from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Wąbrzeźno coat of arms
Wąbrzeźno (Poland)
Basic data
State : Poland
Voivodeship : Kuyavian Pomeranian
Powiat : Wąbrzeźno
Area : 8.53  km²
Geographic location : 53 ° 17 '  N , 18 ° 57'  E Coordinates: 53 ° 17 '0 "  N , 18 ° 57' 0"  E
Height : 99 m npm
Residents : 13,570
(Jun. 30, 2019)
Postal code : 87-200
Telephone code : (+48) 56
License plate : CWA
Economy and Transport
Street : Brodnica - Chełmno
Rail route : Toruń – Olsztyn
Next international airport : Bydgoszcz
Gminatype: Borough
Surface: 8.53 km²
Residents: 13,570
(Jun. 30, 2019)
Population density : 1591 inhabitants / km²
Community number  ( GUS ): 0417011
Administration (as of 2015)
Mayor : Leszek Kawski
ul.Wolności 18 87-200 Wąbrzeźno
Website : www.wabrzezno.com

Wąbrzeźno [ vɔmˈbʒɛʑnɔ ] ( German Briesen ) is a town in the powiat Wąbrzeski of the Polish Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodeship . The city is the seat of the independent rural municipality Ryńsk .

Geographical location

The city is located in the former West Prussia , about 40 kilometers northeast of Toruń ( Thorn ).


Briesen south of Danzig Bay and northeast of Thorn on a map from 1908.
Market square in the city center
Houses on the market square
Evangelical Church (14th century)
Catholic Church
Birthplace of the German Nobel Prize laureate Walther Nernst .

Archaeological finds show that Slavic tribes built a fortified rampart and free-standing dwellings on the land bridge between Friedecksee and Schlosssee as early as the 8th century - over which an old trade route led. In a document from 1251 this settlement is called Vambresia germ. Wredeck or Frydeck (Briesen). The Slavic place name is said to have been Wambrez , which means something between the birches in Old Slavonic .

In the 10th century, the Kulmer Land , which at that time belonged to the Duchy of Pomerania and in which the village was located, was attacked by the Polish Duke Mieszko I with military campaigns. At the beginning of the 13th century, Prussian tribes invaded the Kulmer Land and plundered the settlements there. Since the territory of the then Polish Duke Konrad of Mazovia was not spared from Prussian raids, he called on the Teutonic Knight Order . In 1231 the order received the Kulmer Land, from where it began to repel and subdue the Prussians. In a document dated July 28, 1243, the papal legate Wilhelm von Modena stipulated that two thirds of the Prussian territories conquered by the Teutonic Knight Order should belong to the Teutonic Knights Order and one third to the Kulm bishops . According to this document, Pope Innocent IV in a document dated April 19, 1246, established the Kulm bishops as the owners of Wredeck, among others.

In 1251 the collegiate church of St. Simon and Juda was built in Wambresin , in this context the city of Frydeck or Friedeck was probably founded , as the city was called at the time of the Teutonic Order.

At the beginning of the 14th century the collegiate church was rebuilt as a massive stone building, and the Kulm bishop Herman von Prizna had a city wall built around the city and a castle in the northwest of the city. In the Thirteen Years' War (1454–1466) between the Prussian Confederation, allied with Poland, and the German Order of Knights, the city of Friedeck, the castle and the surrounding villages were completely devastated. After the castle was rebuilt, it was the residence of the Kulm bishops until 1773.

With the Second Peace of Thorner in 1466, the city of Friedeck was incorporated into the Polish-Lithuanian Union as part of Royal Prussia . In 1655 it was devastated by the Swedes in the Second Polish-Swedish War . In 1700 a devastating city fire took place, which destroyed much of the city.

With the first partition of Poland-Lithuania in 1772, royal Prussia was annexed with Briesen from Prussia. In 1788 Friedeck was renamed Briesen . The addition West Prussia followed later . In 1792 there was another devastating fire, after which the castle was used as a quarry for reconstruction.

At the time of Napoleon Bonaparte , Briesen was assigned to the Grand Duchy of Warsaw from 1807 to 1815 . The city was returned to Prussia by the Congress of Vienna .

The inhabitants of Briesen lived primarily from agriculture and the brewery . In the middle of the 19th century, industrialization also reached Briesen. The prerequisite for this was its favorable location due to its artificial road connection , which had existed since 1848, and the railway . The Briesen circular railway established the connection to the main railway . In 1900 there were several factories in Briesen for cement , artificial sandstone , mechanical engineering and vehicle construction . There was also a modern brewery, dairy, grinding mill and several brick factories.

Since 1887 Briesen was the county seat of the district Briesen (Westpr.) In the administrative district Marienwerder of the province West Prussia of the German Empire .

After the end of the First World War , Briesen had to be ceded to Poland due to the provisions of the Versailles Treaty for the purpose of establishing the Polish Corridor , with effect from January 20, 1920 and without a referendum. Briesen was renamed Wąbrzeźno . Due to the attack on Poland in 1939, the removed territory of the Polish Corridor came under international law , and Briesen with the district area was incorporated into the Marienwerder administrative district in the Reichsgau Danzig-West Prussia , to which the city belonged until 1945.

