Swedish map of Western Pomerania
The Swedish Land Survey of Western Pomerania is a mapping carried out between 1692 and 1709 in Swedish Pomerania and the dominion of Wismar in Mecklenburg . The result was the oldest cadastral work in Germany, which was based on a uniform and trigonometrically exact national survey . With maps preserved in 1737 and 77 volumes of description, the Swedish Land Registry is still today an archival source of unique rank for research into the history of Pomerania .
After the end of the Thirty Years' War , among other things, the western part of Pomerania in the Peace of Osnabrück and the city of Wismar with the island of Poel and the office of Neukloster came to Sweden . The Swedish central government needed a basis for the taxation of farmed property in the new part of the country. The old Pomeranian hoof records were too imprecise and no longer up-to-date due to the events of the war. They also lacked the knightly possessions for which no taxes were levied, but feudal services. Of the estates, it was especially the members of the knighthood who were reluctant to re-measure and re-evaluate the basic economic data, as they would have to reckon with higher taxes if the tax system changed. For a long time the estates succeeded in preventing a new measurement.
The Swedish-Pomeranian Chamber President Gerdt Anton Rehnskiöld had to set up a makeshift taxation system on the basis of old registers of taxable hooves, called registers, which were partly based on estimates and thus hardly corresponded to reality, but nevertheless formed the basis for the Anklam tax repartition of 1658. This consisted in agreeing on a fictitious total number of 10,000, of which the cities divided one half, the noble estates organized in districts and the royal offices the other half. Conflicts such as the Second Northern War and the Swedish-Brandenburg War prevented the data from being re-recorded. An on April 12, 1681 by the Swedish King Charles XI. The lustration ordered failed because there were no suitable surveyors in Swedish Pomerania and the conditions could not be agreed with the Pomeranian estates.
Charles XI. finally decided in 1690 to have the land survey carried out by a royal commission. In 1691, eight surveyors, mostly students from Uppsala , were recruited who began surveying in 1692 in southern Swedish Pomerania near Stettin . The land survey included the part of Pomerania west of the Oder with Stettin and the areas of Altdamm and Gollnow to the east . The area around Greifswald was worked on in 1696 and 1697. The inclusion of the rural residential areas and field marks and then the city field marks was largely completed by 1698.
Furthermore, the lands of the Wismar rule were measured by the surveyors of this commission. This happened because of the close administrative connection with Pomerania. In 1695 the Neukloster office was measured , and in 1698 the island of Poel was recorded following the last measurements in the Demmin area .
This was followed by a detailed survey and description of the cities. Twelve towns in Western Pomerania provided information on their circumstances and inhabitants, while eleven towns left the surveyors' catalog of questions unanswered. On the orders and with precise instructions from Charles XII. The actual detailed city surveys were carried out in the years 1705 to 1708. However, this time-consuming procedure was only carried out in one part of Szczecin for a few properties. The remaining main part of Stettin as well as Stralsund, Greifswald, Wolgast and Anklam were then measured and described using a simplified procedure.
A uniform scheme was used to describe the rural districts. The owners of the properties were listed based on basic information such as the time and location of the recorded location, ownership structure and administrative affiliation. The types of use were provided in addition to the calculations of the municipal areas. The evaluation of the types of use made in the annotations and the additional information given here on the sowing rates and yields of the usable areas and on the income and taxes of the residents enabled an overview of the capacities of the locations.
Most of the maps and descriptions came into Danish possession during the Northern War. The government of Friedrich Wilhelm I recognized the importance of the work and made the Swedish land registration, after Western Pomerania came to Prussia south and east of the Peene after the Great Northern War , as the basis for the reorganization of taxation in the new part of the country. In the part of Western Pomerania that remained Swedish, however, implementation continued to fail due to the resistance of the states.
The Swedish matriculation cards were well known in the 18th and 19th centuries, but were rarely mentioned in publications. The matriculation was first mentioned in 1739 in a dissertation by FA von Üsdom. The next mention was made in 1771 in the "Historisch-Geographische Nachrichten" by Johann Carl Conrad Oelrichs . Thomas Heinrich Gadebusch used the maps in 1793 to determine the area of Swedish Pomerania. In the 19th century there was only one mention in Friedrich Gustav Schimmelpfennig's treatise on the property tax constitutions of Prussia.
It was not until the beginning of the 20th century that the cards were found again with the government in Stralsund. In 1905, the Prussian surveyor Carl Drolshagen was the first to deal scientifically with the maps. The scientific edition required by Fritz Curschmann and Ernst Bernheim was hampered by the outbreak of the First World War and the lack of capacity of the Historical Commission for Pomerania . In the years 1920 to 1923 Carl Drolshagen published a two-volume work, which is still counted among the basic writings for the Swedish land survey.
