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Byfang Coat of Arms
Coat of arms of the city of Essen

district of Essen

Location of Byfang in the city district VIII Essen-Ruhr Peninsula
Basic data
surface 4.12  km²
Residents 2028 (March 31, 2020)
Coordinates 51 ° 24 '20 "  N , 7 ° 5' 53"  E Coordinates: 51 ° 24 '20 "  N , 7 ° 5' 53"  E
height 114  m
Incorporation Aug 1, 1929
Spatial assignment
Post Code 45257
District number 33
district District VIII Essen-Ruhr Peninsula
St. Barbara Church

St. Barbara Church

Source: City of Essen statistics

Byfang [ ˈbiːfaŋ ] is a south-eastern part of the city of Essen . It is at an average altitude of 114 meters above sea level. NN (between 70 and 180 m) and has a village, rural character.

The place belongs socially to the Ruhr peninsula (historically also Hattingen-Niederwenigern). The feeder of the Deipenbecke (also called "Köttelbecke") forms the border between Byfang and Burgaltendorf as well as the historical border between Westphalia and Rhineland (other historians see the Deilbach as a border). Byfang was historically part of the " Bergisches Land " ( Duchy of Berg ), with the Ruhr as a border. The settlement structure of the district is determined by its peculiar topography. The area is clearly recognizable as part of the Niederbergisch-Märkisch hill country . Geologically, Byfang is part of the natural spatial unit of the Ruhr ribbed land .


Early history

The Essen abbess Mathilde (Mechthild I.), a granddaughter of Emperor Otto I , founded a women's monastery in Rellinghausen around 996 , in which the unmarried daughters of the lower nobility were to be accepted. This new pen had to be provided with goods for its own maintenance. Since the Essen and Werden monasteries could not provide space for this, the Rellinghausen monastery received the areas of Hinsel and Holthausen on the other side of the Ruhr as well as the adjacent Byfang and some courtyards in Rellinghausen and Hardenberg . In this deed of donation, the name Rellinkuoser biefang appears for the first time in 1124 . It is believed that the Barons von Hardenstein founded Byfang. The canons had their worldly property and jurisdiction administered by a canon.

These bailiffs gained more and more power over time. The Rellinghausen Abbey also tried to make itself independent of the Essen Abbey. After long disputes between the mother and daughter pen, they finally returned to Essen in 1661 with a comparison to the mother pen. The pen Vogt had previously renounced his Erbvogtei and as compensation in 1800 dollars and the peasantry received Byfang as a separate domain and court area as a fief. In the 14th and 15th centuries, Byfang belonged to the Duchy of Berg - that's why the Ruhr is still seen today as the northern border of the "Bergisches Land".

Origin of name

The place name Byfang is derived from the old German name Bifang (from biased: to encompass, to include) for a fenced-in field or arable land included in the field corridor of an existing place, in this case the Rellinghausen monastery ( so Rellinkuoser biefang) .

Autonomy and Jurisdiction

The landlord was also the supreme court lord, which explains why the Biefang farmers had their own court. The judge was the governor of the Rellinghausen monastery. The place of the court was initially the Breuerhof at the corner of Niederweniger Strasse / Düschenhofer Wald, and later a court house. Until 1661, Byfang's jurisdiction was held by the Essen princess Anna Salome . In 1661 the jurisdiction of Alexander von Drimborn zu Baldeney was granted in a settlement with the abbess Anna Salome. The last judge (Franz Forst) was appointed in 1805. The Byfanger Court lasted until February 1, 1812. Then the area fell under the peace court of the French judicial system and in 1815 again to Prussia , belonging to the district court Werden . Byfanger court was demolished after a fire in 1817. The court house also served as a community hall, in which a large part of Byfang's social life took place and which was therefore the political and social center of the peasantry for a long time.

Place of judgment and Alt-Byfang

During construction work in the 1970s, an excavator broke into the court's underground dungeon. The quarry stone room was plastered in the lower area, the ceiling opening bricked up. The settlement at the court house is a reminder of the Byfang court . The area in which the former court house stood was added to the Essen-Kupferdreh district for traffic reasons after the Second World War. The district still belongs to the Byfang district. The historical border between Byfang and Kupferdreh (until 1875: Hinsbeck (Ruhr)) was formed by the nameless brook running here. T. runs underground. Its course is level with the turning loop of the Ruhrbahn-Omnibus-Route 155.

