Eagle of Lübeck

from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Eagle of Lübeck
Drawing of the eagle of Lübeck
Drawing of the eagle of Lübeck
Ship data
Ship type galleon
Shipyard Wall peninsula, Lübeck
Keel laying 1565
Launch March 1566
Commissioning 1567
Ship dimensions and crew
78.3 m ( Lüa )
49.0 m ( Lpp )
width 14.5 m
Draft Max. 5.3 m
displacement approx. 2,000 t
crew 350 men + 650 marines
Rigging and rigging
Number of masts 4th
Sail area 1,795 m²
Transport capacities
Load capacity 1,530 dw

138 guns:

  • 8 × 48 pounders (whole cartons )
  • 6 × 24 pounders (half cartoons)
  • 26 × 10 pounders ( field snakes )
  • 10 × 6 pounders (three-quarter snakes)
  • 4 × 5 pounders (half field snakes)
  • 8 × 3 pounders (quartersnakes)
  • 40 × 1½ pounders ( Barsen )
  • 36 × stone rifles (different calibers)

The Adler von Lübeck , also known as Der Große Adler or Lübscher Adler , was a warship belonging to the Hanseatic city of Lübeck in the 16th century. With an overall length of approx. 78.30 m and an estimated water displacement of 1000 to 2000 t, she was one of the largest ships of her time.

The Adler was put into service in 1567 as the command ship of the Lübeckers in the Northern War against Sweden , but was no longer used as planned. With almost 150 artillery tubes on three gun decks, the warship, which is to be regarded as a hybrid of galleon and carrack , came very close to the conception of the later three-deckers . The four-masted rigging up to around 62 m in height also largely anticipated the dimensions of the subsequent era of ships of the line . After the end of the war in 1570, the Adler was converted into a cargo ship and u. a. used for the salt trade with the Iberian Peninsula , where the ship, which was actually unsuitable for freight operations, finally leaked in 1581 and was scrapped.


Overall, it has so far been possible to locate only a few documents about the eagles from Lübeck , although there is still a lot of unknown material about the ship in the city and museum archives. At least there is the artillery book of the Adler von Lübeck as well as some - admittedly different - information about the dimensions of the ship. These are contained in several sources from the 16th and 17th centuries, namely in the chronicles of the Lübeck town clerks von Hoeveln (around 1565), Heinrich Rehbein (1568–1619 / 29) and Detlef Dreyer (around 1600). The chronicler Johann Peter Willbrand also spoke about the ship in the middle of the 18th century. An important source is the shipping history of Peter van der Horst, which, in addition to the gun book, serves as the basis for the adjacent table information (see footnotes there for precise references).

Exact construction drawings have not appeared so far, so that only the generally known characteristics of the ship types of the carrack and the galleon can serve as a guide. The existing model replicas differ from one another accordingly. It can be assumed that no construction drawings were made, since shipbuilders in the 16th century primarily relied on their practical experience and craftsmanship. Rough guide values ​​for ship dimensions can only be obtained from the building contract (building contract). However, it should not be forgotten that old dimensions such as cubits or feet could differ from place to place.


The Adler von Lübeck was laid on a building site on the Trave in 1565 by the shipbuilder Sylvester Franke (also: Francke) . The client was the Hanseatic city of Lübeck, which was in the Northern War with Sweden and, after losing its previous flagship, Engel, needed a new lead ship. The main task of the eagles should be to provide escort protection for Hansa merchant ships on the Baltic and North Sea . The ship was launched as early as March 1566 and, after completion, was put into service the following year. The later mayor of Lübeck Johann Brockes (also: Brokes) took over the command of the Adler as the new flagship until 1569 and from 1570 the councilor Johann von Wickede.

In the meantime, however, the Lübeck Admiralty had to complain about great losses. In July 1566, after a battle with the Swedes, the Morian and Admiral Bartholomeus Tinnappel as well as twelve other Danish and Lübeck ships sank off Gotland in a storm in which the anchors had not held. After this accident, the Hanseatic city's fleet was only partially operational.

