Marriage in the Roman Empire

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Roman marriage on an urn ( Museo delle Terme di Diocleziano , Rome)

Marriage and family were sacred in the Roman Empire . Not for nothing was Concordia on the one hand the patron goddess of the entire state and at the same time protector of marriage ( matrimonium ). In ancient Rome, marriage was considered the pillar of society, especially in material terms. Marriage law also took into account the material aspects of marriage.

Patria potestas and pater familias

Legally constitutive for family and married life was the patria potestas des pater familias , the male head of the family. The patria potestas meant unrestricted power over the familia , which, unlike a family today, also included married sons with their wives and children, adopted sons, slaves, cattle and other property. The familia is to be understood as a legal association and property community, whereby the pater familias also had to fulfill religious tasks such as making sacrifices.

The patria potestas became less apparent in everyday reality, however, through excesses of terrorism by the pater familias , although sources report individual cases. Rather, its excellent position was shown by the power of disposal over the property and also in - a form dubious from today's point of view - the pater familias' decision-making power over the abandonment of newborn children. This position allowed the head of the family to abandon children he could not or would not raise. Be it for financial reasons, because they were illegitimate or disabled children, or because of your gender - especially if the newborn was female. The release of newborns on public dung piles was legal throughout the Roman world until AD 374. As a result, the children succumbed to death or, at best, slavery or, if they were lucky, were accepted into other households as alumni .

Sui iuris

Free ( sui iuris ), d. H. freed from the patria potestas , the sons were often only after the death of the pater familias. In later times, however, it often happened that children were released from paternal power through an emancipatio . This was a sham sale with which the pater familias sold the child to a third party as a trustee, who then sold it back to the father. If this fake sale was carried out three times (for sons) or once (for daughters), the child was freed from paternal violence. Even after their father's death , daughters who were not emancipated were still under the tutela mulierum (“women's guardianship”) of a tutor chosen either by the father or by themselves.

The future prospects of their lives depended on the inheritance that the sons and daughters received. Due to this legal position of the pater familias , the will could be used as a weapon during his lifetime to make his authority clear and to bind the familia to himself. This was of course restricted by a right to a compulsory portion . In the full sense of the word, free men were only those Romans who had been declared fatherless or of age, had the status of pater familias and had an inheritance.

A vidua - widow or divorcee - was also considered sui iuris if her father was no longer alive.


When citizens of the Roman Empire married , this was usually done privately and without any major state or religious ceremony or written contract . A traditional wedding rite certainly existed ; but this was not legally binding.

If the two future spouses were still under the power of a pater familias , they needed its consent. Often marriages were at his initiative conveys , because a marriage was considered a great way to tie two families politically or business together. In return, couples could be divorced against their will if the pater familias found another connection more favorable.

The age of majority and, accordingly, the ability to marry were connected with the onset of puberty ( pubertas ); Girls reached it at 12 and boys at 14. Her pater familias (father) decided on the spouse . After all, it was considered improper to marry a young girl to a man whom she found utterly repulsive, but it was legally possible. The spouses were also not allowed to be too closely related to one another. Marriages in which man and woman were more closely related than up to the 4th degree were considered incest , which is why Claudius , when he wanted to marry his niece Agrippina the younger , first enforced a law that legalized such relationships.

As a rule, marriages were concluded less for love than for political or material interests. Nevertheless, love between the spouses, as in the marriage between Pompey and Caesar's daughter Juliet , was not uncommon.

In contrast to early Roman times, caught adulteresses were no longer executed, but sentenced to a heavy fine and sent into exile. However, changing partners was quite common, as was frequent divorce and remarriage. The univira , the once married woman, was still considered an ideal.

Manus marriage

In the early days, the so-called Manushee dominated . The woman left the patria potestas of her own pater familias and came under that of the husband or his pater familias .

