Samuel Spier

from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Samuel Spier on the so-called “chain picture” from the end of 1870 with portraits of opponents of the Franco-German war or (with the exception of Jacoby) protagonists of the early SDAP . Clockwise from above: Karl Marx , Johann Jacoby , Wilhelm Liebknecht , Samuel Spier, Wilhelm Bracke , August Bebel
Samuel Spiers and Wilhelm Bracke's theses on the democratic program by Johann Jacoby 1868

Samuel Spier (born April 4, 1838 in Alsfeld , † November 9, 1903 in Frankfurt am Main ) was a German teacher , boarding school director, private scholar and, as a politician, a fighter for democracy and social justice . Between 1867 and 1871 he was one of the most influential representatives of early German social democracy. He played a key role in preparing the Eisenach Congress, at which the SDAP , the forerunner of the SPD, was founded, had a considerable influence on the program adopted there and became the first de facto chairman of the party committee and thus of the newly founded party.


The son of a wealthy Jewish merchant family first attended elementary school in his place of birth, then a private school, in 1852 the grammar school in Gießen and from 1855 the one in Büdingen , where he obtained the Abitur in 1856. He then studied philosophy and natural sciences for teaching in Giessen . In 1862 Spier took up a position as a teacher at the Brussels Institute , a higher commercial school for boys with boarding school, in Segnitz near Würzburg.

In the fall of 1864, Spier became the “first teacher” at the Samson School in Wolfenbüttel . Like the Segnitz boarding school, this school was a modern Jewish educational establishment. One strived for an equal coexistence with the Christian environment. This spiritual climate suited Spier very well. He was a member of the Association of Free Religious and stood up for tolerance and religious freedom of movement. He wanted theologians banned from school offices. After years of political activity from Wolfenbüttel, he went back to Segnitz in 1872 in a kind of exile, officially he had also been registered in Frankfurt since 1871.

Samuel Spier was married to the writer and art critic Anna Spier , née Kaufmann (born July 16, 1852 in Frankenthal in the Palatinate, † December 28, 1933 Göttingen), whom he married on September 16, 1872 in Segnitz in a simple civil marriage. Seven years after the death of Samuel Spier, on August 24, 1910, Anna Spier married the physician and chemist Erich Meyer (1874–1927), who successively managed clinics in Strasbourg, Munich and Göttingen and, among other things, for his research the diuresis is known.

Samuel Spier had three children with Anna, all of whom were born in Segnitz: Maria Sara, born on November 3rd, 1873, died on April 16th, 1875 and was buried in the Jewish cemetery in Heidingsfeld . The only son Oscar Benedict was born on March 29, 1875 and became a lawyer (driven to his death in Frankfurt in 1940 by the Nazis). The daughter, Else Caroline, born on November 14, 1876, moved from Frankfurt to Falkenstein on April 1, 1905, at the age of 29, and died on April 27, 1921 in Göttingen. (Information from the District Court - Probate Court - Frankfurt am Main)

National Liberal

Spier grew up liberal and influenced by democracy. His father was considered a supporter of the 1848 democracy movement . His school director in Büdingen, Georg Thudichum (who in turn was a student of Friedrich Gottlieb Welcker ), was a liberal politician. His first boss, Simon Louis Eichenberg, the director of the Brussels Institute in Segnitz and Spier's predecessor in this role, was also progressive.

Spier had contact with the economist Hermann Schulze-Delitzsch (1808-1883), whom he had already met in 1863 and 1865 and described on August 9, 1866 in a humorous article for the Braunschweiger Tageblatt . Spier attended liberal congresses and corresponded with various important representatives from the liberal bourgeoisie. During this time he wrote numerous articles, all of which he signed with the abbreviation Sp . (Source: Hensel, Gatt-Rutter: Svevo-Spier 1996, 61 ff., 278.)

Politically ambitious and a supporter of the German national club , Samuel Spier came to Wolfenbüttel at the age of 26. "I put emphasis on democratic institutions ..." is one of his first documented political statements. Spier wrote for the liberal Braunschweiger Tageblatt . In the spirit of national liberalism, he was involved in Wolfenbüttel in the trade association and in the educational association. With regard to the increasingly apparent social needs of the workers, he represented the left-liberal position of self-help. For Spier, popular education was a contribution to self-help and so he was one of the co-founders of a workers' education association in Wolfenbüttel in 1865 .