Since the warring parties had meanwhile come to the negotiating table, the eagle was no longer used. Without having seen combat operations, the ship, whose war equipment was finally superfluous after the Peace of Stettin in November 1570, was converted into a cargo ship and used for trips to the Iberian Peninsula . Last but not least, the removal of a number of guns made it possible to increase the loading capacity of the Adler from 1250 t (625 loads ) to around 1600 t (800 loads). Nevertheless, it was not possible to convert the Adler von Lübeck into a real trading sailor, as it was built too complex for freight operations and proved unsuitable for the salt freighting that was customary at the time. In addition, the ship took a lot of water, which was probably due to the fact that the keel beam bent upwards amidships and the given frame construction was not suitable for such a large kraweel- built ship.

In 1581 the eagle of Lübeck struck a leak on a return trip from Lisbon about 200 kilometers from the mouth of the Tejo and had to be brought to the Portuguese capital. After the damage had been assessed, the ship was sold for around 2000 ducats and its wood was put to another use.

Ship type

The eagle from Lübeck was classified differently in the (few so far found) sources, including cog , holk , carrack or galleon. Like almost all ships of that time, however , the eagle could not be assigned to a specific type of ship, since master shipbuilders often adopted elements from other types of construction that were well received, creating mixed forms. In addition, a number of design features identify the eagle as a ship of transition. So touched about the clinkering at the top stern yet from the northern European building tradition of the 15th century ago, the transom, the behind whereas stem retracted front fort , the lower aft structure and divided Fock - and mainmast been developments of the late 16th and coming 17th century anticipated.

Overall, however, the Adler von Lübeck can most likely be attributed to the type of an early northern European galleon, although some structural features still indicate a late carrack.

Construction features at a glance

The Adler von Lübeck had an overall length of 78.30 m, a width of 14.50 m and a water displacement of approx. 2000 t. Other sources even mention 3000 t. Some authors speak of the first ship of the line in history, as it was roughly the size of a medium ship of the line from the later Nelson era , and its three gun decks were already close to the later three-deckers. The town clerk Detlef Dreyer said around 1600 about the Adler von Lübeck and the Fortuna , which was built at the same time on the Lastadie and completed for Danish accounts , that he had never seen two such “well-phoned ships”. Despite the lack of concrete evidence, it can be assumed that the eagle was manufactured using a method of skeleton construction that was customary at the time , in which the frames are not manufactured and assembled in one piece, but grow with the planking of the fuselage .

Composed of lower mast , topmast , topgallant and flagstick possessed the majority mast a total length of 62.15 m (108 yards) above the keel. At 34.0 m (57 cubits), the large yard was considerably wider than the ship itself. The foremast and main mast, which were also assembled, were rigged, while the one-piece stern mizzen and bonaventura masts had a latin sail on a long, sloping rod led.

For the naval war, the Große Adler had a crew of 350 sailors and 138 guns of various calibers for the increasingly important artillery combat at a distance. An additional 650 marines could be taken on board for close combat and boarding combat.

Construction features in detail

Hull and superstructure

The Adler von Lübeck was around 64 m long from the galion to the rear gallery , the length of the Kuhl alone, the middle area of ​​the upper deck, being around 15 m, which made for an unusually large ship for the time. The hull was completely planked from the keel to the level of the Kuhl. Only in the stern was a clinker-paved area on both sides of the ship, which was made according to the old method, but which was continued in the fifth deck (Popp) in the form of kraweele planking. The number of clinker-made planks is not exactly guaranteed.

The Adler von Lübeck had a total of six decks , with the top, open decks of the fore and aft fort serving as the fifth and sixth deck. In all probability there were two rooms in the stern. One of the peculiarities of the Adler von Lübeck was the shape of their stern railing , the upper edge of which in the aft fort in the aft fort arched slightly backwards and upwards in a slight curve from the fifth to the uppermost open deck level, creating side protection on the front edge of the sixth deck was missing.

Strangely, as far as we know, the Lübsche Adler did not have its own deck structure from which the helmsman could have steered the ship from the adverse weather. However, a positioning is known from the 16th century, when the man at the tiller was below the deck and by a grating looked up to at the state of the sail to orientate and navigate on demand from above.

