Yun I-sang

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Korean spelling
Hangeul 윤이상
Hanja 尹 伊桑
Yun I-sang
Yun Isang
Isang Yun at the presentation of the culture prize by the mayor of Kiel, Hermann Köster (right), 1969

Isang Yun , originally Yun I-sang (born September 17, 1917 north of the port city of Tongyeong , Keishō-nandō , Chōsen Province , Japanese Empire ; † November 3, 1995 in Berlin ), was a German composer of Korean descent .


Yun, who had made a name for himself as a composer of songs, including school anthems, in his native South Korea and who had drawn attention to himself with a string quartet I (1955) and a piano trio (1955), received the Seoul Culture Prize in 1955 . The prize money enabled him to move to Europe, where he wanted to catch up with contemporary international compositional developments. In June of the same year he began studying composition in the European and French tradition at the Conservatoire National de Musique in Paris. Nonetheless, he had an eye on Korea from the start, as u. a. from the correspondence with his wife Sooja.

Growing up in the time when Korea was a colony of Japan in which a displacement of Korean culture was sought, he was interested in building up the Korean musical life and giving it impetus. As a composer, he dreamed of music that would meet international standards and could be performed internationally, but should still contain Korean elements in order to contribute to a Korean identity in the field of music.

In Paris he studied composition with Tony Aubin and music theory with Pierre Revel, but already moved to West Berlin in July 1957 , where from the winter semester he studied composition with Boris Blacher , music theory with Reinhard Schwarz-Schilling and twelve-tone technique with Josef Rufer , a student of Arnold Schönberg , studied. In September 1958, Yun first attended the international summer courses for new music in Darmstadt , where he a. a. met John Cage and Bruno Maderna . In July 1959, Yun took his final exam at the Berlin University of Music.

The success of two compositions, which, like Opus 1 and Opus 2, lead his official catalog raisonné, moved him to stay in Germany: On September 4, 1959, the music for seven instruments (1959) with the Hamburg Chamber Soloists - Gerhard , arrived in Darmstadt Otto (flute), Heinz Nordbruch (oboe), Rudolf Irmisch (clarinet), Alfred Franke (bassoon), Rolf Lind (horn), Bernhard Hamann (violin) and Siegfried Palm (violoncello) - under the direction of Francis Travis for the premiere. On September 6, 1959, the Five Pieces for Piano (1958) were premiered by Herman Kruyt at the Gaudeamus Festival in Bilthoven . (On October 1st, Rolf Kuhnert played the German premiere in Krefeld , where Yun temporarily resided.)

In Berlin, Yun adapted Schönberg's twelve-tone technique ; he changed the basics of his compositional technique, as he later put it, "radically". The fact that Boris Blacher encouraged him to develop the individuality of his musical language from the examination of East Asian traditional music - in particular the court music traditions of China, Korea and Japan - led to various radio broadcasts in the early 1960s and has been compositionally evident since works such as Loyang for chamber ensemble (1962), Gasa for violin and piano (1963) and Garak for flute and piano (1963). From then on, Yun succeeded in establishing himself internationally as a composer based on German musical life, fusing East Asian musical traditions (especially those of the long-held “single note”, a music-theoretical abstraction) with techniques of the Western avant-garde .

In the summer of 1966 he went on a two-month study and lecture tour to the United States: Tanglewood , Massachusetts , Aspen , Colorado, San Francisco , Los Angeles , Chicago , New York City . The premiere of Réak (1966) at the Donaueschinger Musiktage on October 23, 1966 under Ernest Bour became a global success . Yun reproduces the sounds of the East Asian mouth organ (Ssaenghwang in Korean, Sheng in Chinese , Shō in Japanese ) in what appears to be an “avant-garde” orchestral composition.

A catastrophe that subsequently occurred put Yun into a twilight situation that continues to have repercussions: As a patriot, he had early expressed himself critical of the development of the Park Chung-hee regime (from 1961), indignant about the breakdown of the unions and the establishment the military dictatorship and the liquidation of the efforts to reunify Korea. In 1963 he had visited the People's Democratic Republic of North Korea , which was then possible through the North Korean embassy in East Berlin . Compared to the agrarian south of Korea, North Korea, which was rich in natural resources, was economically further developed at the time. It was industrialized with the help of the Soviet Union and the GDR and sealed off from South Korea as a result of the Cold War .