Due to the outstanding position of the pater familias and the legal effect of the patria potestas , this meant that the woman could not dispose of her own property and dowry. Her new pater familias received power of disposal . For him this could mean material gain.

In comparison with the position of women in classical Athens , the Roman woman was herself a matrona , i.e. H. as a wife, in the Manus marriage , more respected and considerably more independent. She could take part in banquets, attend theater and games and go to the thermal baths , take part in education , art and science and often achieve a high level of education. Satirists like Martial and Juvenal found here the basis for mocking the immorality and lust for pleasure of women.

A distinction is made between the following three forms of marriage, all three of which have been attested in the earliest times, but have changed significantly in the course of history:

Coemptio ("purchase")

During this ritual, the daughter was symbolically sold for an ace by the father in the presence of five witnesses . In historical times it was the case that the daughter had to consent to the marriage and had the opportunity to obtain a divorce ( emancipatio ) in the event of abuse and disregard of the husband with a violation of the duty of loyalty and protection transferred during the purchase , i.e. H. the purchase contract becomes null and void if the purchase obligations are breached.

Cohabitatio or usus (" living together" or "habit")

In this form of marriage, the bridegroom gave a speech, thereby separating the marriage from a concubinatus , a completely informal relationship. The man only achieved the patria potestas after living together for a year. The process corresponded to an acquisition of property by sitting . If during this time the woman slept outside the house for three days in a row, she interrupted (usurpatio) the "sensation" and thus prevented that she passed into the manus of the man (trinoctis usurpatio or trinoctium). Then the one-year period started again.


The confarreatio was a sacred act with the sacrifice of a wheat husk cake ( far = husk, bread) and was a form of marriage that was only common among patricians . It took place in the presence of the pontifex maximus , the flamen dialis and ten citizens. In the course of this ceremony, a sheep, meal and fruit were also offered.

Manus-free marriage

Since in the Manus marriage not only did the woman not have power of disposal over her property, but also her previous family and relatives were excluded from inheritance upon her death, the form of manus-free marriage prevailed in the late period of the Roman Republic , in which the Wife no longer came under the full manus of her husband or his pater familias . This could be done by the woman spending at least three nights (trinoctium) a year outside her husband's apartment, as described above. She thus still belonged legally to her old family and was under the patria potestas (power of her father). On the basis of a contract made before witnesses, she remained in possession of the property she brought into the marriage.

The manus-free marriage could easily be divorced, namely through a declaration of intent by a spouse. It was enough for the woman, provided she had not committed adultery, to leave the house with her dowry , or for the man to tell her to do so.

As a result of these changes, the previously valid legal provision that a woman without male guardianship was not allowed to carry out an important legal transaction was no longer in force in the practice of the late Republic. Marcus Tullius Cicero's wife Terentia is an example of how women became more and more independent. In a letter to his friend Atticus , he was indignant that his wife, while he was governor in Cilicia , married his daughter Tullia to Publius Cornelius Dolabella without asking him .

A manus-free marriage could be transformed into a Manus marriage at any time, as the legal case described in the Laudatio Turiae testifies.


Women received a dowry that was available to the husband for the duration of the marriage. On the other hand, the husband had no right of access to the wife's own property. It was customary for the dowry to be paid in three installments on the first anniversary of the wedding. If the marriage was divorced, the husband had to return the dowry in full to his ex-wife . This refund obligation led to a stabilization of Roman marriages. If the man died, the woman also got her dowry back.

Augustan marriage laws

In the 1st century BC The number of children from legal marriages continued to decline and with it the number of soldiers who did their military service in the legions that only accepted Roman citizens . To combat this problem, Augustus created a new marriage legislation, the Lex Iulia et Papia : Men had to be married between the ages of 25 and 60 and women between 20 and 50, otherwise they could face severe fines. He also introduced rewards for large parents. From three children in Rome, four in Italy and five in the rest of the Roman Empire, the spouses received discounts: the men - if they were in the public service - could expect to be promoted faster, the women were given the right to own their property independently and became legally independent of the man.