At the University of Greifswald , after the First World War, the scientific evaluation and implementation of the matriculation cards of the Swedish Land Survey of Western Pomerania began mainly under the geography historian Fritz Curschmann. With the support of the German Research Foundation , an edition of the matriculation work began in 1936 under Curschmann's direction. Due to various difficulties, not least because of the Second World War , the first description volume could not appear until 1948, two years after Curschmann's death.
Further publication came to a standstill without Curschmann. To make matters worse in the Soviet occupation zone and the GDR , the use of the term “Western Pomerania” was banned in 1947. In the 1950s and 1960s, Greifswald geographer Ernst Rubow († 1958) and his wife Marianne Rubow-Kalähne continued to work on drawing together the maps and translating the descriptions. However, it was only possible to get a few measuring table sheets out in print. Publication of the translated description volumes failed due to the changed personnel situation in the Greifswald State Archives . The most important work on the matriculation work from the following period comes from Eginhard Wegner .
After the fall of the Wall , the edition project could be resumed. Since 1992 several volumes with translations of the descriptions have been published. The maps from the holdings of the Institute for Geography at the University of Greifswald were digitized and made available to the public via the Internet.
- Landesarchiv Greifswald : 847 original cards, 598 pure cards, 74 register volumes
- Geographical Institute of the University of Greifswald : 127 pure cards
- Danish Royal Library in Copenhagen : 83 cards (Porada 2004, pp. 18–22)
- Reichsarchiv Stockholm : 1 original card, 75 pure cards, 3 description volumes
- State main archive Schwerin : 1 pure card
Of the property descriptions in the cities that were made for Anklam, Greifswald, Stettin, Stralsund and Wolgast, only those for Stralsund and Wolgast still exist in full. Of the original five volumes for Szczecin, four are still available today. One of two volumes for Greifswald was lost, as was the volume for Anklam. In addition, however, there are descriptions of all Swedish-Pomeranian cities and of Wismar, which were made in the course of general surveys of the flat country.
- Historical Commission for Pomerania, Greifswald State Archives (ed.) In collaboration with the Society for Pomeranian History , Archeology and Art : The Swedish Land Record of Western Pomerania 1692–1709. Maps and texts .
- Volume 1: Heinz Jüpner, Hans G. Lange (arr.): Wolgast. 1993, ISBN 3-930066-11-4 .
- Volume 2: Heiko Wartenberg, Ivo Asmus (arr.): Greifswald. Steinbecker Verlag, Greifswald 2002.
- Volume 3/1: Dirk Schleinert (arrangement): Stettin - Lastadie and suburbs. Greifswald 2004
- Volume 3/2: Dirk Schleinert (arrangement): Stettin - Passau quarter. Kiel 2005, ISBN 3-937719-29-6 .
- Volume 4: Heiko Wartenberg (arrangement): Barth. Verlag C. Ludwig, Kiel 2007, ISBN 978-3-937719-53-5 .
- Volume 3/3: Dirk Schleinert (arrangement): Stettin - Kessiner Viertel. Kiel 2013, ISBN 978-3-86935-201-5 .
- Cities :
Location descriptions .
- Volume 1: Heinz Jüpner, Hans G. Lange (arr.): Usedom Island. Axel Dietrich Verlag, 1994, ISBN 3-930066-12-2 .
- Volume 2/1: Marianne Rubow-Kalähne, Heiko Wartenberg (arr.): Island of Rügen - Jasmund peninsula. Steinbecker Verlag, Greifswald 1996, ISBN 3-931483-07-X .
- Volume 2/2: Heiko Wartenberg (edit.): Insel Rügen - Mönchgut. Steinbecker Verlag, Greifswald 2002.
- Volume 2/3: Heiko Wartenberg (edit.): Island of Rügen - Southeast Rügen. Steinbecker Verlag, Greifswald 2012.
- Volume 3: Eginhard Wegner , Marianne Rubow-Kalähne (edit.): Wolgast district. Part I: North of the Ziese (Land Wusterhusen). Steinbecker Verlag, Greifswald 1999, ISBN 3-931483-21-5 .
- Volume 4: Eginhard Wegner, Marianne Rubow-Kalähne, Heiko Wartenberg (arr.): The villages of the city of Greifswald . 2 volumes. Steinbecker Verlag, Greifswald 2000
- Volume 5: Eginhard Wegner, Marianne Rubow-Kalähne, Heiko Wartenberg (edit.): The villages of the University of Greifswald . 2 volumes. Steinbecker Verlag, Greifswald 2001
- Special volume 1: Eginhard Wegner (edit.): The country of Loitz between 1200 and 1700. A contribution to a historical-geographical investigation of Western Pomerania. Dirk Schleinert (Ed.), Ludwig, Kiel 2009, ISBN 978-3-86935-010-3 .