On June 17, 1967, Yun was kidnapped by the South Korean secret service via the South Korean embassy in Bonn to Seoul. He, his wife, and other South Korean-born Koreans living in Europe and the United States were charged with treason in Seoul under the National Security Act . In a show trial he, the most prominent victim of this “kidnapping” (in South Korea belittlingly called “East Berlin Incident”), was sentenced in the first instance to life imprisonment on December 13, 1967. On March 13, 1968, the sentence was revised in the second instance to 15 years in prison , and finally in the third instance in January 1969 to ten years. After international protests - Yun's supporters included a. Igor Fjodorowitsch Stravinsky and Herbert von Karajan , Bernd Alois Zimmermann , György Ligeti and Karlheinz Stockhausen , but also Hans Zender - and thanks to the efforts of his friends and the Foreign Office , he was released at the end of February and returned to West Berlin, where he and his wife became German citizens in 1971.


During his imprisonment in Seoul, Yun received permission to compose in October 1967. In the prison cell he completed the opera The Widow of the Butterfly (1967/68) on February 5, 1968. After being released from prison for health reasons, the chamber music works Riul [Law] and Images were created in a hospital under guard . The image- related reference to the grave frescoes in Kangsǒ , North Korea , which he visited during his visit to North Korea in 1963, is at the same time a model expression of Yun's Taoist aesthetics and aesthetic ambiguity.

Since the mid-1960s, four operas have been written ( Der Traum des Liu-Tung , 1965; The Widow of the Butterfly , 1967/68; Geisterliebe , 1969/70; Sim Tjong , 1971/72), which for various reasons (the advancement of music and the associated technical difficulties in terms of singing and playing, the fairy tale material, which - at least in the case of the great operas - was ultimately based on Wagner's music theater oriented symphonic claim), which was in a certain contrast to this, was hardly re-staged.

Yun's chamber music has entered the concert repertoire. His solo concerts were also frequently performed, especially in the 1980s and early 1990s, beginning with the autobiographically motivated concerto for violoncello and orchestra (1966/67) through to the concerto for oboe and harp with a small orchestra (1977) and the flute concerto (1977 ), the clarinet concerto (1981) to the late oboe concerto (1990) and the violin concerto No. 3 (1992).

The most important orchestral pieces in his first creative phase in Europe (up to around 1975/76) include Fluctuations for large orchestra (1964), Dimensions for large orchestra with organ (1971), concertante figures for orchestra with flute, oboe and solo violin (1972), Harmonia for wind instruments, harp and percussion (1974) and overture for large orchestra (1973; rev. 1974). A change of style is announced in Muak. Dance Fantasy for large orchestra (1978) and Fanfare & Memorial for orchestra with harp and flute solo (1979).

The three-movement Concerto for Violin and Orchestra No. 1 (1981) and the four-movement Symphony I for large orchestra (1982/83) show this change in style away from up to twelve-tone, relatively static, self-animated sound surfaces (albeit with a latently traditional, because “Targeted” dramaturgy) to a stronger tonal idiomatic with correspondingly more clearly articulated emotional content and a comparatively more traditional, almost classicistic dramaturgy. Yun did not perceive these stylistic changes in his musical language as a step backwards, but as an attempt to address a wider audience and, in particular, to gain recognition in his native Korea. (This includes not least Silla. Legend for orchestra, 1992.)

Namo for three sopranos and orchestra based on the prayer formulas of Mahayana Buddhism (1971, also in a version with solo soprano) was created after the release from captivity in Seoul and became a kind of thanksgiving. Also Gagok for guitar, drums and voice (phonemes, 1972) continues the tradition of a traditional Korean genre.

Memory for three voices and percussion instruments based on a poem by Du-Mu (1974) was probably created in memory of a deceased person. Vocal works such as An der Schwelle became particularly famous . Sonnets by Albrecht Haushofer for baritone, women's choir, organ and instruments (1975) and Teil dich Nacht . Three poems by Nelly Sachs for soprano and chamber ensemble (1980) because they take a stand against fascist rule and thus also touch on European and German issues. Further works based on poems by Nelly Sachs are Der Herr ist mein Hirte . Choir with solo trombone (23rd Psalm and Nelly Sachs, 1981), O light . Choir with solo violin and percussion (Nelly Sachs and Buddhism, 1981) and Symphony V (1987), the peace symphony .

The orchestral piece Exemplum in memoriam Kwangju (1981) shows horror at the carnage in Kwangju in 1980 . As a commentary on the division of Korea, the cantata with oratorical features Naui ttang, naui minjogiyo! [“Mein Land, mein Volk”] for four vocal soloists, choir and orchestra (based on lyrics by South Korean opposition members, 1986/87).