In addition, Augustus tightened the marriage ban for soldiers , who could only enter into a legally valid marriage after their release. He wanted to reduce the number of non-combatant persons the entourage accompanied the army. He forbade even knightly staff officers and legionary legates to bring their wives into the camp. In practice, however, the ban was circumvented during the tenure of the principality , as many soldiers lived together with female partners during their long service life and often tried to bring their connections into line with legal marriage. It was loosened more and more in the following years, until Septimius Severus lifted the marriage ban of the soldiers towards the end of the 2nd century.

Divorce and widowhood

In the early Roman times, men could only divorce under very specific conditions, such as adultery or sterility of the woman. In the Roman tradition, the first divorce case is dated 230 BC. When the consul Spurius Carvilius Ruga divorced because his wife was sterile. Towards the end of the Roman Republic, women also gained the right to apply for divorce. During the imperial era, divorce became more and more common. The Roman religion had no rules to prevent divorce.

To dissolve a marriage, it was sufficient for one of the spouses to pronounce the formula tuas res tibi habeto ("go away and take your things with you") or i foras ("go out of my house") in front of witnesses . These sentences could also be recorded in writing and given to the partner by someone released. Children from a dissolved marriage remained with the father and his family.

Men were allowed to remarry immediately after their wives died. Women had to wait at least ten months to remarry after the death of their husbands; in the Augustan marriage laws this period was extended to twelve months. The reason for this regulation was the wish, in the event of a widow's pregnancy, not to leave any doubts as to who is the father of the child - see Mater semper certa est .


With the expansion of Roman dominion, which did not keep pace with the expansion of Roman civil rights , the growing need of full Roman citizens arose in the late republic to enter into marriage-like relationships with women from the peoples who were subject to Rome and without civil rights as well as with slaves or freedmen. In addition to the legally fixed marriage between Roman citizens, the matrimonium in the narrower sense, the legal character of which basically remained unchanged , the concubinate ( concubinatus ) occurred especially in leading families, but also among soldiers . With the marriage laws of Augustus, especially the strict marriage bans , he was integrated into a rudimentary legal framework and the greater sexual freedom of the outgoing republic ended. Research has given inconsistent answers to the question of whether it was a kind of lower-ranking marriage from the start (especially in older research) or purely de facto connections. It is inscribed that the cohabitation was socially accepted in the high imperial times in the 1st and 2nd centuries and was often understood by those affected as a marriage in the full sense. The legal framework changed again through the marriage reforms under Septimius Severus and the general granting of citizenship by Caracalla in 212. Another turning point was the unsuccessful attempt by Emperor Constantine at the beginning of the 4th century to abolish cohabitation. The following development in the Roman and then in the Eastern Roman Empire , which reached its climax under Emperor Justinian , is characterized on the one hand by a progressive alignment of cohabitation with legal marriage, on the other hand by increasing social ostracism under the influence of Christianity . In 900 Leo the Wise's civil concubine was abolished.

The cohabitation was a connection between two free persons who could not or would not enter into a legally binding marriage with each other, for example a Roman citizen working as a civil servant in a province and a native woman from this province who could not marry a Roman due to her status as a foreigner . The female part was called concubina ("concubine"), while there is no separate name for the male. The prerequisites for cohabitation were the age of majority (the minimum age was 12 years for the woman and 14 for the man, as in marriage) and mutual consent, a dowry was not required. The children from such connections were not subject to the patria potestas , were excluded from inheritance law (although the father could bequeath them property in his will) and were given the mother's name. Unlike the wife, the concubine was not obliged to be faithful to her husband and could leave him at any time. In contrast to connections with mistresses or illegitimate lovers, the Roman cohabitation can be described as a monogamous relationship. The cohabiting relationship ended with the husband's marriage.