The sources known so far provide different information about the exact dimensions of the ship. While the chronicler Peter van der Horst, who was able to inspect the construction contract, gives the Adler von Lübeck an overall length of 78.30 m (for further values ​​see table on the right), a specially inserted sheet can be found in the artillery book of the then artillery master Hans Frese partly deviating values ​​can be found:

  • Length overall: 64.43 m (112.0 cubits)
  • Keel length: 35.86 m (62 ⅓ cubits)
  • Width: 14.38 m (25.0 cubits)
  • Clear width inboard: 13.84 m (24.0 cubits)
  • Full rear height: 20.71 m (36.0 cubits)
  • Draft: 5.18 m (9.0 cubits)
  • Length of the galion: 10.45 m (18.0 cubits)
  • Length of the Kuhl (between the castles): 15.30 m
  • Length of the keel: 36.00 m (62.0 cubits)
  • Length between perpendiculars: 49.00 m (85.0 cubits)
  • Length from galion to gallery: 64.00 m (111.0 cubits)
  • Height of Hol: 5.00 m
  • Height of stern: 11.55 m (20.0 cubits)
  • Height of fore stiffener: 14.13 m (24.5 cubits)
  • Rear height from keel to stern board: 21.50 m (37.5 cubits)

Although the authors cite the same source, their values ​​nevertheless differ. Why their statements are so different and which ultimately apply has not yet been clarified.

Masts, spars, rods and rigging

The Adler von Lübeck was a four-master. The two front masts were fully rigged with three square sails, whereas the two rear masts had latin sails.

Peter van der Horst recorded the width of the main yard, the height of the main mast made up of the lower mast, Mars and Bramstenge and the length of the flagpole:

  • Flagstick length: 6.95 m (4.0 fathoms)
  • Width of the main yard: 34.00 m (57.0 cubits)
  • Main mast made of 3 woods
    • including lower mast: 33.00 m (19.0 fathoms)
    • below Marsstenge: 17.40 m (10.0 fathoms)
    • underneath Bramstenge: 12.20 m (7.0 fathoms)
  • Height over all: 62.15 m (108.0 cubits)

The artillery book, on the other hand, mentions the following rigging dimensions :

  • Main mast: 34.80 m (60.0 cubits)
  • Stem: 17.40 m (30.0 cubits)
  • Width of the main yard: 34.20 m (59.0 cubits)

The shrouds ran as ropes from the stern over the maiden to the scaffolding ; the power was then directed to the ship's side via the armor iron. Unlike many modern ship models, the eagle actually still had triangular, pear-shaped maidens and not round ones, which did not appear until around 1620.

The bowsprit lashings consisted of two separate lashing rings , which in turn were always guided diagonally.

Unusual for the 16th century were the seven mast baskets of the eagles from Lübeck , which would have been occupied by riflemen during the boarding fight . Two of them were on the fore, main and mizzen mast, the seventh on the Bonaventura mast.


The Eagle of Lübeck had approximately 1800 m², an extremely large for those days of sail. The sail sizes in the table on the right are based on projections of the dimensions of the ship model by Karl Heinz Marquardt. In his comprehensive study in 1938, Karl Reinhardt even assigned an area of ​​2020 m² to the sail area.

According to another source, the width of the main sail alone is said to have been 31.3 m (54.0 cubits), which would mean an even larger sail area.

The chronicler Dreyer commented on the sails with regard to the number of Kleden (1 Kled = sail path with a width of 80-90 cm; but mostly narrower):

  • Mainsail: 36 cleats (= 28.8 m to 32.4 m sail width)
  • Jib: 26 Kleden (= 20.8 m to 23.4 m sail width)
  • Blind: 17 Kleden (= 13.6 m to 15.3 m sail width)

In the case of the sails, it can also be seen that “old” elements are present, because the ship still had bonnets that could be attached below with several sails. These bonnets were used to simply reduce the sail area. The mainsail is also still very wide and disproportionately large. The sails could be recovered by swaying on deck or by sitting on the yard ( foothorses on the yards did not appear until the 17th century).

The sail areas were:

  • Blind : 125 m²
  • Jib: 151 m²
    • plus middle bonnet: 55 m²
    • plus lower bonnet: 47 m²
  • Foresail sail: 140 m²
    • plus lower bonnet: 53 m²
  • Foresail sail: 75 m²
  • Main sail: 244 m²
    • plus middle bonnet: 93 m²
    • plus lower bonnet: 95 m²
  • Mainsail: 189 m²
    • plus lower bonnet: 79 m²
  • Main sails: 110 m²
  • Mizzen sail: 167 m²
    • plus lower bonnet: 55 m²
  • Bonaventur sail: 117 m²

At the bowsprit of the eagle of Lübeck there was only the blind at a yard and no upper blind , while there was most likely only a single latin sail on the mizzen mast, although there are also images showing a second latin sail above.