Yun unfolds stylistic diversity and individuality in his works. In addition to the large symphonic works, there are sensitive and filigree solo pieces as well as chamber music works.


In 1988 Yun was awarded the German Federal Cross of Merit, and in 1995 he was made an honorary member of the International Society for Contemporary Music ISCM ( International Society for New Music ).

On the occasion of his 90th birthday, the social scientist and peace researcher Dieter Senghaas paid tribute to him :

“Not many composers have dedicated their artistic life's work to peace, understood as protection from violence, protection of freedom and protection from hardship and the promotion of empathy between cultures. Isang Yun is one of them, and he documents in an exemplary manner that one can be a critically-minded, politically committed patriot and at the same time a cosmopolitan citizen of the world - and must be today. "

The film documentary Isang Yun: A Fate Between North and South Korea was broadcast on ARTE in 2013 . The Körber Foundation notes:

“Isang Yun saw the opportunity to build bridges and overcome political divides. Today he is the only contemporary figure to whom a museum is dedicated in both parts of Korea. The film author Maria Stodtmeier traces his life and with rare shots from North and South Korea gives insights into a country that has been deeply divided to this day. "

In July 2015, the Nordstadt Concerts eV organized a series of concerts in Hanover in honor of the composer. Yun came to the Hanover University of Music in 1969 as a composition teacher .

He was buried in the Gatow Landscape Cemetery (Section 3, Section B, No. 13/14). His grave was designated as an honorary grave of the city of Berlin from 1997 to 2018 . In spring 2018, Isang Yun's urn was transferred to Tongyeong and buried in a new grave with a view of the sea not far from the Tongyeong Concert Hall, which was completed in 2014.


All of Yun's works are published by Boosey & Hawkes / Bote & Bock, Berlin. The playing scores are distributed by Schott Music , among others .

Chamber music solo

  • Five pieces for piano (1958)
  • Shao Yang Yin for piano or harpsichord (1966)
  • Tuyaux sonores for organ (1967)
  • Glissées for cello solo (1970)
  • Piri for oboe solo (1971)
  • Five Etudes for flute (s) solo (1974)
  • Fragment for organ (1975)
  • Royal Theme for Violin Solo (1976)
  • Solomon for alto flute solo (1977/78)
  • Interlude A for piano (1982)
  • Monologue for bass clarinet (1983)
  • Monologue for bassoon (1983/84)
  • Li-Na in the garden. Five pieces for violin solo (1984/85)
  • In Balance for harp solo (1987)
  • Contrasts . Two pieces for violin solo (1987)
  • Sori for flute solo (1988)
  • Four Chinese Pictures for recorder or flute solo (1993)
  • Seven Etudes for Solo Cello (1993)

Chamber music duo

  • Garak for flute and piano (1963)
  • Gasa for violin and piano (1963)
  • Nore for violoncello and piano (1964)
  • Riul for clarinet and piano (1968)
  • Gagok for voice and guitar (1972), arrangement by Siegfried Behrend
  • Duo for viola and piano (1976)
  • Novellette for flute and harp ad lib. with violin and violoncello (1980)
  • Duo for violoncello and harp (1984)
  • Four Inventions for two oboes (1983)
  • Sonatina for two violins (1983)
  • Gagok for voice and harp (1985)
  • Contemplation for two violas (1988)
  • Intermezzo for violoncello and accordion (1988)
  • Pezzo fantasioso per due strumenti con basso ad libitum (1988)
  • Calls for oboe and harp (1989)
  • Together for violin and double bass (1989)
  • Sonata for violin and piano (1991)
  • Espace I for violoncello and piano (1992)
  • Espace II for violoncello and harp with oboe ad libitum (1992/93)
  • Two east-west miniatures for oboe and violoncello (1994)


  • Gagok for guitar, drums and voice (1972)
  • Trio for flute (also alto flute), oboe and violin (1972/73)
  • Trio for violin, violoncello and piano (1972/75)
  • Rondell for oboe, clarinet and bassoon (1975)
  • Sonata for oboe (also oboe d'amore ), harp and violoncello (or viola) (1979)
  • Rencontre for clarinet, harp (or piano) and violoncello (1986)
  • Pezzo fantasioso per due strumenti con basso ad libitum (1988)
  • Trio for clarinet, bassoon and horn (1992)
  • Espace II for violoncello and harp with oboe ad libitum (1992/93)