In the first and second centuries, soldiers in the Roman army could not marry until they had finished their service. Auxiliary soldiers received Roman citizenship and marriage permits (→ Conubium ) only after they had served in the military for 25 years and obtained the Honesta missio . In order to circumvent these restrictions, members of the military often lived in cohabitation, which was tolerated by their military superiors. A special feature of auxiliary veterans and a few other privileged people was that they were also allowed to marry non-Roman women from their province under Roman law, which legionary veterans were not allowed to do. For this reason, former auxiliary soldiers could possibly marry their companions after their release and convert the cohabitation into a marriage. Until 140, when Antoninus Pius largely abolished the inheritance of such awards, children from these connections (girls and boys) also received Roman citizenship.

Slave marriage and contubernium

Non-marriageable people who lived together as a man and woman were also called contubernales . The expression contubernium actually means “shared accommodation ” and means here a domestic community similar to a marriage between people who lack the legal capacity to marry ( conubium ) and whose bond was therefore not legally recognized. Even slaves was possible these legally non-binding form of coexistence. A distinction must be made between connections between a slave and a female slave and between a slave and a freedman .

The marriage of slaves did not fall under Roman law, but exclusively under the law of masters. Slaves could live with each other as long as the keeper allowed them to. Accordingly, there are hardly any Roman sources of law that deal with the relationships between slave marriages. While relationships between slaves of different owners were mostly restricted, relationships between slaves of the same owner were desirable to attract offspring. Children could be sold separately from their parents.

More relevant to the community were connections between male slaves and female freedmen who had Roman citizenship and who were legally treated like other citizens. Marrying a slave was improper under Roman law, but not prohibited. Such connections required the slave owner's consent, which he could revoke at any time. A resolution of the Senate from AD 52 ( senatus consultum Claudianum ) provided that Roman women who got involved with a slave without the permission of the owner could be enslaved themselves and their children became slaves. With the consent of the owner, only children from such relationships should be slaves. However, since Hadrian , the children were treated like illegitimate children and then, like the mother, were considered free Roman citizens. After tightening in the 3rd and 4th centuries, Justinian overturned this Senate resolution. Freed women were not allowed to release their own slave to marry him unless both had previously belonged to the same patron.

However, not all of the freedmen had full citizenship. Slaves released privately according to praetoric law were only given Latin citizenship and, as so-called Iuniani , were probably not allowed to enter into a legally valid marriage with full Roman citizens, so that in addition to concubinate or contubernium, only a Latin marriage was possible for them. Especially the Augustan legislation made it difficult for freedmen outside Rome to acquire full citizenship due to new obstacles. In order to get married, they might need the permission of their freer who was entitled to their inheritance, which is why they could not draw up a will. Unlike the Romans, male Latins passed their citizenship on to a non-Roman provincial resident by marrying them, so that entire families in the provinces could become citizens.

Relationships between free men and slave women were not subject to any restrictions other than the property rights of the owners. They were more common in the army. At least in the Oriental Army in Syria there was evidence that there were sex slaves and forced prostitution . Slaves could not be concubines, but were regarded as mere "prostitutes" ( meretrix ). Since long-term prostitutes were prohibited from marrying, they could often only have one cohabitation even after their release. Relationships between the patron and his slave were nevertheless very common and accepted in Rome, even marriage-like connections or a release and subsequent marriage occurred.

Marriage between the plebeians and patricians in early Roman times

Since the middle of the 5th century BC BC, shortly after the creation of the Twelve Tables Laws , which partially abolished the rigid class differences between plebeians and patricians, a marriage between plebeians and patricians was possible, i. In other words, the previous prohibition of marriage between the classes has been lifted. This made it possible in principle to merge the two social classes, but does not mean that plebeians marrying into patrician families became the rule. It was reserved primarily for the rich and respected plebeians.

After all, through this legal change, the plebeians achieved equality under private law with the patricians.