Ship painting and decoration

Ships of the 16th century were only painted cautiously, since permanent colors were expensive at the time and the purpose of the ships was in the foreground. The great eagle had a horizontally alternating coat of paint in red and white, the city colors of Lübeck, in the front part and in the clinkered rear area. The upper sides of the forecastle and stern were adorned with coats of arms , which alternated between red and white or showed a black, double-headed eagle on a gold background. These coats of arms were also on the mast baskets, where they alternately pointed backwards. The front part of the Galion was adorned by an eagle coat of arms framed by two golden angels. The further painting of the ship is currently unclear.

Some images of the eagles of Lübeck show a white cloth on both sides of the Kuhl, on which the two coats of arms were depicted alternately and which served as a privacy screen. It can be regarded as reasonably certain that the inside of the parapets and the gun ports were kept in red. It can also be assumed that the eagle had a large repertoire of flags , pennants and flames. The color of the sails was probably kept in a light brown tone, which was due to the impregnation with tar oils or similar that was customary at the time . originated. The also tarred underwater hull had a dark brown to almost black exterior. Representations of eagles and other ships of that time with a white underwater ship may be viewed as wrong.

Other buildings

So far only incomplete information is available about the other structural features of the Adler von Lübeck , so that one has to orientate oneself to the construction methods of other ships of the time to complete the picture. Despite the lack of concrete evidence, it is assumed that the following structures existed on the Adler : Spill , reserve spars and rows, scuppers , latrines , cattle sheds , a lantern and a bell frame below deck . A compass was probably located below deck in front of the helmsman. Also cleats for fixing ropes and belaying pins for the running rigging were plentiful on the ship certainly.

The open railing of the eagles from Lübeck to Kuhl still consisted of simply structured, square pieces of wood and not of round ones, as was common in the Mediterranean at the time. The ship did not have any steps on the side walls, which were not used until the following century with the three-deckers. There was only a gallery aft and no side pockets as in later large ships. The stern had a mirror , the lower part of which is shown on illustrations sometimes with horizontal planking, sometimes with diagonal planking.

As far as the equipment with dinghies is concerned, numerous depictions of the eagles show a larger dinghy on or at the grating in the Kuhl, but such a placement of such a boat may have sprung from the draftsman's imagination, as it would have been impossible to operate the capstan . There was only the smaller gig there . Some pictures show a sailing boat behind the stern of the ship, which, judging by its size , could be the large dinghy, the pinasse , which was usually pulled behind the ship at the time.

Although a parapet walk in the Kuhl can be found on port and starboard in some pictures , the Adler von Lübeck probably had no parapets at all. The ship probably did not yet have a spriet tree abutment; Fenders, which were also used to designate vertical bars on the outer planks between the timber, were probably no longer there.


Gun types

The Adler von Lübeck was one of the most heavily armed ships of its time. An exact list of the guns and other weapons can be found in the artillery book of the artillery master at the time, Hans Frese (see table on the right). Accordingly, the warship had a total of 138 guns.

A modern author who cites an undisclosed list of artillery lists 148 guns:

Main armament:

  • 8 cartoons (bronze) for 40 pound iron balls
  • 6 half cartoons (bronze) for 20 pound iron balls
  • 26 field snakes (bronze) for 8–10 pound iron balls

Furthermore, the ship's artillery apparently included 28 old stone rifles and their chambers, which could fire stone balls weighing between ten and thirty pounds.

Additional armament:

  • 20 small stone cans for three-pound stone balls
  • 20 roost snakes for five-pound stone balls
  • 40 roost snakes for one-half pound stone balls

These guns were breech-loaders with their chambers.

Another modern source even gives 180 artillery tubes of various calibers.

In practice, however, for reasons of cost, the guns that were available were often used at the beginning, so that a wide variety of calibers between 4 and 55 could be on board .