  • String Quartet I in three movements (1955)
  • String Quartet III in three movements (1959/61)
  • Images for flute, oboe, violin and violoncello (1968)
  • Novellette for flute and harp, with violin and violoncello ad lib. (1980)
  • Quartet for flutes (1986)
  • String Quartet IV in two movements (1988)
  • String Quartet V in One Movement (1990)
  • String Quartet VI in four movements (1992)
  • Quartet for horn, trumpet, trombone and piano (1992)
  • Quartet for oboe, violin, viola and violoncello (1994)


  • Quintet for flute and string quartet in three movements (1986)
  • Quintet for Clarinet and String Quartet I (1984)
  • Quintet for Clarinet and String Quartet II (1994)
  • Tapis for strings (2 Vl., Va., Vc., Kb.) (1987)
  • Festive dance for wind quintet (1988)
  • Wind quintet I-II (1991)
  • Concertino for accordion and string quartet (1983)

Chamber music larger line-up

  • Music for seven instruments in three movements (Fl., Ob., Klar., Fg., Hr., Vl., Vc.) (1959)
  • Loyang for chamber ensemble (nine players with conductor) (1962)
  • Pièce concertante for chamber ensemble (eight players with conductor) (1976)
  • Octet for clarinet (also bass clarinet), bassoon, horn and string quintet (2 Vl., 2 Va., Vc., Kb.) (1978)
  • Part you night . Three poems by Nelly Sachs for soprano and chamber ensemble (1980)
  • Gong-Hu for harp and strings (1984)
  • Distanzen for wind and string quintet (1988)
  • Chamber concert I for chamber ensemble or small orchestra (1990)
  • Chamber concert II for seven players (Ob., Pos., Pno., Perc., Va., Vc., Kb.) (1990)
  • Wind octet with double bass ad libitum (1993)

Orchestral works

  • Bara (1960)
  • Symphonic scene (1960)
  • Colloides sonores for string orchestra (1961)
  • Fluctuations for large orchestra (1964)
  • Réak for large orchestra (1966)
  • Dimensions for large orchestra with organ (1971)
  • Concert figures for orchestra with flute, oboe and violin solo (1972)
  • Harmonia for winds, harp and percussion (1974)
  • Overture for large orchestra (1973; rev. 1974)
  • Muak . Dance Fantasy for Large Orchestra (1978)
  • Fanfare & Memorial for orchestra with harp and flute solo (1979)
  • Exemplum in memoriam Kwangju (1981)
  • Symphony I in four movements for large orchestra (1982/83)
  • Symphony II in three movements for orchestra (1984)
  • Symphony III in one movement for orchestra (1985)
  • Symphony IV Sing in the Dark in two movements for large orchestra (1986)
  • Symphony V in five movements for high baritone and large orchestra based on poems by Nelly Sachs (1987)
  • Impression for small orchestra (1986)
  • Mugung-dong . Invocation for winds, drums and double basses (1986)
  • Tapis for strings (1987)
  • Chamber Symphony I (1987)
  • Chamber Symphony II The Victims of Freedom (1989)
  • Contours for large orchestra (1989)
  • Silla . Legend for orchestra (1992)
  • Engel in Flammen with epilogue for orchestra, soprano solo and female choir (1994)

Instrumental concerts

  • Concerto for violoncello and orchestra (1975/76)
  • Concerto for flute and small orchestra (1977)
  • Concerto for oboe and harp with small orchestra (1977)
  • Concerto for Clarinet and Orchestra (1981)
  • Concerto for violin and orchestra No. 1 in three movements (1981)
  • Concerto for violin and orchestra No. 2 (1983/86) in three movements, can also be performed individually: Festive Prelude (1984), Dialogue Butterfly-Atomic Bomb (1983), Adagio and Finale (1986)
  • Concerto for oboe (oboe d'amore) and orchestra (1990)
  • Concerto for violin and small orchestra No. 3 (1992)
  • Gong-Hu for harp and strings (1984)
  • Duetto concertante for oboe (English horn), violoncello and strings (1987)