According to tradition, a legal fixation of this change consists in a law of the tribune Canuleius ( lex Canuleia ) from the year 445 BC. BC, although the assembly of plebs was legally incapable of passing laws. Presumably the patriciate simply no longer offered any resistance to the marriage between members of the two classes, so that a legal fixation should rather not be assumed.

Marriage law provisions of the Corpus Iuris Civilis

Note: The German translations of the Latin terms deliberately do not use the legal language of the 21st century, but those terms from the 19th century that reflect the Roman law received in Central Europe .

Job Latin title translation
Institutions 1.9 - 1.10
Inst. 1.9 De patria potestate From paternal power
Inst. 1.10 De nuptiis. From marriage.
Digest and a. 23.1-25.7
D. 23.1 De sponsalibus From the engagement
D. 23.2 De ritu nuptiarum On the form of marriage
D. 23.3 De iure dotium The law applicable with regard to the marriage property
D. 23.4 De pactis dotalibus From the marriage contracts
D. 23.5 De fundo dotali From the property belonging to the marriage property
D. 24.1 De donationibus inter virum et uxorem From the gifts between husband and wife
D. 24.2 De divortiis et repudiis About the divorces and separations
D. 24.3 Soluto matrimonio dos quemadmodum petatur In what way the marriage property is demanded after the dissolved marriage
D. 25.1 De impensis in res dotales factis Of the uses made on the things required for the marriage property
D. 25.2 De actione rerum amotarum From the lawsuit for stolen property (between spouses)
D. 25.3 De agnoscendis et alendis liberis vel parentibus, vel patronis vel libertis Of recognition and nutrition of the children, or parents, cartridge or freedmen
D. 25.4 De inspicendo ventre custodiendoque partu From the inspection of the womb and the guarding of the womb
D. 25.5 Si ventris nomine muliere in possessionem missa, eadem possessio dolo malo ad alium translata esse dicitur When a woman is admitted for her womb and it should be alleged that the same property has been maliciously transferred to another
D. 25.6 Si mulier ventris nomine in possessione calumniae causa esse dicetur If it will be claimed that a woman is possessed by harassment for her womb
D. 25.7 De concubinis. From the concubines.
Codex 5.1-5.27
C. 5.1 De sponsalibus et arris sponsaliciis et proxeneticis About the engagement and the meals that occur during engagements and the wages of the matchmaker
C. 5.2 Si rector provinciae vel ad eum pertinentes sponsalia dederint When the governor of a province or the persons belonging to him have given a meal
C. 5.3 De donationibus ante nuptias vel propter nuptias et sponsaliciis From the gifts before or because of the wedding and the bridal gifts
C. 5.4 De nuptiis From marriage
C. 5.5 De incestis et inutilibus nuptiis Of bloodthirsty and invalid marriages
C. 5.6 De interdicto matrimonio inter pupillam et tutorem seu curatorem liberosque eorum The prohibition of marriage between the foster child and the guardian or curator and their children
C. 5.7 Si quacumque praeditus potestate vel ad eum pertinentes ad suppositarum iurisdictioni suae adspirare temptaverint nuptias When senior civil servants or their subordinates undertake to seek marriages with women under their jurisdiction
C. 5.8 Si nuptiae ex rescripto petantur When seeking dispensation in order to marry
C. 5.9 De secundis nuptiis From the second (or further) marriage
C. 5.10 Si secundo nupserit mulier, cui maritus usum fructum reliquerit If a wife, to whom her husband has last willingly granted usufruct, marries otherwise
C. 5.11 De dotis promissione vel nuda pollicatione From the solemn promise and the simple promise of marriage good
C. 5.12 De iure dotium The law applicable with regard to the marriage property
C. 5.13 De rei uxoriae actione in ex stipulatu actionem transfusa et de natura dotibus praestita From the merging of the marriage property lawsuit into the lawsuit based on stipulation and the nature of the marriage property
C. 5.14 De pactis conventis tam super dote quam super donatione ante nuptias et paraphernis From the contracts that are concluded on the marriage property, the pre-wedding gift and the paraphernalia
C. 5.15 De dote cauta et non numerata From the receipted, (but) not yet paid marriage property
C. 5.16 De donationibus inter virum et uxorem et a parentibus in liberos factis et de ratihabitione From gifts between a husband and his wife and from parents for their children and from the (subsequent) approval (of such gifts)
C. 5.17 De repudiis et iudicio de moribus sublato Of separation of engagements and marriages and the annulment of legal proceedings due to poor performance
C. 5.18 Soluto matrimonio dos quemadmodum petatur In what way the marriage property is demanded (back) after the marriage has dissolved
C. 5.19 Si dos constante matrimonio soluta fuerit If the marriage property has been repaid during the duration of the marriage
C. 5.20 Ne fideiussores vel mandatores dotium dentur That no guarantors or lenders should be appointed for the marriage property
C. 5.21 Rerum amotarum Because of stolen property (between spouses)
C. 5.22 Ne pro dote mulieri bona mariti addicantur That the property of her former husband should not be added (i.e. granted in payment) for the wife's marriage property
C. 5.23 De fundo dotali From the property belonging to the marriage property
C. 5.24 Divortio facto apud quem liberi morari vel educari debent With whom after the divorce the children are staying or should be brought up
C. 5.25 De alendis liberis ac parentibus About the nutrition of children and parents
C. 5.26 De concubinis From the concubines
C. 5.27 De naturalibus liberis et matribus eorum et ex quibus casibus iusti efficiuntur. From the natural children (concubine children) and their mothers and for what reasons they are made rightful (children).

