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|八 ， 捌
|1, 2, 4, 8
The word eight , which developed from the Old High German ahto , comes from an Indo-European root. Originally it may be a dual form, probably “the two tips of four” of the outstretched fingers of the two hands without the thumbs .
Not related to the number word eight in terms of attention, as in be careful (or outdated careful ), eight in the sense of ostracism or aft in shipping.
The Latin expression octo with the ordinal number octavus (the eighth) can be found in foreign words such as octet (ensemble), October (originally the 8th month), octave (interval), octant . The German expression today in eight days , with which a period of one week is meant, comes from the Roman counting method , in which the first and last day are also counted. The Latin numerals for 18 28 to 88 are - as in novem (9) - not with octo formed but circumscribed z. B. duo-de-viginti for 18, literally: 2 of 20 (deducted).
The original Brahmi character for eight looked like a step leading to the top left. In the further development it initially resembled the 5 and the letter S. The Arabs in the Maghreb used the Ghubar script to connect the ends and thus created the basis for the modern symbol.
In most fonts and manuscripts, the upper loop of the number is shaped smaller than the lower one, which results in a stable image and goes well with fonts that are usually less than half-height ascent. In the case of a flat, oblique view of large digits from relative proximity, for example on a motorway lane or an airplane runway, the view (projection) tends in this direction alone because of the differences in distance.
- The octahedron is one of the five platonic solids .
- A polygon with eight sides is an octagon .
- In computer technology, a number system based on eight, the octal system, is used .
- Eight is the first real cube number apart from 1³.
- It is also the smallest of three prime factors composite number .
- Every odd number above one, squared, is a multiple of eight with a remainder of one.
- Eight is the smallest Leyland number .
- Eighth note is generally the eighth part of a whole in fractions ; the following terms are derived from this:
- All arachnids (arachnida) have eight walking legs. The genus Octopus heard as all octopuses to the subordination of the eight-armed squid . The Octocorallia , which used to be called eight-rayed flower animals (Octocorallae), have eight mostly pinnate tentacles and an eight-rayed structure inside.
- There are eight major winds in some ancient Greek scholars; see wind rose .
- The solar system has in astronomical view since 2006 eight planets.
- The octet rule is a simple construction feature for molecules in chemistry, since in most compounds each element aims for a number of valence electrons of eight.
- The chemical element with atomic number 8 is oxygen .
- Eightfold Way , classification of hadrons in the context of quantum chromodynamics.
- One of the magic numbers of atomic nuclei.
The octagon (Greek for octagon) is an important structural form of Christian sacred architecture. It follows the Christian meaning of eight as a sacred number . Following the example of San Vitale in Ravenna and the (Islamic) Dome of the Rock , many important churches were designed around a central octagon, such as the Palatine Chapel of the Aachen Cathedral . Also Baptisteries are often found in an octagonal shape. A special case is the Castel del Monte in Apulia , which was built in the time of Emperor Frederick II and where the eight is interpreted as a symbol for the emperor.
- The morning star, symbol for the ancient goddess Ishtar , later adopted as Venus , is represented by eight rays.
- According to the eighthness of Hermopolis , the divine doctrine of the Egyptian Hermopolis, eight deities ruled as personified primordial forces before the creation of the world.
- The Etruscans spoke of eight world ages.
- The eight plays an important role in Chinese numerology .
- Examples of the role of the eight can be found in myths , legends and fairy tales . Odin's Sleipnir is an 8-footed horse; Plato's Kugelmenschen im Dialog Symposion have eight extremities (four arms and four legs).
- Early Christian Gnostics spoke of eight heavenly spheres.
- In the Christian number symbolism of the Middle Ages, eight is the number of the happy beginning, the new birth, the new beginning, the spiritual rebirth, it is also the number of baptism and resurrection, symbol of the new covenant and symbol of happiness.
- On the 8th day a new week begins , a new time - for the Church Fathers a symbol of the day of the Lord's Resurrection ( resurrectio Domini ) and the new creation in baptism . The octagonal shape of early Christian baptisteries uses this sense of the eighth day.
- Eight people are saved in Noah's ark (1 Mos 6:18).
- On the 8th day after the birth, the Jewish circumcision takes place.
- The Jewish Hanukkah festival lasts eight days. Every day another candle is lit on the Hanukkiah , the eight-armed candlestick. The candlestick has nine arms for an additional light, the so-called servant (Hebrew shamash) to light the eight lights.
In Judaism, the number 8 signifies the transition from temporality to timelessness, the connection of immanence (this-worldliness, transience) to transcendence (otherworldliness, over-temporality). It has a connecting, bridge-building character, as it connects the world of the 7 (the world of the 6 working days with the Shabbat day of rest) with the world of the 8 (the divine). There is a perfecting quality inherent in the number eight - it brings two apparently irreconcilable worlds together through the mysterious unifying power of God. "The eight is the number of infinity. ... If we look at the number eight in an upright as well as in a lying form, we recognize a harmonic oscillation in it; it is a movement that, similar to the constant in and out of breathing, defines an inner center in its oscillation between two poles, balances and integrates it. " (Yuval Lapide, "Das Herz der Kabbalah", OWBarth 2011, January 26th) Because of this special meaning of the number eight, the circumcision of the Jewish boy must take place on the eighth day, except in emergencies.
- In Buddhism , the eightfold path leads out of samsara to liberation. Its symbol is the Dharmachakra , an eight-spoke wheel. The fourth of the four noble truths consists of it .
- The eight immortals are saints of Chinese mythology and Daoism .
- The Daoist goddess Doumu is usually represented with eight arms.
- The old Chinese book of changes ( Yijing ) knows eight trigrams .
- Eight sounds denote the classical Chinese musical instrument classification.
- Eight banners were Chinese administrative units.
- By dividing the coordinate axes arises Achtspeichenrad : eight speiches wheel ancient chariot, mostly drawn by four horses.
- Quadriga - wheel of the year Germanic peoples, fortune wheel of fortune in the Middle Ages .
- As a doubled four, eight is the number of the cosmos .
- A doubling of the 8, for H the eighth letter of the alphabet, to 88 is a cipher for Heil Hitler .
- In Terry Pratchett's Discworld , the eight represents the number of magic . It should never be spoken aloud by a wizard .
- Eighty stag with eight antlers
- Eighth note , disambiguation page
- Eighth , disambiguation page
- Roller coaster , amusement ride
- Eight months of fear in the toddler stage
- Eight-hour day , the struggle for the workers, today the average (or maximum) working time of eight hours per working day
- Eight-thousanders 14 mountains with a height of over 8,000 meters
- Group of Eight , world political forum
- Eight-eight German flak
- Eight old places , Swiss cantons
- Eight treasures , symbols of Chinese art
- The eight , artist group
- Octaving , represented by the number 8 in music notation
- Franz Joseph Dölger : The octagon and the symbolism of the figure eight . In: Franz Joseph Dölger: Antiquity and Christianity Vol. 4 . Münster 1934, pp. 153-187
- WE Peuckert: Concise dictionary of the legend. 1961.
- List of all Wikipedia articles with titles starting with eight
- List of all the Wikipedia article whose title Eight contains
Footnotes & individual references
- French " en quinze jours " = in two weeks, quinze = fifteen