Social democrat

The examination of Lassalle's theses caused Spier to shake his previous view. When reading Lassallescher writings he got the impression, according to his own admission, " that socialism is not just pure folly and nonsense, as it is usually presented in the national liberal papers ."

On June 21, 1867, the Braunschweig local group of the Lassalleschen ADAV organized a workers' day. Spier took part as a representative of the Wolfenbütteler Arbeiterbildungsverein and witnessed a speech by the businessman Wilhelm Bracke (1842–1880).

The experience of the working day and in particular the rousing appearance of Bracke finally transformed Spier from a national liberal to a supporter of Lassalle's ideology. At the meeting he joined the ADAV. In Wolfenbüttel he immediately set up a local branch of the ADAV.

The activities Spier developed within a very short time were so impressive that Wolfenbüttel wanted to elect him as a candidate for the upcoming elections to the assembly of the North German Confederation . However, Samuel Spier rejected this on the grounds that he had only been a member of the ADAV for a short time and could not yet foresee whether he would maintain his opinion.

Spier always gained stronger influence on the appearance of the ADAV and became one of the fiercest critics of the then ADAV chairman Johann Baptist von Schweitzer . He criticized the undemocratic structures of the ADAV and the management style of Schweitzer in ever more acute form.

Spier presented this criticism publicly at the general assembly of the ADAV at Easter 1869 in Elberfeld . Von Schweitzer apparently gave in and consented to changes in the organizational statutes and cuts in his powers. As v. But a short time after Schweitzer withdrew the changes in his criticized, self-righteous manner - the opposition spoke at the time of a “coup d'état” - it came to an open rupture.

On June 22, 1869, the ADAV leaders Julius Bremer , Theodor Yorck , Bracke and Samuel Spier met with the leaders of the Saxon People's Party , Wilhelm Liebknecht and August Bebel , "in a third-class inn in Magdeburg" (Bebel) to prepare the few Weeks later in Eisenach with the establishment of the Social Democratic Workers' Party in Germany , separation from the ADAV was completed.

The SDAP program bears Spier's signature in many areas. 15 speeches noted in the meeting minutes document how much he influenced the formulations of the party statutes. The democratic internal party structure demanded and implemented by Spier is still having an effect today. In keeping with Spier's spirit, the Eisenach program also stipulated the requirement for a general basic education and access to higher schools without restriction of class.

At the suggestion of Wilhelm Liebknecht, in Eisenach Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel was designated as the seat of the party committee, and Hamburg in the person of August Geib as the seat of the control commission, against the likewise proposed locations of Leipzig, Hamburg and Vienna . Liebknecht's reasoning was that Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel was “excellently located in the center of the movement” and that the party leaders there - Bracke and Spier - “did not incur hostility on either side” despite great adherence to principles. Liebknecht expressly emphasized that neither he nor Bebel aspired to lead the party. This clearly defined a three-way division of power through which incidents - as was the case with the ADAV - were to be excluded from the outset. The official chairman of the committee was initially Heinrich Ehlers, a friend of Braunschweig Bracke, and later a 40-year-old Leipzig tailor named Carl Kühn, about whom nothing else has been passed on and who - except as a co-defendant in the Braunschweig socialist trial in 1871 - never appeared, but at least partially kept the real leaders Bracke and Spier, who were now even more exposed, out of the political line of fire. [Source and quotations from Liebknecht after Eckert, 100 years, 100 f. - see also the chapter "At the top of the Social Democratic Workers' Party", 103 ff.]

The actual chairman of the committee and thus of the new party was consequently the "deputy": Samuel Spier. Wilhelm Bracke was elected cashier, but for a long time, for private and health reasons, he was barely able to take care of party business. It was Samuel Spier who from now on took the train from Wolfenbüttel to Braunschweig almost every day to check and sign the correspondence prepared by party secretary Leonhard von Bonhorst . For a good two years, a very large part of the political and organizational responsibility for the young party lay in Wolfenbüttel and Braunschweig, namely with Samuel Spier and Wilhelm Bracke.