See also


  • Dacre Balsdon : The Woman in Ancient Rome. Beck, Munich 1979, ISBN 3-406-05782-9 .
  • Arne Duncker: Equality and Inequality in Marriage. Personal position of women and men in the law of marital partnership 1700–1914 (= legal history and gender research. 1). Böhlau, Cologne a. a. 2003, ISBN 3-412-17302-9 , u. a. Pp. 50-60, 212-219, 375-400, 1115-1123, (at the same time: Hannover, Universität, Dissertation, 2001).
  • Jane F. Gardner : Women in Roman law & society. Indiana University Press, Bloomington IN et al. 1986, ISBN 0-253-36609-7 .
  • Martin Christian Grosse: Free Roman marriage and illegitimate cohabitation (= Law Series. Vol. 123). Centaurus-Verlags-Gesellschaft, Pfaffenweiler 1991, ISBN 3-89085-595-4 (also: Berlin, Free University, legal dissertation, 1991).
  • Herbert Hausmaninger , Walter Selb : Roman private law. 5th, improved edition. Böhlau, Wien et al. 1989, ISBN 3-205-05236-6 , pp. 146–161: marriage law. Pp. 162-165: Patria potestas.
  • Max Kaser : Roman private law. A study book. 16th revised edition. Beck, Munich 1992, ISBN 3-406-36065-3 , §§ 58 and 59.
  • Ingemar König : Vita romana. From daily life in ancient Rome. Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, Darmstadt 2004, ISBN 3-534-17950-1 , pp. 32-40.
  • Angelika Mette-Dittmann: The marriage laws of Augustus. An investigation in the context of the social policy of the Princeps (= Historia . Individual writings. H. 67). Steiner, Stuttgart 1991, ISBN 3-515-05876-1 (also: Berlin, Free University, dissertation, 1989).
  • Friedrich Carl von Savigny : System of today's Roman law. 8 volumes. Berlin 1840-1849. Register from 1851. Scanned. Extensive sections on marriage law , in particular vol. 1, pp. 340–342, 345–350.
  • Larry Siedentop : The Invention of the Individual. Liberalism and the Western World. Klett-Cotta, Stuttgart 2015, ISBN 978-3-608-94886-8 , pp. 17–30: Die antike Familie , p. 152: Corpus Iuris Civilis
  • Marianne Weber : wife and mother in legal development. An introduction. Mohr, Tübingen 1907, pp. 158-197 .
  • Bernhard Windscheid : Textbook of Pandect Law. Volume 3. 9th edition, with a comparative representation of German civil law, edited by Theodor Kipp , (the revision 2nd, improved and enlarged edition). Rütten & Loenig, Frankfurt am Main 1906, (reprint. Scientia, Aalen 1963).

