|General information about the mine|
|Mining technology||Underground mining|
|Funding / year||Max. 426,840 t|
|Information about the mining company|
|Operating company||Bergbau-AG Tremonia
German-Luxembourgish mining and smelting company
|Employees||up to 2142|
|Start of operation||1855|
|End of operation||1931|
|Successor use||Tremonia experimental pit|
|Funded raw materials|
|Degradation of||Bituminous coal / iron stone|
|Independent city ( NUTS3 )||Dortmund|
|country||State of North Rhine-Westphalia|
The Tremonia colliery is a former hard coal mine in Dortmund city center-west. In addition to hard coal, ironstone was also extracted from the mine. Until 1863 the mine was also called the Teichmühlenbaum colliery . The Tremonia colliery union was one of the founding members of the Rheinisch-Westphalian coal syndicate . The mining company Tremonia was one of the founding members of the association for mining interests.
The mine started in the second half of the 18th century. There began in 1760 Wilhelm Friedrich von Hovel on the northeast bank of the Emscher with prospecting . Later, several were also from the Emschertal studs in a northeasterly direction ascended . Wilhelm Friedrich von Hövel called his mine the Dickmüllerbaum mine . Other names of the mine were Zeche Dijkmollenboem , Zeche Dickmühlenbaum and Zeche Dieckmühlerbaum . In 1774, four shafts near the Vogtskuhle were sunk and a coal bank with a thickness of 1.3 meters was opened up. At that time there was still a tunnel from the Emschertal. In 1780 a work of art was installed to raise water . However, the mine was soon shut down again. In 1786 several trades intended to put the mine back into operation. The mine went out of business around 1800. In 1803 JD Engels named the mine Teichmühlenbaum colliery. During the wars of freedom the mine was idle. On September 26, 1828, a mutation was introduced under the name Beatrix. It was a Schurfschacht with a depth of seven Lachter geteuft and created two knocking off. In 1840 the rightful owner was registered again. In 1845 the Dickmüllerbaum colliery was finally renamed the Teichmühlenbaum colliery. The Tremonia mutation was acquired and the sinking work for a mining shaft began. The digging shaft was set up south of the Baroper mill bridge over the Emscher and sunk down to a depth of ten pools. On May 18, 1848, a request was made to the field Teichmühlenbaum No. IV. In the period from March 14th to April 7th, 1849, the Geviertfeld Teichmühlenbaum No. I - IV were awarded . In 1851 the legitimate was measured .
The first years as Tremonia
The mining company Tremonia was founded in 1855. In the same year the mine was renamed the Tremonia colliery. The rights covered an area of 4.1 km 2 and consisted of the square fields Teichmühlenbaum and Teichmühlenbaum No. II - IV. In 1856 the mining company Tremonia acquired the Kuxen majority of the Teichmühlenbaum union. In the same year, the mining activities on the mine were resumed. The sinking work for shaft 1 began. The shaft was set up on Tremoniastraße and reached carbon in the same year at a depth of 50 meters (+37 m above sea level ) . The following year, the masonry work on the shaft wall continued. A direct-acting dewatering machine was put into operation, the machine had a cylinder diameter of 44 inches . At that time, the mine was part of the Dortmund mining district . In the same year, the weather bed was set at a depth of 64 meters (+23 m NN) . However, this sole was abandoned a little later. The shaft lining was lined watertight from above days to a depth of 23½ Lachter. Two seams were already cut through during the sinking work. In 1858 the first level was set at a depth of 113 meters (−26 m above sea level). In 1859 the second level (first underground level) was set at a depth of 176 meters (−89 m above sea level). Alignment of the first underground level began in the same year . A northern cross passage was set up. In the same year, six narrow seams were traversed on the weather bed with the northern cross passage. However, the seams were of poor quality and consisted mainly of fire slate . They ranged in thickness from seven to eighteen inches . With the southern cross passage of the weather bed, a seam with a thickness of 52 inches was approached in the disturbed mountains . This seam turned out to be very irregular during further excavation. In addition, an iron stone field was awarded this year and the first coal was mined.