Vocal works

  • Om mani padme hum . Cycle for soprano, baritone, choir and orchestra in five movements (1964)
  • A butterfly dream . Choir based on a Chinese text by Ma Chi-Yuan (1968)
  • Namo for three soprano and orchestra based on Mahayana Buddhist prayer formulas (1971)
  • Gagok for guitar, drums and voice. Text: Phoneme (1972)
  • From the Tao . Choirs from the opera Sim Tjong for mixed choir, organ and percussion (1972/82)
  • Memory for three voices and percussion instruments based on a poem by Du-Mu (1974)
  • On the threshold . Sonnets by Albrecht Haushofer for baritone, women's choir, organ and instruments (1975)
  • The wise man . Cantata based on texts by the preacher Solomon and Laotse for baritone, mixed choir and small orchestra (1977)
  • Shaman's songs from the opera Geisterliebe (1969/70) for alto and chamber orchestra arranged by Erwin Koch-Raphael (1977)
  • Part you night . Three poems by Nelly Sachs for soprano and chamber ensemble (1980)
  • The Lord is my Shepherd . Choir with solo trombone after the 23rd Psalm and Nelly Sachs (1981)
  • O light . Choir with solo violin and percussion based on Nelly Sachs and a Buddhist prayer (1981)
  • Naui ttang, naui minjogiyo! ("Mein Land, mein Volk") Korean cantata for four vocal soloists, choir and orchestra (1986/87)
  • Epilogue for soprano solo, three-part female choir and five instruments (1994)


  • Liu Tung's Dream (1965)
  • The widow of the butterfly (1967/68)
  • Spiritual love (1969/70)
  • Sim Tjong (1971/72)


  • Hinrich Bergmeier (Ed.): Isang Yun. Festschrift for his 75th birthday in 1992. Bote & Bock, Berlin 1992 (including: Walter-Wolfgang Sparrer: Identity and Change. On the string quartets III-VI. Pp. 28–57).
  • Ae-Kyung Choi: Unity and Diversity. A study on the five symphonies by Isang Yun (= Berlin Music Studies. Volume 25). Studio Verlag, Sinzig 2002.
  • Insook Han: Interculturality in Korean New Music. Integration and hybridity in the music of Isang Yun and Byungki Hwang. (= Studies in Musicology. Volume 23). Dr. Kovac, Hamburg 2011 (also dissertation. University of Graz 2009).
  • Hanns-Werner Heister , Walter-Wolfgang Sparrer (Hrsg.): The composer Isang Yun. edition text + kritik Munich 1987; extended 2nd edition 1997 (contains more than 30 articles; in the 2nd edition 1997 Yun's Salzburg lectures "About my music", a central source, as well as an essay on Yun's works from the last ten years). - Korean edition: Hang'il, Seoul 1991. - Italian edition under the title: Isang Yun. Musica nello spirito del Tao. Ricordi, Milan 2007.
  • Keith Howard: Music across the DMZ. In: John Morgan O'Connell, Salwa El-Shawan Castelo-Branco (eds.): Music in Conflict. University of Illinois Press, Indiana 2010, pp. 67-88.
  • Kii-Ming Lo : The East Asian Sources of Isang Yun's Opera Libretti . In: Walter-Wolfgang Sparrer (Ed.): Ssi-ol. Almanach 2002/03 , Berlin (International Isang Yun Society eV) 2004, pp. 89–112.
  • Kii-Ming Lo: Dream and »Dreams« - On the fate of Isang Yun's operatic works . In: Peter Csobádi, Jürgen Kühnel, Ulrich Müller et al. (Ed.): Dream and Reality in Theater and Music Theater. Lectures and discussions at the Salzburg Symposium 2004 . Müller-Speiser, Anif / Salzburg 2006, pp. 518-533.
  • Jürgen Maehder : Convergences of musical structural thinking. On the history and classification of the sound fields in Isang Yun's scores. In: Music Theory. 7/1992, pp. 151-166.
  • Music texts. No. 62/63. Cologne, January 1996 (with a total of 17 articles on Yun).
  • Luise Rinser, Isang Yun: The wounded dragon. Dialogue about the life and work of the composer Isang Yun. S. Fischer, Frankfurt 1977.
  • Gesine Schröder : "... enter a strange room". To the European in Yun's music. University of Music and Theater “Felix Mendelssohn Bartholdy”, Leipzig 2001/2011. (on-line)
  • Walter-Wolfgang Sparrer: Isang Yun. In: Hanns-Werner Heister, Walter-Wolfgang Sparrer (Hrsg.): Contemporary composers . edition text + kritik, Munich 1992ff.
  • Walter-Wolfgang Sparrer (Ed.): Ssi-ol. 1997 Almanac of the International Isang Yun Society V. Berlin 1997.
  • Walter-Wolfgang Sparrer (Ed.): Ssi-ol. Almanac 1998/99 of the International Isang Yun Society e. V. edition text + kritik, Munich 1999.
  • Walter-Wolfgang Sparrer (Ed.): Ssi-ol. Almanac 2000/01 of the International Isang Yun Society e. V. edition text + kritik, Munich 2002.
  • Walter-Wolfgang Sparrer (Ed.): Ssi-ol. Almanac 2002/03 of the International Isang Yun Society e. V. edition text + kritik, Munich 2004.
  • Walter-Wolfgang Sparrer (Ed.): Ssi-ol. Almanac 2004/09 of the International Isang Yun Society e. V. edition text + kritik, Munich 2009.
  • Walter-Wolfgang Sparrer: "Singing in the dark ..." Luise Rinser and Isang Yun . In: José Sánchez de Murillo , Martin Thurner (ed.): Aufgang. Yearbook for Thinking - Poetry - Music . Vol. 9. Kohlhammer, Stuttgart 2012, ISBN 978-3-17-022349-3 , pp. 104-121.
  • Walter-Wolfgang Sparrer: Isang Yun. Life and work in the picture. Wolke Verlag, Hofheim aT 2020, ISBN 978-3-95593-117-9 (picture monograph, text in German, Korean and English).
  • Ilja Stephan: Isang Yun. The five symphonies (= music concepts . Issue 109/110). edition text + kritik, Munich 2000, ISBN 3-88377-644-0 .
  • Shin-Hyang Yun: Between two musical worlds. Studies of Isang Yun's musical thinking. Königshausen & Neumann, Würzburg 2002, ISBN 3-8260-2392-7 .

