according to Jones' claims . Like some other conspiracy theorists, Jones hesitates when answering the question of whether the conspirators' takeover is imminent or has already occurred.
In the conspiracy theory of the British right- wing esotericist David Icke (* 1952) it is vampiric reptilian aliens from the constellation of the dragon who want to enslave humanity in a "New World Order" and for this purpose practice Satanism and child abuse . Icke relies on publications by Cooper and the pre-astronaut Zecharia Sitchin (1920-2010), personal experience and channeling, and also on the Protocols of the Elders of Zion .
Conspiracy theories about a “New World Order” are also circulating among Germany's right-wing extremists. In his 1993 bestseller Secret Societies and Their Power in the 20th Century , the right-wing esotericist Jan Udo Holey (* 1967) assumes that the Illuminati, whom he portrays as Jewish-led devil worshipers , wanted to establish a “New World Order”. To this end, they would prepare a third world war . Like Cooper and Icke, Holey extensively cites the Protocols of the Elders of Zion . The NPD is currently polemicizing against "the 'new world order' on the US east coast " (an allusion to the many rich Jews who allegedly live there) and their supposed world domination plans.
In spring 2020, in the wake of the protests during the COVID-19 pandemic in Germany, it was spread that the pandemic was just a pretext to establish the New World Order. In truth, the corona virus doesn't even exist. The conspiracy theorist Attila Hildmann named May 15 as the date for the takeover of power.
In the political left
The catchphrase was also picked up on the political left . The American linguist and political activist Noam Chomsky (* 1928) wrote in 1992:
“The Gulf War has torn aside the veil covering the post Cold War era. It has revealed a world in which the United States enjoys unchallenged military supremacy and is prepared to exploit this advantage ruthlessly. The new world order (in which the New World gives the orders) has arrived. "
“The Gulf War has torn the veil off the Cold War era. He has revealed a world in which the United States enjoys undisputed military suzerainty and is ready to ruthlessly exploit that advantage. The New World Order (in which the New World gives the order ) is here. "
However, this term was already used explicitly by George W. Bush in his speech of September 11, 1990.
Chomsky also takes up the term in other works, such as World Orders Old and New (1994), in which he accuses the western world, and especially the USA, of imperialism and an increasingly brutal social divide between rich and poor.
There is no consensus on the classification of such a criticism of a “New World Order”, understood as American hegemony and neoliberalism that presents no alternative . The American political scientist Daniel Pipes describes Chomsky's analyzes of the present as "conspiracy theory [...] which blames the US government for practically all of the world's grievances", imagining it to be acting on behalf of big industry. The British activist Milan Rai, on the other hand, defends Chomsky against this classification. The British cultural scientist Alasdair Spark takes a mediating position: In his opinion, the accusation shortens Chomsky's argumentation, on the other hand he sees a “totalizing tendency” in his political writings, in which no positive aspects of the USA remain recognizable; Processing large amounts of detailed information into a single narrative is also a typical method used by conspiracy theorists. Spark also refers to the anti-globalization demonstrations against the ministerial conference of economic and trade ministers of the WTO in Seattle in 1999 , when both left and right, such as Pat Buchanan, protested against the “New World Order”.
- Michael Barkun : A Culture of Conspiracy. Apocalyptic Visions in Contemporary America. 2nd Edition. University of California Press, Berkeley 2013, ISBN 978-0-520-27682-6 , pp. 39-79.
- Alasdair Spark: New World Order. In: Peter Knight (Ed.): Conspiracy Theories in American History. To Encyclopedia . ABC Clio, Santa Barbara / Denver / London 2003, ISBN 1-57607-812-4 Volume 2, pp. 536-539.
- ^ Alasdair Spark: New World Order. In: Peter Knight (Ed.): Conspiracy Theories in American History. To Encyclopedia . Volume 2, ABC Clio, Santa Barbara / Denver / London 2003, p. 536.
- ↑ Michael Barkun : A Culture of Conspiracy. Apocalyptic Visions in Contemporary America. 2nd Edition. University of California Press, Berkeley 2013, p. 40.
- ↑ See for example Gary Allen : Say "No!" to the New World Order . Concord Press, Rossmoor, CA 1987.
- ↑ Claus Leggewie : Fed up with the Feds. News about American paranoia. In: Kursbuch 124: Conspiracy Theories (1996), p. 120; Michael Barkun: A Culture of Conspiracy. Apocalyptic Visions in Contemporary America. 2nd Edition. University of California Press, pp. 63 f.