The first years of operation
Regular mining began in 1861. The alignment work also continued. The northern cross passage on the weather bed was driven up to a length of 172 Lachter. With the crosscut, a 154 inch thick seam was opened up. On the second level, the northern cross passage was driven up to a length of 138½ Lachter. Two seams with a thickness of 78 and 18 inches were penetrated and at the end of the excavation a further 18 inch seam was approached. The first two seams have been in Verhieb taken. The reduction was carried out at that time mainly in the North Field. In 1862 the northern cross passage was driven further on the 2nd level to a length of 189 Lachter. For two seams (78 inches and 144 inches), the invert sections were driven further in an easterly and westerly direction. In 1863, the rope ride was approved in shaft 1 . In the same year, the alignment and fixture work continued. In the 144-inch seam, the bed stretch to the west was driven up to a length of 120 pools. The invert section to the east in the same seam was driven further to the main fault. On the 70-inch thick seam, the western and eastern invert sections were driven further. In the 78-inch thick seam, too, the invert sections were further excavated. On August 5, 1864, the mining company Tremonia was dissolved. In 1865, the company was converted into the Tremonia coal and iron mine union. The Tremonia union was initially a mining union with 128 kuxes . In the same year the mine was connected to the railway . In the north-eastern field, underground, the production cross-cut there was driven up to a length of 106 pools. Seams B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I and K were cut through with the crosscut. The seams were between 18 and 70 inches in thickness. The thickest seam was seam K with 70 inches. Seams B and C had the smallest thickness with 18 inches each. On January 17, 1866, the Vogel-Tremonia field was acquired by the United Dorstfeld colliery. The field had a size of 0.3 km 2 . On March 15 of the same year, all fields including the ore rights were consolidated into Tremonia . The rights holders now covered an area of 4.4 km 2 . The Tremonia union was transformed into a new law union with 1000 parts this year. In 1867, the mine belonged to the Bergrevier Westlich Dortmund. While most of the other mines in the mining area were being erected, this did not take place on Tremonia at that time.
In 1868, further alignment work took place in the Teichmühlenbaum III field (south field). In 1869 a powerful reserve dewatering machine was installed. On August 17 of the same year there was a firedamp explosion . Four miners were killed in this mining accident . In 1871, the companies began to be supplied with compressed air . In 1872, work began on sinking a second shaft in the southern field. The shaft was set up 350 meters south of shaft 1 near Tremoniastraße and was intended to be used as a weather shaft. In the following year, the sinking work in die construction was continued. The shaft was sunk to a depth of 253 meters (−166 m above sea level) and at this depth the 3rd level (260mS) was set. On January 26th of the year 1874 there was a marl water breakthrough, as a result of which the mine building flooded . From January of the following year, the mine building was swamped . Subsequently, they began to deal with numerous illegal routes . After this work was done, funding was resumed. In addition, the sinking work on the weather shaft was resumed and the shaft was sunk deeper. The carbon was reached at a depth of 41 meters. In 1876 a breakthrough was made between shaft 1 and the weather shaft . In August of the same year there was another water ingress, as a result of which the mine building had to be swamped again by October. In 1877, shaft 1 to level 3 was put into operation. In 1880 the Tremonia union had to pay heavy compensation due to mining damage . In 1882 work began on building a coal washing plant. In 1883, the sinking work on shaft 1 was resumed and the shaft was sunk deeper. In the same year a coking plant was put into operation. The following year, the fourth level was set in shaft 1 at a depth of 352 meters (−265 m above sea level). Since the mine was dismantling below the urban area, the backfilling was introduced from 1886 . On November 12th of the same year, the sulfur pebbles Tremonia I and Tremonia II were awarded. Both fields together covered an area of 4.1 km 2 . In the same year, the extraction of pyrites began. On June 27, 1887, a field exchange was made with the United Westphalia mine. In 1888 it became increasingly clear that shaft 1 was no longer safe to operate. As a result, the union was forced to dig a new shaft to replace shaft 1.