- Special volume 2: Michael Busch , Stefan Kroll , Jens Olesen , Martin Schoebel , Reinhard Zölitz (eds.): The Swedish land survey of Pomerania 1692–1709 - Perspectives of an edition project. Contributions from the workshop on October 9th and 10th, 2009 in the Pomeranian State Museum Greifswald. Ludwig, Kiel 2011, ISBN 978-3-86935-050-9 .
- Location descriptions .
- outside this row:
- Marianne Rubow-Kalähne: Matriculation cards from Western Pomerania 1692-1698 after the Swedish survey. A brief explanation of the map sheets Neuenkirchen, Greifswald, Wusterhusen and Hanshagen. Leipzig 1960.
- Owe Gustavs: Hiddensee 1695. Swedish land survey 1692-1709. Translated from Swedish and edited with a comment. Rostock 1998, ISBN 3-9806246-0-9 .
- Dirk Schleinert: The Swedish survey of the island of Poel 1698. ( Sources and studies from the state archives of Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania. Volume 9). Edition Temmen , Bremen 2009, ISBN 978-3-86108-064-0 .
- Ivo Asmus: The Geometric Land Survey of Swedish Pomerania 1692-1709. In: Baltic Studies. Pomeranian yearbooks for national history. Vol. 82, 1996, , pp. 79-98.
- Ivo Asmus: Experienced in the nyutgåva av de svenska matrikelkartorna över Vorpommern. In: Birgitta Roeck Hansen (ed.): Nationalutgåva av de äldre geometriska kartorna. Konferens i Stockholm 27-28 November 2003 (Konferenser, 57). Kungl. Vitterhets Historie och Antikvitets Akademien, Stockholm 2005, ISBN 91-7402-347-0 , pp. 81–94.
- Carl Drolshagen: The Swedish land register and Hufenmatrikel of Western Pomerania as the oldest German land registry. 2 volumes, von Bruncken, Greifswald 1920–1923.
- Eginhard Wegner, Heiko Wartenberg: The Swedish land survey of Western Pomerania 1692 - 1709. In: Historical Commission for Pomerania in connection with the Western Pomeranian State Archives Greifswald (publisher): The Swedish land survey of Western Pomerania 1692 - 1709. Cities; Volume 1: Wolgast. taken care of by Heinz Jüpner. From the older Neuschwed. in Dt. trans. by Hans-Günter Lange. - [Peenemünde] 1992, OCLC 256731158 , pp. 7-15.
- Haik Thomas Porada: Pomeranian maps from the Swedish land survey in the Royal Library in Copenhagen: with an excursus on sources for the Swedish land survey in the State Archives in Szczecin. In: Pomerania. Journal of Culture and History. 42nd vol., No. 2, 2004, , pp. 18-22.
- Michaela Riebau: The Swedish matriculation card of Western Pomerania and its significance for the research of the soil monuments . In: Contributions to the prehistory and early history of Central Europe . tape 41 . Beier & Beran, Langenweißbach 2006, ISBN 3-937517-19-7 .
Historical geography and cultural landscape research. Contributions to the memorial colloquium for Dr. Eginhard Wegner on May 4, 2001 in Greifswald . In: Reinhard Zölitz-Möller (Ed.): Greifswalder Geographische Arbeit . No. 22 . Ernst Moritz Arndt University Greifswald, Greifswald 2001, ISBN 3-86006-177-X ( formally incorrect ) ( PDF (7.68 MB) ( Memento from June 13, 2013 in the Internet Archive )). , from it:
- Martin Schoebel: Tax, land survey and mapping in early modern Pomerania - source-based annotations for historical regional research .
- Eginhard Wegner: A contribution to the history of the city villages of Greifswald .
- Heiko Wartenberg: The city of Greifswald at the time of the Swedish registration .
- Literature about the Swedish recording of West Pomerania in the national bibliography MV
- Greifswald digital library with access to digitized matriculation cards. ( DjVu format)
- Svea-Pommern DFG-funded edition project with the title Maps and Texts of the Swedish Land Survey of Pomerania 1692-1709. A GIS-supported selection edition of the first German land registry on the Internet.
- Fritz Curschmann: Matriculation cards from Western Pomerania 1692 - 1698: Maps and texts. Hinstorff, Rostock 1944.
- Wegner, Wartenberg 1992, pp. 10-11.