List of sail types

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The list of sails gives an overview on sailing ships , yachts and sailing boats used sails . Sails are not specified in this list groups as square sail , fore- , staysail , high sails , the main and working sail , fair-weather sailing , Beisegel or headsail .

See: Mizzen sails
Backstay sail
The backstay sail is a luff- sided triangular outrigger sail for light weather and a clear course , the head of which is attached to the deck about halfway up the backstay (rear mast) and the neck near the mast.
Advance day sail
The advance staysail is a square light weather sail on staysail schooner yachts.
See: Mizzen sails
Outside jib
See: Klüver
Baby daysail
The baby daysail is a small headsail made of light cloth that is used on a baby's day .
See: cross sails
Banana day sail
A particularly slim spinnaker staysail is called a banana stay sail
Mizzen sail
The sail that is driven on the rearmost mast (the mizzen mast) of a multi-masted sailing ship or yacht is called a mizzen sail or mizzen for short . It is a sling sail .
The small sail is the mizzen sail
Mizzen sails
The mizzen staysail (also Aap , cross staysail or monkey ) is a small staysail on sailing ships.
Mizzen sails (red) on a three-master
See: Spinnaker staysail
The Bigboy (also known as Blooper ) is a Lee spinnaker that is driven without a spinnaker pole.
Also called the inside jib .
See: Klüver
Blind people
The blind is a small square sail that was placed under the bowsprit , especially in historical sailing ship types , but is hardly in use today.
A blister (also known as flasher or MPS ) is an asymmetrical spinnaker that is driven without a spinnaker pole. See Gennaker
See: Bigboy
Bonaventura sails
The Bonaventura sail is set on tall ships on the rearmost (fourth) mast and only when the weather is nice. It is also known as a fair weather sail . Occurred at the beginning of the 17th century on the pole of the same name behind the mizzen on the poop .
Slab sail
Top sails are the third square sails on tall ships, counted from below. They are often divided into lower and upper bridle sails .
Broad jib
The broad jib is a square sail on ships that are equipped with jib sails; it is driven on the foremost mast, below the foresail and at the same height as the mainsail or schooner sail - in contrast to the square sails of topsail schooners , which are driven over it (at the height of the gaff top sail). Like the jib on square sailors, the foot of the broad jib is driven freely (without yard ). In contrast to most square sails, the wide jib for recovery (hauling in) on some ships is not pulled up to the yard, but along the yard amidships to the mast.
The wide jib yard, where the wide jib can be set in front of the mainsail, is clearly visible
Brig sail
As brig is Gaffelsegel the mainmast a brig called.
As Bull Sailing is lugsail of Besanmasts a Zeesen boat called.
Code Zero
The Code Zero (also UPS or Windseeker ) is a very large light wind headsail. Mixture of drifter and gennaker .
Delta sail
See: crab claw sails
Triangular topsail (or triangular topsail)