Gun deployment

The Adler von Lübeck is classified as a 2½-decker, which means the decks that were equipped with (large) guns and were not in the open air. The ship had two decks with guns over the entire length of the ship, above which more guns were located below deck in the fore and aft fort, while those in the cool were uncovered. Side walls and superstructures of the eagles were interspersed with gun ports for the ship's guns, which could be locked on the two lower decks. The cartoons rested on wooden carriages, although it is unclear whether these were already equipped with wheels to absorb the recoil when firing. The investigations into the artillery of the Mary Rose, which sank in 1545 , should be noted here.

There were also four stern guns in the transom of the ship, which were supposed to prevent “defile”, that is, the extremely dangerous fire from pursuers. In the front fort, the Adler von Lübeck again had two forward-pointing guns for this purpose .

On the fourth deck of the fore and aft fort two "deck sweeps" were set up, which were aimed at the Kuhl, in order to be able to drive off boarding enemies from one's own deck. Numerous small pivoting guns were also located at the fortification of the forts and on the Marsen. Several other small guns were positioned below deck at various loopholes.

In addition to the gun armament, ten crescent-shaped metal parts, so-called " shear hooks " were mounted at the ends of the yards and rods , with which the opponent's rigging was to be damaged as the enemy drove past , or which could be used as grappling hooks.

Ship models

A scientifically sound study of the eagles from Lübeck , which could serve as the basis for a realistic ship model , has not yet been carried out. Existing models differ significantly from one another, not least because of the tendency of the builder to orientate themselves uncritically to older models or to unsecured information in the literature.

Larger models of the Adler von Lübeck (larger than 1:90) are in the Deutsches Museum in Munich , at the German Maritime Museum in Bremerhaven , in the Ratskeller in Lübeck , in the Holstentor in Lübeck and in the Hansa-Park in Sierksdorf . Most of the models are made in a ratio of 1:20.

The fidelity of the ship model of the Adler von Lübeck , which was sold by the Graupner company from the 1960s to the 1990s, has to be questioned on the basis of recent research by the Deutsche Museumswerft for a number of features. This also raises questions about the closeness to reality of some of the more recent paintings and drawings based on the Graupner version.

A 1:50 scale model of the eagle , which reflects the state of research in 2011, is on display in the Swedish warehouse in Stade .


North Korea put a postage stamp of the Adler von Lübeck with the value 50 Chon on the market in 1983 , while in the Republic of Togo in 2001 a 1000 franc silver coin of the Hanseatic ship was issued. From around 1976 to mid-2007, the packaging of a well-known tobacco company from Bünde showed an image of a ship that was based on the Adler von Lübeck as a template - which the company was not aware of.

In Lübeck there is a restored coat of arms of the Great Eagle from the 17th century above the entrance to the Schiffergesellschaft , while a relief of the ship is embedded in the pavement behind the Lübeck town hall . A tile with the image of the eagle made in 1990 by the artist Alfred Evers is exhibited in the Schabbelhaus in Lübeck .

Chronological order

The table shows the main times of the ship types. The red, vertical column marks the service time of the eagles (1567–1581), which combines elements of the galleon and carrack, which had their heyday at that time.



Chronicles and Monographs

Archival documents

  • Hans Frese (16th century) Artillery master of the eagles of Lübeck : Artillery book of the eagles of Lübeck . Archives of the Hanseatic City of Lübeck.
  • Author unknown (16th century): Artillery file XIII for the Eagle of Lübeck . Archives of the Hanseatic City of Lübeck.
  • Author unknown (1644): Acta Danica IX file on the Eagle of Lübeck .

Paintings, drawings and cracks

  • Artist unknown? (16th century): Eagle of Lübeck . Engraving (restored: 1608, 1612, 1632) shown on the port side
  • Artist unknown? (16th century): Eagle of Lübeck . Painting (restored: 1708, 1821, 1901) is in the restaurant of the "Schiffergesellschaft zu Lübeck"; Port side shown
  • Artist unknown? (17th century): Eagle of Lübeck . Oil on copper sheet (restored by Josef Andrey Wieczorek: 1976) is located above the entrance of the Schiffergesellschaft in Lübeck; Starboard side shown