The delegates of the Basel Congress in 1869

In 1869 Spier went with Wilhelm Liebknecht as a delegate to the fourth congress of the First International in Basel, which took place from September 6th to 12th. There he met the IAA leaders Eccarius , Bakunin , Hermann F. Jung, Moses Hess and Johann Philipp Becker , who had supported him and Bracke in the dispute with Schweitzer from Geneva. He was also in correspondence with Hess and Eccarius. Spier acted with Liebknecht and Hess as Secrétaire de langue allemande and worked intensively in the committee for education and instruction. He is mentioned eight times in the minutes. Spier was among the 54 delegates who advocated that society should have the right to abolish individual ownership of land. Spier had to leave the congress prematurely because of his work in Wolfenbüttel and is not shown on the final photo in Basel.

The pragmatist

Samuel Spier had a visionary idea of ​​a changed social structure and persistently pursued it. But he was also a pragmatist. In contrast to almost all of his fellow campaigners, he is not known to have made any public statements of radical views. Rather, he repeatedly warned against too subversive demands. In his opinion, they would only challenge the greater resistance of the state authorities. His contact with the National Liberals never broke off while he was working for the SDAP. Among other things, he was friends with the left-wing liberal publisher Franz Gustav Duncker . In June 1870, at the party's first congress in Stuttgart, which he opened as chairman of the party committee, he advocated pragmatic cooperation “with the People's Party and other liberal bourgeois parties”. He criticized the dogmatic voting behavior of Bebel and Liebknecht in the North German Reichstag. Spier argued in a concentrated, sober and factual manner and established himself as a staunch democrat and skilful tactician as the moderating intellectual head and thought leader of the party committee.

This cautious maneuvering, as well as maintaining his contacts with liberal politicians, brought Spier criticism, especially from Bebel, who at times apparently viewed Spier as a rival and later worked on the legend of having been the first party chairman of the SdAP (he led up to on the merger with the ADAV together with Wilhelm Liebknecht the Saxon People's Party , not the SDAP from its foundation). Bebel only mentioned Spier in passing in his memoirs and disparagingly called him “the cautious Spier”. On the other hand, Spier enjoyed the trust of the workers and a high reputation, especially with Wilhelm Liebknecht, who wrote about him in a letter after working together in the committees in Basel: “Spier is a great guy. It was in Basel that I first learned what was behind him! "

It is the apparent contradiction that Spier embodied - determined pursuit of a changed social structure, on the other hand far removed from any radicality - and his obvious mediation between the individual currents of the labor movement that defines his political significance. Even if he only worked in the party leadership for a few years, as Fricke writes, he was "undoubtedly one of the most influential figures of early German social democracy".

"High and national traitor"

The war of 1870/71 brought the SDAP into a serious crisis. The Braunschweig party leadership initially supported the war against France. Whoever is attacked must be able to defend himself, was their attitude. Bebel and Liebknecht saw things differently - for them the acts of war were intended by Germany - and from the beginning they spoke out against an armed conflict "against brothers". There was a violent dispute between the two camps, in which Geib in Hamburg as well as Karl Marx in London (“The French need beating”) sided with Spiers and Bracke: the SDAP threatened to collapse. After the victory at Sedan and the capture of Napoleon III. However, like Marx and Geib, the party committee spoke out against the continuation of the war and, on September 5, 1870, called for an immediate "honorable peace" with France in a manifesto. The party was reunited, but the event had ramifications in other respects.

On September 9, 1870, five days after the manifesto was published, all members of the party committee and the printer of the manifesto, a completely apolitical citizen, were arrested and taken to the Boyen Fortress in Lötzen , East Prussia , like serious criminals in chains . ("Lötzen chain affair") Spier was the only one treated relatively decently when he was arrested in Wolfenbüttel. The charge was treason; however, after seven months in prison it dwindled to a simple offense against the law on associations. Accordingly, the SdAP was not allowed to be part of the IAA in Germany at the same time . Of the several years imprisonment demanded for Spier, two months in prison remained in the verdict, which were compensated by the much longer pre-trial detention.

In the first socialist trial of the newly founded empire, Spier found the prosecutor's special attention "because of his intellectual abilities, his political role, his official position as a teacher, his considerable fortune and above all because of his contacts with members of the forbidden International". (Hans M. Hensel) For Georg Eckert , the best expert on social history of the 19th century, Spier's concentrated and factual statements in this process, in which he did not deviate from his convictions, are “among the most valuable testimonies from the early days of the Germans Social Democracy ”.