Web links

Commons : Yun I-sang  - collection of images, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. ^ Joo Won Kim: The Development of Contemporary Korean Music with Emphasis on Works of Isang Yun. In: Dissertation. 2011, accessed on August 7, 2015 .
  2. ^ International Isang Yun Society eV In: Retrieved August 7, 2015 .
  3. Kyung Ha Lee: A Comparative Study of Selected Violin Works of Isang Yun. In: Dissertation. 2009, accessed on August 7, 2015 .
  4. The Abduction of Isang Yun . In: The time . 1967 ( online [accessed August 6, 2015]).
  5. The Free Will of Isang Yun . In: The time . 1967 ( online [accessed August 6, 2015]).
  6. Markus Hillenbrand: Klassika: Isang Yun (1917–1995): The widow of the butterfly. In: Retrieved August 7, 2015 .
  7. ^ Ko Eun Lee: Isang Yun's Musical Bilingualism. (PDF) In: Dissertation. 2012, accessed December 4, 2015 .
  8. ^ Opera Composers: Y. In: Retrieved August 7, 2015 .
  9. On the Threshold - Yun, Isang (Musica Database). In: Retrieved August 7, 2015 .
  10. Woohyuk Choi: The Opening Section of Isang Yun's My Land My People. (PDF) 2006, accessed on August 7, 2015 (English).
  11. ^ ISCM Honorary Members
  12. Sounds of Peace - more than a utopia | Edition: 9/07 | nmz - new music newspaper. In: Retrieved August 6, 2015 .
  13. ^ Körber Foundation Hamburg: Isang Yun: A fate between North and South Korea. (No longer available online.) In: Archived from the original ; accessed on August 6, 2015 .
  14. ^ Festive memorial concerts in honor of the composer Isang Yun - Press service of the state capital Hanover. In: Retrieved August 6, 2015 .
  15. biography at
  16. ^ International Isang Yun Society eV In: Retrieved August 7, 2015 .
  17. Song Young Kim: The Concept of Unity in Isang Yun's Royal theme for violin solo. (PDF) In: Dissertation. 2011, accessed on August 7, 2014 .
  18. Dae-Sik Hur: An Analysis of Isang Yun's Salomo for Flute Solo or Alto Flute Solo. (PDF) In: Dissertation. 2005, accessed on August 7, 2015 .
  19. ^ Hyo Jung Kim: Combining of Korean Traditional Performance and Recent German Techniques in Isang Yun's Kontraste. (PDF) In: Dissertation. 2010, accessed on August 7, 2015 .
  20. Kim Daewook: The Integration of Western Techniques with East Asian Philosophies in Isan Yun's Quartet for Horn, Trumpet, Trombone and Piano. (PDF) In: Dissertation. 2013, accessed on August 7, 2015 .