- ^ Charles J. Stewart: The Master Conspiracy of the John Birch Society: From Communism to the New World Order . In: Western Journal of Communication 66, No. 4 (2002), pp. 423-447, citation p. 437 from an article in The New American of January 29, 1990.
- ↑ Michael Barkun: A Culture of Conspiracy. Apocalyptic Visions in Contemporary America. 2nd Edition. University of California Press, p. 64.
- ^ Alasdair Spark: New World Order. In: Peter Knight (Ed.): Conspiracy Theories in American History. To Encyclopedia . ABC Clio, Santa Barbara / Denver / London 2003, Volume 2, p. 536.
- ^ Pat Robertson: The New World Order . Word Publishing, Dallas 1991; German: Planned New World . One-Way-Verlag, Wuppertal 1993.
- ^ Daniel Pipes : Conspiracy. The fascination and power of the secret . Gerling Akademie Verlag, Munich 1998, p. 28 ff .; Martin Durham: Robertson, Pat. In: Peter Knight (Ed.): Conspiracy Theories in American History. To Encyclopedia . Volume 2, ABC Clio, Santa Barbara / Denver / London 2003, pp. 620 f .; Alasdair Spark: New World Order. In: ibid., Volume 2, p. 536 f .; Roy Joseph: The New World Order. President Bush and the Post-Cold War Era. In: Martin J. Medhurst (Ed.): The Rhetorical Presidency of George HW Bush. Texas A&M University Press, College Station 2006, p. 97.
- ↑ James Arnt Aune: The Econo-Rhetorical Presidency. In: ders. And Martin J. Medhurst (eds.): Prospect of Presidential Rhetoric. Texas A&M University Press, College Station 2008, pp. 62 f.
- ↑ Michael Barkun: A Culture of Conspiracy. Apocalyptic Visions in Contemporary America. 2nd Edition. University of California Press, p. 52.
- ↑ Marlon Kuzmick: Council on Foreign Relations. In: Peter Knight (Ed.): Conspiracy Theories in American History. To Encyclopedia . Volume 1, ABC Clio, Santa Barbara / Denver / London 2003, p. 210 f.
- ^ Mark Rupert: Ideologies of Globalization. Contending Visions of a New World Order Routledge, London 2002, p. 103.
- ^ William T. Still: New World Order. The Ancient Plan of Secret Societies . Huntington House, Lafayette 1990; Michael Barkun: A Culture of Conspiracy. Apocalyptic Visions in Contemporary America. 2nd Edition. University of California Press, p. 52.
- ↑ Michael Barkun: A Culture of Conspiracy. Apocalyptic Visions in Contemporary America. 2nd Edition. University of California Press, p. 52.
- ↑ John Coleman: The Conspirators Hierarchy. The Committee of 300 . Amer West Pub & Dis 1992; German under the title Das Komitee der 300. The Hierarchy of Conspirators . JK Fischer Verlag, Gelnhausen 2010.
- ^ Carl-Eric Linsler: The Committee of 300 (John Coleman, 1992). In: Wolfgang Benz (Hrsg.): Handbuch des Antisemitismus . Volume 6: Writings and Periodicals. De Gruyter Saur, Berlin 2013, ISBN 978-3-11-025872-1 , pp. 409-412 (accessed via De Gruyter Online); on Walter Rathenau and the "three hundred men" see Dieter Heimböckel: Walter Rathenau and the literature of his time. Studies on work and effect . Königshausen & Neumann, Würzburg 1996, p. 176.
- ^ Milton William Cooper: Behold a Pale Horse . Light Technology Publishing, Flagstaff, AZ 1991.
- ↑ Michael Barkun: A Culture of Conspiracy. Apocalyptic Visions in Contemporary America. 2nd Edition. University of California Press, pp. 60 ff. And 92 f.
- ↑ Alasdair Spark: Black Helicopters. In: Peter Knight (Ed.): Conspiracy Theories in American History. To Encyclopedia . ABC Clio, Santa Barbara / Denver / London 2003, Volume 1, pp. 124 ff .; ders: New World Order . ibid., Volume 2, p. 537.