see topsail

The Drifter (also called Flyer ) is a large light wind headsail, but has a significantly smaller sail area compared to the Code Zero .
Junk sails
A fully battened, mostly square or pentagonal sling sail developed in East Asia.
Junk with a junk sail
See: Fischermann staysail
Fischermann staysail
A staysail is referred to as a Fischermann staysail (also known as Fischermann for short ), which is guided between the tops of a stay on a ketch or schooner .
See: Blister
The flier (also known as the jib or yankee ) is a triangular headsail that is driven above and in front of the jib and jib (e.g. with cutter-rigged sailors). Not to be confused with the flyer .
See: Drifter
  1. The jib is the lowest square sail on the foremost mast on square sailors.
  2. On schooners , cutters and larger yachts with several foresails, it is the rearmost foresail.
  3. On smaller yachts or dinghies that only have a foresail, it is a foresail that does not overlap the mast (viewed from the side). It is set in stronger winds.
Jib (green) compared to genoa (blue) on a dinghy
Gaff sail
The gaff sail is an asymmetrical square sail that is stretched between a gaff and the tree.
Gaff sail
Gaff topsail
The gaff top sail is a light triangular sail that is attached above a gaff sail, in the triangle between the gaff and mast; see also topsail .
Curtain sails
A large square sail, which is driven on the lowest yard by square top schooners at the height of the gaff main sail, similar to a broad jib on gaff schooners . Square top protectors with several square posts can also drive several curtain sails (e.g. the Vinnen protector).
A gennaker is a large asymmetrical headsail with a large area of ​​application. The best performance is achieved Raumschots . For cruising sailors often with a rescue bag to set, rescue and jibe .
A genoa (also known as a cross balloon ) is an enlarged headsail on sailing yachts . In contrast to the jib, the genoa overlaps the mast , i.e. the clew is located behind the mast. It is often used as a replacement for the jib in light winds .
The gaff sail is a gaff sail in which the tree is significantly longer (about three times as long as the gaff) than is usual with gaff sails.
Mainsail refers to a sail that is driven on the mainmast.
Huari sails
Gaff sail where the gaff is attached almost vertically to the mast (see gaff rigging )
Inside jib
Also called inland jib .
See: Klüver
  1. The hunter is a small triangular sail that is set above and in front of the jib .
  2. A large, triangular headsail that is moved upwind when sailing before the wind .
The jibtop is a genoa-like headsail, but with a comparatively better performance in the half wind range.
The jib is a triangularly cut staysail . On yachts it is driven in front of the jib, on tall ships it is driven on the jib boom , in front of the bow . If there are several jibs mounted on tall ships, the foremost flyer is called , then outside jib , jib and then the inner jib , which is also called the inner jib .
Jib, inner jib and outer jib
See: Aviator
Crab Claw Sails
See: crab claw sails
Crab claw sails
The crab claw sail (also delta sail or crab claw sail ) comes from Polynesia and is used on proas or outrigger canoes .
Balahou with crab claw sail
Cross balloon
See: Genoa
Cross sail
The cross sail (also Bagien ) is the lowest sail on the cross mast (rearmost mast of a full ship).
Cross day sail
See: Mizzen sails
Latin sail
The latin sail is a jagged sail and consists of a cloth in the shape of an isosceles triangle, the base of which is attached to the rod or rod known in Latin as a yard (more precisely: spar ). The rod is attached to the center of the mast . For sailing, the rod is tilted so that one side of the sail is horizontal and is taut with the rope at the tip. Depending on the wind direction, the sail can be swiveled to both sides, but for this the entire rod has to be realigned.
Lee sails are square sails that are driven on square sailors in light, clear wind. For this purpose, the existing yards are lengthened by leeward spars and the leeward sails are attached (attached). They are driven on both sides or only on the windward side. The term "leeward sail" has nothing to do with " lee "; it has its origins in “sails” which became the term in use today via the Dutch “Lijzail”.
As studdingsails also a cloth is referred to in sailing yachts, which prevents a sleeping crewmember when heeling from the bed falls.
Lug sail
The lug sail can be seen as a further development of the latin sail and as a simplified gaff sail . The spar , which is significantly shortened compared to the Latin rigging , is characteristic; this means that it can be taken (shifted) around the mast when turning without hauling in the sail. At the same time, you save yourself the complex construction of a gaff claw and get additional sail area through the canvas overhang on the mast .
Lug sail
Mae West spinnaker
The Mae West spinnaker is a large ball spinnaker for space sheet courses .
Topsails are the second square sails on tall ships, counted from below . They can be divided into lower and upper marsails. In this case, the smaller is lower topsail as a storm sail.
Moon sails
The moon sail is a square sail that was sailed on some clippers above the Royal and Skysails .
See: Blister
Upper blind
The upper blind is a small square sail , which especially in historic sailing ship types scattered on the bowsprit attached topmast , the Sprietmast was set.
Top sails
See: Bramsegel
Upper topsail
See: topsail