The other years of operation
The sinking work for shaft 2 began in 1888. The shaft was placed next to shaft 1 and was intended to be used as a weather shaft. On February 24 of the same year, there was a fire over several days. The preparation and the shaft building were destroyed by the fire . In the same year, part of the field was given to the United Westphalia mine. The rights holders now covered an area of 4.6 km 2 . On February 6, 1890, shaft 1 collapsed between a depth of 100 to 140 meters. The shaft had to be taken out of service by April 21 of the same year. The manhole was then repaired. In March of the same year, the 3rd and 4th soles fell and had to be swamped. The swamp work was carried out from May 14th. In the middle of June, the second level of the weather shaft 2 and by the end of the year with the third level was penetrated. In addition, this year a breakthrough was made between shaft 1 and shaft 2 on the 2nd level and the 3rd level. Exploration work was carried out on the fourth level in the southern field. Shaft 2 was put into operation in 1891. The shaft, although intended as a weather shaft, was temporarily used as a delivery shaft. Shaft 1 was put back into operation in the same year. Since the weather shaft in the southern field threatened to break, it was filled in in 1891 . In 1893, the sinking work on weather shaft 2 was resumed and the shaft was sunk deeper. In the same year the shaft was penetrated with the 4th level. The following year, the 5th level was set in shaft 2 at a depth of 418 meters (−331 m above sea level). This level was on the same level as the 5th level of the United Westphalia colliery. In 1895, the sinking work on shaft 1 was resumed and the shaft was sunk deeper. For this purpose, a mountain fortress was left below the 4th level and the dug continued underneath to the 5th level. In the same year part of the United Westphalia colliery was acquired. The section had a size of 1.6 km 2 and was paid off in 20 annual installments by the Tremonia union. In this field there were two disused shafts Westphalia 1 and 2. In the same year the field that was flooded at that time was swamped. A breakthrough to the Westphalia field was then made on the 4th level. The rights holder now covered an area of 6.2 km 2 .
In 1897 the coal seams B, D, E, F, G, H, J, K, L, N, M, O, P and the Mausegatt seam were under construction on the 4th level. Seams K, L and S were being mined on the 5th level. Seams J, K, L, N, M, O, P and S were loosened cross-cut. A newly built coking plant was put into operation above ground. The mine was now part of the East Dortmund mining area. In the same year the extraction of pyrites was stopped. In 1898, a total of 12 seams with a thickness of 0.7 to 2.2 meters were in excavation, all of the seams had a mining proportion between 0.04 and 0.5 meters. In the same year, the 6th level was set in shaft 1 at a depth of 520 meters (−434 m above sea level). In 1902, a breakthrough to the Westphalia field was made on the 5th level. In the following year, the mountain fortress below the 4th level was removed in shaft 1. In the same year the clearing work began in the Westphalia field. In 1904, a breakthrough was made with the Westphalia 2 shaft on the 5th level. This shaft was located one kilometer north of operating part 1/2. From 1905 the Mülheimer Bergwerks-Verein took part in the Tremonia union. In the same year, the Westphalia 2 shaft was converted into a pulling-in weather shaft. The shaft was also used to transport tailings . In addition, mining began in the Westphalia field this year. In 1907, the sinking work on shaft 1 was resumed and the shaft was sunk deeper. In the following year, shaft 1 was lined from the carbon limit to the fourth level. In 1910 the German-Luxemburgish Mining and Hütten-AG took over the Kuxen majority of the union. In 1911, shaft 1 was rebuilt for extraction . In 1912, shaft 1 was lined up to the 6th level. In addition, the sinking work on shaft 1 continued and the shaft was sunk deeper. In 1913, shaft 1 to level 7 was put into operation. The Westphalia 2 shaft was put into operation as a weather shaft. On April 15, 1915, another field was taken over by the United Westphalia. The right now covered an area of 5.9 km 2 . At a depth of 620 meters, an auxiliary level was set to the north, but it was not penetrable with construction site 1/2. At that time, three shafts were in operation on the mine.
The last few years as an active mine
In 1917, the Westphalia 2 shaft was sunk deeper from the 4th level. In the same year, the 5th level was set at a depth of 405 meters (−331 m above sea level). In addition, a carbon copy was made for construction site 1/2 this year. After the remaining Kuxe were taken over by the German-Luxemburgische Bergwerks- und Hütten-AG in the years from 1910 onwards, the Tremonia union was dissolved in 1918. In the same year, the alignment work began in the disused field of Louise Tiefbau . On May 1 of the same year, the Friedrich Wilhelm field was acquired by the Forward trade union. The rightful now covered an area of 10.1 km 2 . In 1921, the line subsidy began to be converted to mine locomotives with contact wire. In 1923, the sinking work on the Westphalia 2 weather shaft was resumed and the shaft was sunk deeper. In the following year, the 6th level was set at a depth of 502 meters (−429 m above sea level). In addition, another copy was made for construction site 1/2 this year. In 1926, the sinking work for another weather shaft began. The shaft was named Schacht Schönau and was set up in the southern field west of the railway at the level of the garden city. After just 20 meters, the carbon was reached in the same year. In 1928 the shaft reached its final depth at a depth of 127 meters. The weather bed was set on the same level. The coking plant was shut down on February 14, 1931. On May 6th of the same year the Tremonia colliery was shut down. However, the facility initially remained eligible. The weather shafts were subsequently filled . The coking plant was put back into operation in June 1936. In 1941 the mine was leased to the Versuchsgrubengesellschaft mbH. The coking plant was shut down again on September 30, 1945 and reopened on February 24, 1949. The final shutdown took place on November 1, 1953. The Tremonia colliery was still in operation as an experimental mine for several years.