Secondary literature

Technical articles and monographs

  • Charles François-Edmond Pâris: Le Musée de Marine du Louvre . J. Rothschild, Paris 1883.
  • Charles François-Edmond Pâris: Souvenirs de Marine . Partie 1-5, Hinstorff-Verlag, Rostock 1962 (reprint).
  • Robert Morton Nance, Roger Charles Anderson: A Sixteenth Century Ship of Lübeck . In: The Mariner's Mirror . Society for Nautical Research, London 1912, pp. 152-153.
  • Lueder Arenhold: The Adler of Lübeck . In: The Mariner's Mirror . Society for Nautical Research, London 1913, pp. 152-153.
  • Roger Charles Anderson: The Adler of Lübeck - Guns of Adler of Lübeck . In: The Mariner's Mirror . Society for Nautical Research, London 1913, pp. 153, 222, 250, 285, 345.
  • Herbert Kloth: Lübeck's naval warfare in the time of the Nordic Seven Years' War, 1563–1570 . In: Journal of the Association for Lübeck History and Archeology . Vol. 21 (1923), pp. 1-51 and 185-256 and Vol. 22 (1923-1925), pp. 121-152 and 325-379. Scattered article contains a multitude of details on the construction, furnishings, rigging, equipment and crew of the Adler von Lübeck
  • Karl Reinhardt: Model reconstruction of the eagle from Lübeck. In: Journal of the Association for Lübeck History and Archeology . Vol. 29 (1938), No. 2, pp. 293-332.
  • Roger Charles Anderson: The Mars and the Adler . In: The Mariner's Mirror . Society for Nautical Research, London 1939, pp. 296-299 (+ plates).
  • Ulrich Pietsch: Lübeck shipping from the Middle Ages to modern times . In: Booklets on the art and cultural history of the Hanseatic City of Lübeck . tape 5 . Museums for Art and Cultural History of the Hanseatic City of Lübeck, Lübeck 1982, ISBN 3-9800517-1-4 (on the occasion of the exhibition in the St.-Annen-Museum (6 June – 10 October 1981)).
  • Peter Kirsch: The galleons: large sailing ships around 1600 . Bernard & Graefe, Koblenz 1988, ISBN 3-7637-5470-9 , pp. 67 .
  • Frank Howard : Sailing Warships: 1400-1860 . Bernard & Graefe, Munich 1989, ISBN 3-7637-5239-0 , pp. 42-88 .

Modern model replicas in text and images

  • Karl Reinhardt: The eagle of Lübeck . In: The sea chest - ship model building . Dr. M. Matthiesen & Co. Verlag, Berlin 1943, issue 12 (also issue 01/1944).
  • Karl Heinz Marquardt: Eagle of Lübeck AD 1565 . Graupner GmbH & Co. KG , Kirchheim / Teck approx. 1965, 35 pages. Description and four plans for the Graupner ship model
  • Norbert Aarhuus: Eagle of Lübeck . In: Modellwerft . Verlag für Technik und Handwerk, Baden-Baden 1982, No. 6, pp. 496-500. Article about the Graupner model
  • Detlev Lexow: Adler von Lübeck - MBH-Miniplan 67 . In: Modellbau-heute (MBH). Military Publishing House of the GDR, Berlin 1984, Issue 7, pp. 16-19. Text and cracks
  • Unknown author: Adler von Lübeck . In: Modellwerft Verlag für Technik und Handwerk, Baden-Baden 1994, issue 8, p. 27.