While in prison, Spier took part in the Reichstag election of March 3, 1871. The attempt of the party to open the prison doors for the detainees Bracke and Spier through an election by placing them next to the hopeless home constituencies in a Saxon party stronghold, however, failed. Only Bebel won a single seat in the Reichstag for the SDAP against Schulze-Delitzsch in Glauchau-Meerane. After Bebel, however, Spier achieved the second highest number of votes among all members of the party leadership. He came in his second constituency Mittweida-Frankenberg (next to Helmstedt-Wolfenbüttel) in the runoff election against the well-known national liberal Prof. Karl Biedermann , whom he was honored to defeat with 4017 to 5430 votes. In the Mittweida sub-district, he had even clearly won despite sharp press attacks against the Social Democrats.

School principal and private scholar

Just released from prison, Samuel Spier gave another highly acclaimed speech on May 15, 1871 in Braunschweig in front of around 1200 people, then suddenly it fell silent around him. He left Wolfenbüttel and went into political hiding. The circumstances and background for this are completely in the dark.

He had moved to Frankfurt am Main for the Braunschweig authorities and settled there as a private scholar. In reality, however, he went back to Segnitz. Here he took over the management of the Brussels Institute , the higher boarding school where he had been a junior teacher from 1862 to 1864. He later bought the institute from his predecessor, Simon Eichenberg, which at that time comprised at least five large buildings in the center of the village.

At the end of the school year in 1881, Spier dissolved the Brussels Institute and moved back to Frankfurt with his family and the two surviving children. There he appears again and again in various documents as a "private scholar" (he was friends with the zoologist Wilhelm Kobelt , a former Alsfeld classmate, among others , and, together with his wife, was also involved as an art patron, for example for Hans Thoma , who at times lived in his immediate vicinity) and wrote in all probability for the social democratic Frankfurt daily Volksstimme, edited by Wilhelm Schmidt . Although he never signed his articles with his full name, threatening letters were addressed to a Social Democratic "editor" named Spier, which began with the introduction "You wretched Saujud".

Above all, however, Spier was involved in Frankfurt on the social democratic base for the cooperative movement . Among other things, he was the founding chairman of the Frankfurter Genossenschaftsbäckerei and the Frankfurter Konsumverein, and remained so until his death.

He died in Frankfurt in 1903 at the age of 65. The SPD mentioned him again at their 1904 party congress: With Comrade Samuel Spier, who died on October 9th in Frankfurt, one of the old guard left the ranks of the living . The cooperative movement did not forget him either and honored him again in their 1925 commemorative publication 25 Years of Consumers in Frankfurt am Main and the Surrounding Area . This is the only surviving image of Samuel Spier - apart from the "chain picture" named after the so-called "Lötzen chain affair" with his political colleagues at the time.

Italo Svevo's fatherly friend and teacher

As director of the Brussels Institute in Segnitz, Samuel Spier was among other things 1874-1878 teacher of Aron, called Ettore Schmitz ( Italo Svevo ) and his brother Adolfo from Trieste , and 1876-1878 of another brother, Elio Schmitz. All three were housed as boarding school children in an attic room directly above Spier's apartment. While the feeble Elio felt uncomfortable abroad and recorded the relevant memories in a "diary", Ettore and Adolfo fitted in well, learned under the guidance of the bookworm and atheist Spier and his young, equally well-read wife Anna, who later became a well-known art critic, far more about literature (Shakespeare, Goethe, Schiller, Heine, Turgenjew) than economics. Both brothers fell in love with a charming niece of Spiers, Anna Herz from Frankenthal . Anna is said to have later decided on Adolfo, as Elio wrote. At least once the young Ettore drove to Frankfurt with Spier. Two pictures of him in school uniform, taken around 1877 in the studio of the Frankfurt photographer Gustav Graf, are the only known pictures of a pupil at this boarding school in uniform.

Samuel Spier is "Mr. Beer" in Svevo's story L'avvenire dei ricordi (Eng. The future of memories ), which originally had the date "May 1st, 25th" as a heading. Due to a description in the manuscript, which was missing in the Italian edition as well as in the German translation, the house in Segnitz could be found again in 1996, where the hiding socialist Spier and the future writer Svevo were almost in one for four school and boarding years Lived father-son relationship.