- ^ "It's much more fun to be at work here, blocking reform, flying my black helicopters, imposing global taxes", New York Times, September 18, 1996. Quoted in Daniel Pipes: Conspiracy. The fascination and power of the secret . Gerling Akademie Verlag, Munich 1998, p. 253.
- ↑ Claus Leggewie: Fed up with the Feds. News about American paranoia. In: Kursbuch 124: Conspiracy Theories. (1996), p. 121; Nigel James: Militias. In: Peter Knight (Ed.): Conspiracy Theories in American History. To Encyclopedia. Volume 2, ABC Clio, Santa Barbara / Denver / London 2003, p. 468 f.
- ^ Daniel Pipes: Conspiracy. The fascination and power of the secret . Gerling Akademie Verlag, Munich 1998, p. 276.
- ^ Roy Joseph: The New World Order. President Bush and the Post-Cold War Era. In: Martin J. Medhurst (Ed.): The Rhetorical Presidency of George HW Bush. Texas A&M University Press, College Station 2006, p. 97.
- ^ Mark P. Worrell: The Veil of Piacular Subjectivity. Buchananism and the New World Order ( Memento April 3, 2015 in the Internet Archive ). In: Electronic Journal of Sociology. (1999), accessed March 11, 2015.
- ^ Mark Rupert: Ideologies of Globalization. Contending Visions of a New World Order Routledge, London 2002, p. 114 f.
- ↑ John Coleman: The Committee of 300. The Hierarchy of Conspirators . JK Fischer Verlag, Gelnhausen 2010.
- ^ Jovan Byford: Conspiracy Theories. A Critical Introduction . Palgrave MacMillan, New York 2011, p. 109.
- ↑ Michael Butter : Conspiracy. In: Derselbe, Birte Christ and Patrick Keller (eds.): 9/11. Not a day that changed the world. Schöningh, Paderborn 2011, p. 148.
- ↑ Michael Butter : Plots, Designs, and Schemes. American Conspiracy Theories from the Puritans to the Present. Walter de Gruyter, Berlin / Boston 2014, ISBN 978-3-11-034693-0 , p. 294 (accessed via De Gruyter Online).
- ↑ Ulrike Heß-Meining: Right Wing Esotericism in Europe. In: Uwe Backes , Patrick Moreau (Eds.): The Extreme Right in Europe. Current Trends and Perspectives (= writings of the Hannah Arendt Institute. Volume 46). Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen 2012, p. 399 ff .; Michael Barkun: A Culture of Conspiracy. Apocalyptic Visions in Contemporary America. 2nd Edition. University of California Press, pp. 104-110.
- ^ Christian Pape: Secret Societies and Their Power in the 20th Century (Jan van Helsing, 1993). In: Wolfgang Benz (Hrsg.): Handbuch des Antisemitismus. Volume 6: Writings and Periodicals. De Gruyter Saur, Berlin 2013, ISBN 978-3-11-025872-1 , p. 226 (accessed via De Gruyter Online).
- ^ Britta Schellenberg: NPD publications. In: Wolfgang Benz (Hrsg.): Handbuch des Antisemitismus. Volume 6: Writings and Periodicals. De Gruyter Saur, Berlin 2013, ISBN 978-3-11-025872-1 , p. 506 (accessed via De Gruyter Online).
- ^ Matthias Schwarzer: Fantasies of violence and anti-Semitism: Attila Hildmann's highly dangerous Telegram group . Redaktinsnetzwerk Deutschland, May 4, 2020; Sarah Ulrich : The glossary of the knowledgeable. In: taz of May 20, p. 9.
- ↑ Noam Chomsky: Deterring Democracy . Verso Books 1991, quoted from Alasdair Spark: New World Order. In: Peter Knight (Ed.): Conspiracy Theories in American History. To Encyclopedia . Volume 2, ABC Clio, Santa Barbara / Denver / London 2003, p. 537.
- ^ Noam Chomsky: World Orders Old and New . Columbia University Press, New York 1994.
- ^ Daniel Pipes: Conspiracy. The fascination and power of the secret . Gerling Akademie Verlag, Munich 1998, p. 250 f.
- ↑ Milan Rai: Chomsky's Politics . Verso, London 1995.
- ^ Alasdair Spark: New World Order. In: Peter Knight (Ed.): Conspiracy Theories in American History. To Encyclopedia . Volume 2, ABC Clio, Santa Barbara / Denver / London 2003, p. 539.