The area of ​​former glory (old word for free judicial peasantry), which was added to Kupferdreh in this context , is now colloquially called Alt-Byfang . This area includes Byfanger Straße from the Buswendeschleife, Bissenkamp, ​​part of the Engelssiepen street, Hirtental (part still belongs to the E.-Byfang district today), Scharpenhang, Amgerichtshaus (this is where the Byfanger court used to stand, which at the same time served as a parish hall; see above), Brackmannhang, Drimbornweg, Lothumweg, Niederweniger Straße (approximately from the mouth of the Beisemannhang), upper Schliepersberg, Am Stöcken and the middle / upper Reulsbergweg (from the first houses in the forest, coming from above). The uppermost Reulsbergweg is still part of the Essen-Byfang district today.


Former school building in Oberbyfang

Since 1769 there was a first school operation in Oberbyfang . The lessons were given in the homesteads, the schoolmaster also fed and paid there. Schooling was not yet compulsory, but the beginnings of industry with the emergence of mining towards the end of the 18th century required trained workers. During this time, the first school building with a mixed class was built. A new school building was later built, which eventually had four classrooms and a teacher's apartment. Today this building, which served as a school until 1968, is a residential building. From 1968 to 2007 a pigeon clinic of the Association of German Pigeon Fanciers was housed there. The children from Unterbyfang had to go to school in Oberbyfang until the middle of the 19th century. After the Sperrbaum hall (later Schnitzler) had been used as a school since 1869, a new school building was opened in November 1874. The number of students in Unterbyfang rose steadily. In 1904 alone, over 250 students were taught by four teachers in just four classrooms. Since the building was closed as a primary school, it has been privately owned.

Church history and kindergarten

Byfang originally belonged to the Niederwenigern parish . The way there was quite a long way. So in 1898 a band was founded. The then innkeeper of today's Schnitzler restaurant donated a building site in 1902, on which the St. Barbara church was built in 1928/29 and consecrated on August 12, 1929, completely made of Ruhr sandstone , which was then quarried in quarries in the Ruhr valley. There was also a cemetery in October 1945 and the Catholic kindergarten in 1973. In 2006 the Roman Catholic parish of St. Barbara, Essen-Byfang (actually only Unter-Byfang (see below)) merged with almost all other Catholic parishes on the Ruhr peninsula to form the new, large church and parish of St. Josef, Essen Ruhr peninsula. With the exception of Niederwenigern, all places on the Ruhr Peninsula belong to the new “Ruhr Peninsula Municipality”. There are efforts to correct this orthographic and local-cultural error and to change Niederwenigern to the Ruhr peninsula community.

Political modern times

In the 19th century, the municipality of Byfang was part of the mayor's office in Werden. Since October 1, 1896, Byfang belonged to the new mayor's office of Kupferdreh . The communities Byfang and Kupferdreh were merged in 1922 to form the enlarged community of Kupferdreh. On August 1, 1929, Kupferdreh and Byfang were incorporated into the city of Essen , where Byfang was later reassigned to its own district.

coat of arms

Byfang Coat of Arms

Blazon : "In silver (white) a red St. Andrew's cross, covered with a silver (white) scepter obliquely to the left and above it three silver (white) roses obliquely to the right."

The coat of arms was designed by Kurt Schweder and never had an official character, although Byfang has had a coat of arms since it was founded or donated in 1124. This had the same shape and also had three roses. Instead of a scepter, the original coat of arms had a sword and was in the colors blue and yellow. The only copy that can still be seen today is immortalized in the candle chapel in Kevelaer (note: all the coats of arms of the traditional pilgrimage places that make pilgrimages to Kevelaer (Byfang since 1836) are embedded in the windows of the candle chapel.). At the end of the 1980s, the heraldist created coats of arms for all of Essen's districts. They have meanwhile been well received by the Essen population.

The coat of arms shows an old right symbol, a St. Andrew's cross , which is covered with a scepter . These symbols indicate judicial independence. The roses come from the coat of arms of the Lords of Drimborn , who received the Byfang rule from Rellinghausen Abbey in 1661 .


As of September 30, 2019, 2,026 residents were living in Byfang.

Structural data of the population in Byfang:

  • Share of the population under 18-year-olds: 13.0% (Essen average: 16.1%)
  • Population of at least 65-year-olds: 30.5% (Essen average: 21.5%)
  • Proportion of foreigners: 2.6% (Essen average: 16.8%)

Byfang today

Geography and character

Byfang, shaped by agriculture, village structures, active community and club life, is one of the sparsely populated districts of Essen.

At Byfang, the districts of Burgaltendorf border in the northeast (border approx .: the streets Deipenbecktal and Laurastraße), Überruhr in the north (border approx .: the street Deipenbecktal), Kupferdreh in the southwest and south (border approx .: Deilbach, Eisenhammerweg, Reulsbergweg, Düschenhofer Wald and the “Fahrenberg” bus stop (beginning of Kupferdreher-Straße) and Heisingen in the west, with the Ruhr forming the border here. In the east, the Hattingen districts Niederwenigern and Niederbonsfeld border Byfang, here the Kohlenstraße is the approximate border. The entrance sign of the A44 exit incorrectly points to the E.-Kupferdreh district, although Byfang is here. Copper rotation only starts at the traffic lights / bus stop "Fahrenberg". Langenberger Straße is nowhere in Kupferdreh. Straßen-NRW will make an improvement at the next regular sign renewal.