Individual evidence

  1. ^ Ingemar König: Vita romana. WBG, Darmstadt 2004, p. 33
  2. Twelve Tables Act 6.4
  3. Ad Atticum 6.6.1
  4. a b Erich Sander : The right of the Roman soldier. In: RhM N.F. 101 (1958), No. 2, pp. 152-163 (section “Marriage law”);
    Christoph Riedo-Emmenegger: Prophetic-messianic provocateurs of the Pax Romana. Jesus of Nazareth and other troublemakers in conflict with the Roman Empire. Digressions. Online publication, Université de Friborg 2005 (revised excerpts, dissertation 2003), pp. 100–110 (excursus D12: “Army and civil status: marriage, paternity and civil rights”);
    Florian Himmler: Legio III Italica. History and structure of the Regensburg Legion Garrison. Online project, Association of Friends of Ancient History (VEFAG), Regensburg 2006 ( Chapter XII. Women and Children ).
  5. ^ Dionys of Halicarnassus , Antiquitates Romanae , 2.25
  6. ^ Raimund Friedl: The concubinat in imperial Rome from Augustus to Septimius Severus (= Historia Einzelschriften, Volume 98). Franz Steiner Verlag, Stuttgart 1996 (Diss. Tübingen 1994), ISBN 3-515-06871-6 , pp. 32-35; 71-74.
  7. ^ Raimund Friedl: The concubinate in imperial Rome from Augustus to Septimius Severus. Stuttgart 1996, pp. 71-74; 86-93.
  8. ^ François Jacques, John Scheid : Rome and the Empire. Constitutional law, religion, army, administration, society, economy. Translated from the French by Peter Riedlberger , Teubner, Leipzig 1998, p. 232.
  9. Christian Herkner: The meaning of women in the context of Romanization in Hesse. TU Darmstadt, accessed on April 11, 2013 .
  10. ^ Kai Brodersen , Bernhard Zimmermann : Metzler Lexikon Antike. 2nd, revised and expanded edition, Metzler, Stuttgart 2006, ISBN 3-476-02123-8 , p. 123.
  11. a b Bernhard Kötting : The evaluation of remarriage (the second marriage) in antiquity and in the early church (= Rheinisch-Westfälische Akademie der Wissenschaften , lectures, G 292). Westdeutscher Verlag, Opladen 1988, p. 40f.
  12. a b c Raimund Friedl: The concubinat in imperial Rome from Augustus to Septimius Severus. Stuttgart 1996, pp. 75-83.
  13. Oliver Schipp: Right in the middle instead of just being there. Roman citizenship. In: Dirk Schmitz, Maike Sieler (eds.): At home everywhere and yet strange. Romans on the go (= catalogs of the LVR Roman Museum in the Xanten Archaeological Park ). Imhof, Petersberg 2013, pp. 46–55 (here: p. 50).
  14. ^ François Jacques, John Scheid: Rome and the Empire. Leipzig 1998, p. 235.
  15. Christoph Riedo-Emmenegger: Prophetic-messianic provocateurs of the Pax Romana. Jesus of Nazareth and other troublemakers in conflict with the Roman Empire. Digressions. Online publication, Université de Friborg 2005, p. 100.
  16. Florian Himmler: Legio III Italica. History and structure of the Regensburg Legion Garrison. Online project, Association of Friends of Ancient History (VEFAG), Regensburg 2006 ( Chapter XII. Women and Children ).