Promotion and workforce
The first workforce at the mine dates back to 1855, in that year 34 people were employed at the mine. The first production figures of the mine come from the year 1861, in that year with 69 employees 4597 tons of hard coal were extracted. In 1865, 408 employees produced 229,788 Prussian tons of hard coal. In 1866, 429,873 tons of hard coal were extracted. The workforce was 474 this year. In 1870, with 610 employees, 179,382 tons of hard coal were extracted. The coal mine was of good quality. In 1880 the production sank to 134,326 tons, the workforce was 491 employees. In 1890 the workforce was 564, and the production was 120,329 tons of hard coal. In 1900 the production rose to 239,213 tons of hard coal, the workforce was 1048 employees. In 1910 the production rose again to 276,532 tons, the workforce was 1141 employees. In 1915, 300,185 tons of hard coal were extracted and the workforce was 1282. In 1920, 281,181 tonnes of hard coal were extracted; the workforce in that year was 2142. In 1925, 326,990 tons of hard coal were mined with 1471 employees. The maximum production of the mine was achieved in 1929. A production of 426,840 tons of hard coal was achieved, the workforce this year was 1360 employees. In 1930 there were still 1221 employees working at the mine, 335,820 tons of hard coal were extracted. These are the last known mining and workforce figures for the Tremonia colliery as a mining mine.
The years as a test pit
After the disused mine had been leased by the Versuchsgrubengesellschaft mbH, it was expanded as a test pit. At the time of the lease, the mine building had sunk to a depth of 433 m. The rights to the test pit covered an area of 1.25 km 2 . On January 1, 1944, the Tremonia experimental pit went into operation. The mine had two shafts and a distance of several kilometers, spread over three levels. Of these, the 4th level, with a depth of 352 meters (−265 m above sea level), was the deepest level. Towards the end of the Second World War, the 4th sole was drowning and was swamped the following year. On March 31, 1947, the test pit was reopened. Over the years, the test pit was expanded. On the second level, training companies for the training of explosives and for students of the mining college and for graduates of the mountain technical college were set up. In 1960 shaft 1 received a new headframe and the mine workings were sumped to a depth of 640 meters. Shafts 1 and 2 were now in operation up to level 6. In 1986 a new explosion zone was put into operation. The route was 250 meters long and had a cross-section of 20 m 2 . On December 31, 1996, the Tremonia experimental pit was shut down. From January of the following year, the pits were robbed , then the two remaining shafts were filled. In November of the same year the headframes were demolished.
Over the years, parts of the colliery site were sold to the neighbor, the Rothe Erde steelworks. So is z. B. received the northern hoisting machine building from shaft 1 and is used there today as an administration building. DMT GmbH & Co. KG, Center for Fire and Explosion Protection, a subsidiary of TÜV Nord, with laboratories for fire protection tests, is still located on the remaining site between Tremoniastraße and Leierweg along Haldenstraße. Only the old hoisting machine building of shaft 2 reminds of its former use on the company premises.
Today is located on its premises in Dortmund between the Tremoniastraße and Leierweg the Tremoniapark recalls almost nothing of its former use in the. Only a transformer house and the tracks of the rail connection at the Dortmund field freight station have been preserved.
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- The term coal bank is the name for the coal-bearing part of a coal seam . (Source: Carl Friedrich Alexander Hartmann: Vademecum for the practical miner. )
- As a brand shale refers mixed with thin carbon layers shales . The coal and the shale can also appear in alternating layers. Fire slate has a high ash content. (Source: Walter Bischoff , Heinz Bramann, Westfälische Berggewerkschaftskasse Bochum: Das kleine Bergbaulexikon .)
- The direction that runs horizontally across the longitudinal axis of the deposit is referred to as cross-cutting. (Source: Förderverein Rammelsberger Bergbaumuseum Goslar eV (Ed.): Ore mining in Rammelsberg. )