Around 2,100 people live in the area outlined here, of whom 446 were Protestant on March 31, 2007, 1251 were Roman Catholic and 421 were of other faith.

At the Byfanger water tower is 181 meters above sea level. NN the highest point of the entire Ruhr peninsula. This makes Essen-Byfang (after Heidhausen and Bredeney) the third highest district of Essen and the third highest elevation of Essen is located at the Byfanger water tower. The lowest point of the district is 60 meters above sea level. NN in the westernmost end of Byfang an der Ruhr near the junction of the federal autobahn 44 and at Deilmannshof on the Leberhofer Straße. The Catholic Church of St. Barbara is approx. 130 m high and is the highest church on the Ruhr Peninsula.

The road network is adapted to the more rural district. The slip road for the A44 is on Langenberger Straße in Byfang. In the district, the Ruhrbahn and VER buses run on lines 141, 177 (line 155 ends at the city limits), 180 and the night express NE6 as well as the school buses 15 to the Josefschule (elementary school) in the neighboring district of Kupferdreh and the E-Bus-Werden to the Essen-Werden high school and to the Marienschule (diocese girls' school).

Church and educational institutions

In the recent past, the Byfang district had two Roman Catholic elementary schools (elementary and secondary schools), the Unter-Byfang school on Nöckersberg and the Ober-Byfang school in what is now the Ober-Byfang residential complex (until 2007 pigeon clinic). Byfang was thus divided into two school catchment areas.

The catchment area of ​​the Unter-Byfang school included the area of ​​the district from Fahrenberg via “Kleinheide” (“Kuhlhoff”) to the Engels bus stop , then on to Deipenbecktal and Ruhr / Langenbergerstraße. The catchment area of ​​the Ober-Byfang school included the area from Kleinheide to today's Engels bus stop, then on to Dattenberg (including Kohlenstraße), from there to Deilmannshof or Eisenhammer sports field, on to around today's bus turning 155 and back to Kleinheide. This area includes the upper part of the Reulsbergweg (about up to and including the first houses in the forest, coming from above), parts of Niederwenigerstraße (about to today's Bramsiepe), the entire area around the former location of the Byfanger court ( At the courthouse, Hirtental etc.) and parts of Byfangerstraße (from Busdrehe 155 to Düschenhofer Wald). This area - also known as Alt-Byfang - has been largely part of the Kupferdreh district in terms of traffic since 1920, although the boundaries of the properties still belong to Byfang. The court house was also the former Byfangs parish hall, where social life took place.

In addition to the two Catholic schools, there was a Protestant elementary school on Langenberger Strasse near today's driveway to the Theodor-Heuss-Brücke .

In the course of the closure of all dwarf schools, the three schools disappeared from the district. Today the Byfanger children go to the Catholic St. Josef Primary School in the neighboring district of Kupferdreh . Small children go to the Roman Catholic kindergarten in Essen-Byfang .

The district is colloquially divided into two parts: Unterbyfang and Oberbyfang. The respective areas are almost congruent with the former catchment areas of the two Catholic schools.

The area of ​​the St. Barbara Church of the parish (coll .: parish) St. Josef Byfang / Dilldorf / Kupferdreh of the parish / parish of St. Josef, Essen Ruhr Peninsula was an independent parish until April 1, 2008 (St. Barbara, Food byfang).

After the establishment of the Catholic parish of St. Barbara (1929), Byfang was also ecclesiastically divided. Unterbyfang became the St. Barbara parish, Oberbyfang stayed with the "mother parish" St. Mauritius-Niederwenigern-Byfang.

Of the approximately 1300 Catholics in the district (in 2000), a good thousand belonged to St. Barbara. The church leaving rate (until the start of restructuring) in Byfang was one of the lowest in the diocese. This has changed a bit since the restructuring.

