|Creation time :||High Middle Ages|
|Castle type :||Niederungsburg, moth|
|Place:||Horgau - Schäfstoss|
The high medieval castle stables Schäfstoss is located about 300 meters west of the hamlet of Schäfstoss (municipality of Horgau ) in the district of Augsburg ( Swabia ). The former moated castle was abandoned in the 14th century and has now disappeared except for features of the terrain.
The tower hill castle (Motte) was in the high Middle Ages next to a forest yard (Ostheim, later Schäfstoss ) of the bishops of Augsburg . An emergency excavation by the Working Group for Pre- and Early History Augsburg (1964) in the area of the outer bailey revealed evidence of a brick-roofed wooden building. The ramparts of the outer bailey seem to have been reinforced only by palisades . In this layer, the remains of around 50 high medieval vessels could be recovered.
A fire horizon up to 15 centimeters thick was found under the culture layer. Underneath was another layer of culture from the middle Latène period from the 2nd to the 3rd century BC. In addition to a fibula , the finds consisted of ceramic shards from this era. The oldest traces of settlement, however, can be assigned to an open-air station from the Mesolithic .
Around 1400 the Burgplatz belonged to the Lords of Hasberg, who sold the "Burkstall" together with the "Vorsthof zu Osthain" to Bishop Burkhard von Ellerbach . At that time the plant was already abandoned.
Like many ground monuments, this castle stables were believed to have a " Roman " origin in the 18th and 19th centuries . The royal Bavarian district forester Grimm therefore carried out the first excavation on the castle area in 1856/57. Grimm recognized the high medieval time of the earthworks . Many of the medieval roof tiles found could supposedly still be used. In addition to a lead spoon with the initials IG, the excavator found two iron objects, for which no further description has been handed down.
In the nearby Oberschönenfeld monastery , a coat of arms depicting a von Scheffstoss family has been preserved. The “talking” coat of arms was already associated with the Burgstall by Grimm. A female figure with a three-pronged crown kneels in a boat bumped by waves .
In 1964, the ground monument was archaeologically examined by the Augsburg Working Group for Prehistory and Early History because of the progressive sand mining as part of the emergency excavation mentioned .
The area of the outer bailey is still partly clearly visible through its slight elevation in the terrain and is made up of some old oaks and pines. The cone of the former main castle in the west (approx. 35 × 35 m) was almost completely excavated and leveled for material extraction.
Such wood / earth castles mostly served as residences for the numerous ministerial families of this era. While comparable systems in the valleys or in local areas have only rarely been preserved ( Burgstall Althegnenberg ), there are still some clear examples of high moths on hills or mountain spurs ( Burgstall Schlösslesberg , Burgstall Kissing , Burgstall Walleshausen, etc.) The small valley castles were often found in the Augsburg area Replaced in the 13th century by "befitting" hilltop castles when the servant families had finally established themselves in the lower nobility .
The Bavarian State Office for Monument Preservation lists the soil monument as an open-air station from the Mesolithic, settlement of the Latène period and medieval castle stables under monument number D 7-7630-0012.
- Horst Gutmann, Wilhelm Ruckdeschel, Otto Schneider (among others): Archaeological walks around Augsburg . (Guide to archaeological monuments in Swabia, 1). Stuttgart 1977. ISBN 3-8062-0185-4
- Wilhelm Neu, Frank Otten: District of Augsburg (Bavarian art monuments XXX, short inventory). Munich, 1970