See also

Web links

Commons : Adler von Lübeck  - Collection of images, videos and audio files


  1. If written documents were made at that time, the masters often deliberately sprinkled in errors in order to make it difficult for someone else to recreate them.
  2. For example B. in Hamburg a foot 28.6 cm, but according to Kirsch (1988) 29.2 cm in Lübeck.
  3. At the location of this shipyard, which was on the Wall Peninsula opposite the old town and was also the loading point, a street called " Lastadie " still reminds us today .
  4. ↑ In May 1564, under the command of Friedrich Knebel, Die Engel had led ten Hanseatic ships alongside the Danes in the battle against Sweden, but blew up in 1565 while preparing for further missions due to carelessness in handling gunpowder.
  5. Such warships were also referred to as peace ships or Fredekoggen , i.e. ships that were supposed to keep or restore peace.
  6. Even as a warship, the Adler needed major repairs as early as 1568.
  7. In addition, at least one of the forts was reduced by one deck.
  8. Other sources put this process into the year 1588. Kirsch says the eagle even a lifetime of "more than 60" years (67), with which the ship had been active until about 1626, but this is unlikely.
  9. The artillery book gives an overall length of 64.43 m. Hans Frese (16th century): Artillery book of the eagles of Lübeck . Archives of the Hanseatic City of Lübeck.
  10. The Fortuna was built at the same time as the Adler in 1565–1566 on the Wall Peninsula and was intended for Denmark, which had been allied with the Hanseatic League against Sweden since 1563. However, almost nothing is known about this ship so far.
  11. This value is what Peter van der Horst expressly mentions as the height above everything. Another, slightly different value results from the height of the main mast, which Peter van der Horst specifies as 62.51 m, whereby the addition of its individual components (lower mast, Marsstenge, Bramstenge and flagstick) even gives the ship a height of 68.95 m would mean.
  12. According to Marquardt, a total of 1000 men were planned for the Adler von Lübeck in the event of war, after Ellacott 1050 men and according to Peter van der Horst even 1200. Herbert Kloth, on the other hand, assumes a total of only around 650 people in the event of war.
  13. Kirsch (1988) again gives different values ​​for the ship's width (14.24 m) and keel length (35.5 m).
  14. Sails with reefing straps did not come up again until later.
  15. All figures including the total sail area rounded.
  16. The number of stripes is not certain in both cases and differs greatly from one another in the various representations and models, as there are also images with completely different paintings.
  17. ↑ However, other sources report that the cloth was completely removed during the battle.
  18. This also applies to other ships of that time. Incidentally, the white lead used later never resulted in a white shade, as can be seen on a number of ship models.


  1. ^ Konrad Fritze, Günter Krause: Sea Wars of the Hanseatic League . P. 54.
  2. a b Brennecke names 2000 t water displacement (Jochen Brennecke: Geschichte der Seefahrt . Sigloch Edition, Künzelsau 2000, ISBN 3-89393-176-7 , p. 163).
  3. a b c d Hans Frese (16th century): Artillery book of the eagles of Lübeck . Archives of the Hanseatic City of Lübeck.
  4. a b c Peter van der Horst (e): Description of the art of shipping - For the second time laid out and supplemented with an appendix, in which the beginning and progress of shipping is described . 2nd edition, Schmalhertzens Erven, Lübeck around 1676 (PDF).
  5. ^ Konrad Fritze, Günter Krause: Sea Wars of the Hanseatic League . Brandenburgisches Verlagshaus / Siegler, Berlin 1997.
  6. ^ Emil Ferdinand Fehling: Lübeck Council Line No. 686 from the beginnings of the city to the present . In: Publications on the history of the Free and Hanseatic City of Lübeck . Vol. 7, Issue 1, Lübeck 1925 (reprint: Lübeck 1978).
  7. a b c Research of the German Museum Shipyard by Hendrik Busmann (since 2006), Cologne.
  8. Moon field: Fate of famous sailing ships . P. 61.
  9. ^ A b Philippe Dollinger: The Hanseatic League . Alfred Kröner Verlag, Stuttgart 1998.
  10. ^ A b c Karl Heinz Marquardt: Adler von Lübeck AD 1565 . 35 p., 4 plans, ca.1965.
  11. ^ Bernhard Hagedorn: The development of the most important types of ships up to the 19th century . Karl Curtius, Berlin 1914.
  12. Samuel Ernest Ellacott: Come on board - From the dugout canoe , from sailing ships and ocean liners . Franckh'sche Verlagshandlung, Stuttgart 1954, 1st edition.
  13. a b c Artist unknown (16th century): Adler von Lübeck . Engraving (restored: 1608, 1612, 1632)
  14. a b c Artist unknown (16th century): Adler von Lübeck . Painting (restored: 1708, 1821, 1901)
  15. Peter Kirsch: The galleons. Large sailing ships around 1600 . Bernard & Gräfe Verlag, Koblenz 1988, p. 67.
  16. ^ Konrad Fritze , Günter Krause: Sea Wars of the Hanseatic League - The first chapter of German naval war history . Brandenburgisches Verlagshaus / Siegler, Berlin 1997, first edition. 1989, p. 185.
  17. Herwig Kenzler: "Schwedenspeicher Museum" shines in new splendor . In: Member magazine of the Förderverein Deutsche Museumswerft e. V. No. 26, June 2011, p. 18.
  18. See last row on the left at www.seemotive.de
This version was added to the list of articles worth reading on July 14, 2008 .