In the following decades (after 1929) some streets in Oberbyfang were "re-parish" in other parishes. St. Josef-Kupferdreh, St. Barbara-Byfang and St. Engelbert-Niederbonsfeld. The upper and middle Reulsbergweg, the upper Niederwenigerstr./obere Byfanger Straße (area around the “Byfanger Court House” up to a level where the Ruhrbahn bus route 155 bus turns) and the upper and middle Deile belonged to St. Josef after the parish. After the parish of St. Engelbert, the area "Am Dattenberg" (including the lower coal road), the lower Deile and the settlements at Eisenhammer-Sportplatz / Deilmannshof belonged. At St. Barbara (Unterbyfang) the residents of the Düschenhofer forest were parried. The remaining parts of (Upper) Byfang, the upper Bredde, Am Byfanger water tower, etc., remained at St. Mauritius Niederwenigern. Thus the district was for most of the last century in four cath. Parishes divided. After the restructuring, there are still two: Church / parish / parish Peter and Paul, Hattingen (with the parish of St. Mauritius, including St. Engelbert) and St. Josef, Essen Ruhr peninsula (with the parish of St. Josef, among others, incl. St. Barbara). Most of the Catholic residents of Oberbyfang, or of the entire Essen-Byfang district, are now part of parish life at St.Barbara Church, the Byfang parish and the parish of St. Josef, where they attend Holy Masses.

The Protestant residents of the district all belong to the Protestant parish of Byfang-Kupferdreh.

Clubs, groups, associations and the social network

Byfang has a close-knit social system that has grown over decades and whose future is closely linked to the St. Barbara Church as the center of the village and the identification point of the district . The diocese of Essen and the parish / parish of St. Josef, Essen Ruhr Peninsula have a great deal of responsibility, since the St. Barbara Church is only a branch church / parish . In the event of a closure, the Byfangs social system - the district municipality - could not continue to exist in the medium term.

A large number of clubs, associations and groups exist in the district. Among other things, the amateur association Wohltun Byfang (carnival and theater association), the riding association Byfang , the " Young Community Byfang " (committed to children, adolescents and young adults (U30s) and supports existing groups of boys community work), the breed poultry breeding association Byfang and the surrounding area , the Hornus Byfang club , the “Germania” chess club, the Byfang pony club , a band (judge), the Weidmannsheil Byfang shooting club and the sports club (football, badminton, gymnastics, tennis, volleyball) “Sportgemeinschaft (SG) Kupferdreh- Byfang eV “.

In addition to the St. Barbara Byfang e. V. , which organizes the Martinszug, the “Barbarafest” and the “Byfanger Bergfest”, among other things, the Catholic Young Community (KJG) Essen-Byfang , the Catholic Women's Community of Germany (kfd) Essen-Byfang (formerly: Mütterbund ) exist as church associations ). In addition, numerous groups and communities are active: The "Kevelaer pilgrimage community Essen-Byfang", the Essen-Byfang kindergarten, the ACAT -Essen-Byfang, the ecumenical one-world stand of the Ruhr Peninsula (originally Byfang-Kupferdreh) and many other communities and working groups (including table tennis, cooking, senior, sewing groups, etc.).

Furthermore, the musical groups "Church Choir St. Barbara", "Barbarachor", "Children's Choir Byfang", the singing duo "Dunkel Blond" and the bands "Fein-Herb", "Under Cover", "Eltern-Band" (of the kindergarten) as well as "Byfanger Band", volunteers in Byfang.

In addition, Byfang has a volunteer fire brigade , which was founded in 1909 and is an integral part of the district's social network, in which FF-Byfang performs many social tasks in the Essen-Byfang district - in addition to the everyday tasks of a fire brigade.


  • Johann Rainer Busch: Kupferdreh and its history. (with Byfang and Dilldorf), Essen 2008, ISBN 978-3-00-024737-8 .
  • Klaus Kohl: Byfang an der Ruhr (The political community Byfang and the parish St. Barbara) Essen 2011, ISBN 978-3-932901-49-2

Web links

Commons : Essen-Byfang  - Collection of pictures, videos and audio files

See also

Individual evidence

  3. Bergisches Land. Retrieved March 2, 2019 .
  4. Excerpt from the list of monuments of the city of Essen ; Retrieved January 5, 2017
  5. ^ Description of the administrative district of Düsseldorf according to its size, administrative division and population; Düsseldorf: Stahl, 1817
  6. ^ Johann Georg von Viebahn: Statistics and topography of the government district of Düsseldorf. 1836, p. 84 f. , accessed on May 5, 2014 (digitized version).
  7. Official Gazette for the Düsseldorf administrative region, year 1865, No. 4., p. 23
  8. ^ Mayor's office of Kupferdreh
  9. City of Essen (PDF; 2.6 MB)
  10. See also Johann Rainer Busch: Kurt Schweders Wappen der Essener Stadtteile Essen 2009, p. 97
  11. Population figures of the districts
  12. Proportion of the population under 18 years of age
  13. Proportion of the population aged 65 and over
  14. ↑ Proportion of foreigners in the city districts
  15. City districts and districts in Essen (PDF file 154 kB)
  16. Google Earth
  17. ^ Ruhrbahn
  18. ^ Document on the establishment of the Catholic parish and church community St. Josef Essen Ruhr Peninsula (PDF; 814 kB)