  • In Alsfeld there has been a centrally located Samuel-Spier-Gasse since 2005 , but it has no house numbers.
  • For the Museum Schloss Wolfenbüttel , on the 100th anniversary of Samuel Spier's death (2003), at the suggestion of Hans Michael Hensel, Hans Christian Mempel designed the exhibition "Samuel Spier, a champion for democracy and social justice 1838–1903" under the title of a quote by Spier from the Year 1870: "Without freedom, unity is of little value." It was opened on January 17, 2004 with a lecture by Rudolf GA Fricke . The exhibition was shown in the regional museum Alsfeld from March 31 to May 28, 2005, and from May 29 to May 27 in Kitzingen together with an exhibition put together by Hensel on the Jewish history of secondary schools in Marktbreit . From there she went to the Mozart-Schönborn-Gymnasium Würzburg , where Fricke gave the introductory day on November 15, 2005. No other planned exhibitions in collaboration with the Friedrich Ebert Foundation, including those in Eisenach , have taken place so far. (Sources: Administrative report of the city of Wolfenbüttel 2005, 52f. (PDF; 940 kB) and / )

Publications (selection)

  • Sp .: "Braunschweiger Volkswirthschaftlicher Congress" - Braunschweiger Tageblatt August 9, 1866, 1 f. (Republished as "Schulze-Delitzschs Nassauische Kellerfahrt and Bismarck's farsighted look. Samuel Spier's report from the Brunswick Economic Congress 1866." - "Feuilleton" No. 1. (Italo Svevo on the 70th anniversary of his death) Segnitz: Zenos Verlag 1998, 23 ff.)
  • Sp .: "Pedagogical Association Wolfenbüttel" - Braunschweiger Tageblatt August 29, 1866. (On the occasion of an appeal for donations for the memorial for Adolph Diesterweg planned in Berlin, among other things: "School men and not theologians run schools!" And speaks in another article with the same title on February 26, 1867 for better history teaching in elementary schools.)
  • S. Spier (with W. Bracke): Theses on the democratic program of Joh. Jacoby's. Braunschweig 1868. (Republished as a facsimile in: HM Hensel / J. Gatt-Rutter: Svevo-Spier 1996, 202 f.)
  • Spier: "The Waldenburger Strike and the Members of the International Workers' Association Abroad" - The People's State January 15, 1870. (Republished as a facsimile in: HM Hensel / J. Gatt-Rutter: Svevo-Spier 1996, 212 f.)
  • S. Spier: "The Socialists and the Malthusian Population Law" - reports of the Free German High Foundation in Frankfurt am Main 1886–1887, 280 ff.
  • S. Spier: "Eisfabrikation" - reports of the Free German Hochstift in Frankfurt am Main 1886–1887, 103 ff.
  • S. Spier: "Influence of the intermediate trade on the retail prices" - reports of the Free German Hochstift in Frankfurt am Main 1889 210 ff.
  • S. Spier: "The Raiffeisen Loan Banks Associations" - reports of the Free German Hochstift in Frankfurt am Main 1890, 241 ff.
  • S. Spier: "The technical production of beet sugar and the beet tax" - reports of the Free German Hochstift in Frankfurt am Main 1890, 266 ff.
  • S. Spier: "The industrial education abroad, especially in France" - reports of the Free German Hochstift in Frankfurt am Main 1892, 220 ff.