A Parasail , also Parasailor or Wingaker, is a special type of spinnaker sail that generates additional aerodynamic lift and propulsion through a wing-like wind passage.
Trade sail
Passat sails are specifically for raumen courses in the Passat made sail from Seekreuzern .
A Raffee is a sail that is set from the cams of the yard (for example a broad jib ) to the top of the mast (top of the mast). It has a narrow triangular shape.
Space balloon
See: Reacher
The Reacher (also space balloon ) is in the price range up to tip Raumschotkursen used on wind. There (raumschots) it also shows its advantages over the genoa .
Royal sail
Royal sails are the fourth square sails on tall ships , counted from below. Are the underlying Brahm- or Marssegel divided (that is, from two superimposed sail fiber), so that can Royal sail also counted from below, fifth, sixth or sails.
Schooner sails
The schooner sail is the lowest sail that is driven on schooners on the foremost mast ( schooner mast).
Fair weather sails
See: Bonaventura sails
Sweden sails
The Sweden sail is a bad weather sail made of heavy cloth without battens. It has the luff dimensions of a mainsail and is placed in its place.
Set sail
The Setteesegel or Settiesegel is part of the traditional sails of Arab dhows . It is a sling sail that is very similar to the Mediterranean latin sail . However, like this one, it does not consist of a triangular, but of a trapezoidal cloth, the upper part of which is attached to a spar similar to a spar . As with the Latin sail, this spar is attached to the center of the mast . For sailing, the spar is tilted so that the bottom leech of the sail is horizontal. Depending on the wind direction at the desired course, the sail can be sailed on both sides of the ship. However, the spar must be realigned after each turning maneuver . There are also rectangular Setteesegel known ( Luf-Boot ).
arabian dhow with set sail
Sky sail
The sky sail is the sail set on some clippers above the royal sail.
As a spinnaker or shortly also Spi is called an extra-large, bulbous cut headsail made of lightweight cloth , the Windward and Raumschotkursen is used.
Spinnaker staysail
The spinnaker staysail (also cheat ) uses the free space under the spinnaker . It is a very low and wide cut jib .
Spreading gaff sails
The spreading gaff sail is attached to a mast and a spreading gaff, similar to the boom of a surf sail. The spreader gaff is rotatably mounted on the mast, while its sheet is moved over the mast located aft of it.
Spreading gaff sails
The Sprietsail is a square sling sail that is attached (attached) to the mast with a line rope and stretched out with the Spriet.
Steep gaff sails
The steep gaff sail is attached between the gaff and the tree, whereby the gaff is so steep that it almost forms an extension of the mast.
Storm jib
The storm jib is a small strong wind headsail made of particularly resistant material and with a high clew that is placed on yachts in place of the jib during storms .
The Tallboy is a narrow, high staysail that is set between the forestay and the mast when a spinnaker is driven at the same time .
Topsail (or topsail)
A topsail is generally referred to as a sail that is driven in the mast top . As Toppsegel is referred to schratgetakelten one hand ships, the driven in Topp Rahsegel , namely Mars or topgallants (see Toppsegel saver ) and on the other hand, the above a gaff sail, in the triangle between fore- gaff and mast (or spar (are) also struck gaff Toppsegel ). The latter are also triangular topsail called (in contrast to the square topsail, qv) and usually without Rah , more rarely, by a run parallel to the gaff and slightly superior Schot rah struck.
Triangular headsail over a gaff sail
Try sails
A try sail is a small high wind sail made of particularly resistant material that can be used on yachts instead of the main sail .
See: Bramsegel
Under sail
See: topsail
See: Code Zero
Square topsail (or square topsail)
The square top sail is a sail that is attached to two yards above a gaff sail, in the triangle between the gaff and mast (or stern ) . The foot frame (also: Schotrah) is roughly parallel to the gaff and protrudes beyond it as an extension slightly aft (rear), the top sail frame is attached to the mast. Square topsails were originally irregularly square (hence the name); the topsail yard was attached almost horizontally and roughly parallel to the gaff and towered over the mast to the front. On fishing boats the shape was preserved until at least after 1900, on some yachts there were at least suggested square shapes at that time. However, the development was already moving towards triangular square top sails: The top sail yard is attached parallel to the mast (or the stern) and extends the sail area upwards; unlike triangular top sails, triangular square top sails protrude above the mast and stern.
Square top sails on the Albanus (replica of a schooner from 1904)
Triangular square headsail of the Ayrshire Lass (yacht, 1887)
The forestay sail is the furthest inward (in front of the foremast) of a frame-rigged sailing ship
See: Code Zero
See: Aviator


Web links

Individual evidence

  1. Sails . In: Heinrich August Pierer , Julius Löbe (Hrsg.): Universal Lexicon of the Present and the Past . 4th edition. tape 15 . Altenburg 1862, p. 765-767 ( ).
  2. Heavy weather sails. Website of the Stade sailing workshop. Retrieved January 28, 2019.
  3. ^ A b Ernst Kahl: Yacht building and yacht sailing . Salzwasser Verlag, 1910, p. 346.