During this time, 3,500 Poles were brought from the Briesen district to the Lebrechtsdorf – Potulitz camp and 300 to the Thorn camp. So-called ethnic Germans from Galicia and Bessarabia were settled in their place .

Towards the end of the Second World War , the 65th Army of the Red Army under the leadership of General Pawel Batow occupied the city on January 24, 1945 . There were no major skirmishes, so there was no significant destruction. Around 121 Red Army soldiers died in fighting in the district and were buried in a military cemetery in the city. A few days after the entry of the Soviet troops, NKVD units began - as in all other occupied territories - with the "cleansing" of the population. In the course of this campaign, which lasted until mid-February, a total of 776 people from the Briesen district, 261 of them from the city itself, were deported to labor camps in the Soviet Union . Most of these people died during the weeks of transport to the labor camps or in the labor camps themselves. Most of the deportees were ethnic Poles who had been included in Group III of the German People's List after 1939 . The ages of the deportees ranged from 14 to 75 years and the proportion of women was 32.8%.

Unless the German resettlers had fled, most of them were expelled .

In 1975 the village lost the status of a district town, in 1999 it got it back.

Population development

year Residents Remarks
1772 502
1783 665 in 84 households ( fireplaces ), mostly Catholic Poles
1831 1,100 partly German, partly Polish population
1875 3,964
1880 4,498
1900 6,071 mostly Catholics
1921 8,200 mostly poles
1943 10.051
1988 12,396
1998 14,283
2003 14,523
2007 13,830


  • The city of Wąbrzeźno forms an urban municipality.
  • The independent rural community Wąbrzeźno bore the name of this city, which did not belong to it, until 2016. The rural commune was renamed Ryńsk Commune.

Ryńsk Rural Commune

The independent rural community of Ryńsk continues to have its seat in Wąbrzeźno. In 2017 it was named after the village of Ryńsk (German: Rynsk , 1902–1945 Rheinsberg ). Until 2016 it was named after the city of Wąbrzeźno, which does not belong to it. The rural community has an area of ​​200.8 km² on the 8569 people live (June 30, 2019).

Town twinning

Since 2006 there has been a town partnership with the German town of Syke in the Diepholz district in Lower Saxony .

sons and daughters of the town


Web links

Commons : Wąbrzeźno  - collection of images, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. a b population. Size and Structure by Territorial Division. As of June 30, 2019. Główny Urząd Statystyczny (GUS) (PDF files; 0.99 MiB), accessed December 24, 2019 .
  2. City website (BIP), Burmistrz Wąbrzeźno , accessed on April 12, 2015
  3. a b Johannes Voigt : History of Prussia from the oldest times to the fall of the rule of the Teutonic Order . Volume 2: The time from the arrival of the order to peace in 1249 . Königsberg 1827, p. 479.
  4. "Historia Wąbrzeźna - Tom 1 (German history of the town of Wąbrzeźno - Volume 1)", published by the municipal office in Wąbrzeźno, 2005. ISBN 83-87605-85-9 , p. 66ff
  5. Johannes Voigt : History of Prussia from the oldest times to the fall of the rule of the Teutonic Order . Volume 2: The time from the arrival of the order to peace in 1249 . Königsberg 1827, p. 475 ff .
  6. "Historia Wąbrzeźna - Tom 1 (German history of the city of Wąbrzeźno - Volume 1)", published by the municipal office in Wąbrzeźno, 2005. ISBN 83-87605-85-9 , p. 77 ff.
  7. ^ "Historia Wąbrzeźna - Tom 2 (Eng. History of the City of Wąbrzeźno - Volume 2)", published by the Municipal Office in Wąbrzeźno, 2005. ISBN 83-87605-95-6 , pp. 9-20
  8. a b Handbook of Historic Places , East and West Prussia , Kröner, Stuttgart 1981, ISBN 3-520-31701-X , p. 26.
  9. ^ Johann Friedrich Goldbeck : Complete topography of the Kingdom of Prussia . Part II: Topography of West Prussia , Marienwerder 1789, p. 36, No. 4).
  10. ^ August Eduard Preuss: Prussian country and folklore . Königsberg 1835, p. 438, No. 49.
  11. ^ A b Michael Rademacher: German administrative history from the unification of the empire in 1871 to the reunification in 1990. Province of West Prussia, district of Briesen. (Online material for the dissertation, Osnabrück 2006).
  12. ^ Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon , 6th edition, Volume 3, Leipzig and Vienna 1906, p. 418.
  13. Der Große Brockhaus , 15th edition, Volume 3, Leipzig 1929, p. 331.
  14. Główny Urząd Statystyczny, "LUDNOŚĆ - STAN I STRUKTURA W PRZEKROJU TERYTORIALNYM", as of June 30, 2007 ( Memento of February 16, 2008 in the Internet Archive )
  15. Sister town Wabrzezno (Poland)