Web links


  • Wilhelm Bracke: The Brunswick committee of the social democratic workers' party in Lötzen and before the court. Braunschweig 1872.
  • C. [arl] Koch [public prosecutor]): The trial against the committee of the social-democratic workers' party. 1.) the businessman W. Bracke jun. in Braunschweig, 2.) the technician Leonhard von Bonhorst from Caub, 3.) the former teacher in Wolfenbüttel, Samuel Spier, now in Frankfurt a. M., 4.) the tailor journeyman Joh. Aug. Carl Kühn from Leipzig [...] on 23rd, 24th and 24th. Nov. 25, 1871. Represented by records. Braunschweig 1871.
  • 25 years of consumer association in Frankfurt am Main and the surrounding area . Frankfurt 1925 [with illustration by Spier; the only publicly accessible copy is in the Institute for Urban History in Frankfurt a. M.]
  • Georg Eckert : "The pamphlets of the Lassallean community in Braunschweig." - Archives for social history . Vol. 2, Verlag für Literatur und Zeitgeschehen, Hannover 1962, 295–358.
  • Heinz Hümmler: Opposition to Lassalle. The revolutionary proletarian opposition in the General German Workers' Association 1862 / 63–1866 . Berlin: Rütten & Loening 1963.
  • Georg Eckert : "Samuel Spier and the International Workers' Association". - Archives for social history . Hanover 1964, 599-615.
  • Georg Eckert: "Samuel Spier and Samuel Kokosky in the ranks of the Braunschweig workers' movement." - Brunsvicensia Judaica . Braunschweig 1966, 71 ff.
  • Georg Eckert: One hundred years of Braunschweig social democracy. 1st part From the beginnings to the year 1890. Hanover: JHW Dietz Nachf. 1965. [Eckert, 100 years]
  • Jutta Seidel: "Spier, Samuel." - History of the German labor movement. Biographical Lexicon . Berlin: Dietz 1970, 438 f.
  • Herbert Jäckel: "Samuel Spier (1838-1903). A Jew from Alsfeld accused in the first great socialist trial". - Home Chronicle. [Supplement to the Oberhessische Zeitung ] Marburg: October 1992, 1–2.
  • Hans Michael Hensel: "Samuel Spier, socialist. How Italo Svevo discovered Germany" . - Pictures and times (supplement to the Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung ), Frankfurt a. M. April 29, 1995, 6.
  • Hans Michael Hensel (ed.), John Gatt-Rutter: Italo Svevo, Samuel Spier's pupil. Segnitz: Zenos Verlag 1996, ISBN 3-931018-55-5 . [Hensel, Gatt-Rutter: Svevo-Spier]
  • Life in a "time of the roughest prose". Ettore Schmitz 'teacher fought for democracy and justice . In: Hans Michael Hensel: One of the most beautiful true love stories in literature and other articles about the writer Ettore Schmitz and his environment . 1998, pp. 19-22.
  • Rudolf GA Fricke: The labor movement in our country - history of social democracy in Wolfenbüttel and Braunschweig from the beginnings to 1870/71 with a look ahead to the modern age . ELM-Verlag, Cremlingen 1989.
  • Reinhard Frost: Spier, Samuel . In: Wolfgang Klötzer (Ed.): Frankfurter Biographie . Personal history lexicon . Second volume. M – Z (=  publications of the Frankfurt Historical Commission . Volume XIX , no. 2 ). Waldemar Kramer, Frankfurt am Main 1996, ISBN 3-7829-0459-1 . , Pp. 408-409.
  • Spier, Samuel . In: German Biographical Encyclopedia . Vol. 9 (1st edition 1995-2003), p. 403.
  • Melanie Stumpf: Samuel Spier, a bourgeois worker leader . Segnitz near Würzburg 1998, ISBN 3-931018-16-4 .
  • Unity is of little value without freedom. Samuel Spier - a champion for democracy and social justice. 1838-1903. Memorial exhibition on the occasion of the centenary of his death, museum in Wolfenbüttel Castle, January 18 to March 28 . Museum in Wolfenbüttel Castle 2004.
  • Rudolf GA Fricke: Samuel Spier (1838–1903) - fighter for democracy and social justice . In: Braunschweigische Heimat. 91st vol., 1/2005, pp. 13-16.
  • Rudolf GA Fricke: Samuel Spier (1838–1903) - fighter for democracy and social justice . In: Regional trade union papers Braunschweig. Issue 41, 2010, pp. 4-17.

Individual evidence

  1. In the protocol of the Braunschweig socialist trial, Spier is quoted as follows - possibly due to a transcription or printing error: I was in Alzfeld on April 4, 1828, Gr. Duchy of Hesse, Prov. Born in Upper Hesse . Quoted from Georg Eckert, p. 72.
  2. Minutes of the negotiations of the party congress of the Social Democratic Party of Germany from September 18 to 24, 1904 in Bremen , 11.
  3. ^ Bruno Maier [ed.] Lettere a Italo Svevo - Diario di Elio Schmitz. Milan: dall'Oglio 1973; the Segnitz-related parts were published in German in 1996: Hensel, Gatt-Rutter: Svevo-Spier , 33–55.
  4. Facsimile and complete translation in Hensel, Gatt-Rutter: Svevo-Spier , 19–32, 230–251.