Dessau repair shop
The Dessau is a repair shop of Deutsche Bahn in the Saxony-Anhalt town of Dessau . Organizationally, it belongs to DB Vehicle Maintenance and is responsible within the DB Group for the so-called heavy maintenance of electric locomotives and their components.
The maintenance facility is located in the district of South, west of the railway breakpoint Dessau South of Trebnitz-Leipzig railway . A siding to the repair shop branches off in the southern track field of the Dessau main train station . This runs south to the level of Ludwigshafener Straße parallel to the railway line to Leipzig, where it then turns into the factory premises and is divided into a track harp.
A test track originally 1.3 kilometers long, which was built in 1929 and was used to test electric locomotives after maintenance, ran between the railway line and the factory premises. With the reconstruction after the Second World War, the possibility of feeding in different voltages was created. Today the track has largely been dismantled, an information board reminds of its history.
At the beginning of the 20th century, in addition to the steam locomotive, a new type of traction moved into the field of vision of railway technology - electric traction. The Prussian state decided to test this technology for two railway lines - a mountain and a flat country line. The choice fell on the Lauban - Königszelt route and some branching branch lines - a railway line in the Lower Silesian mountains and the route from Dessau to Bitterfeld. Maintenance capacities were required for the maintenance of the electric vehicles. First, an electrical engineering department was set up in the repair shop in Halle (Saale). However, with the reconstruction of electric train transport after the First World War and its planned expansion, it became clear that no existing repair shop in Central Germany had the capacity to additionally maintain electric locomotives. Therefore a new plant was planned.
In 1922, the planning was completed and the decision was made in favor of the city of Dessau, as the city was located on the electrified route network in central Germany and the land prices in the city were low. The Reichsbahn repair shop was planned by Prof. Wilhelm Sorger, government building officer of the Reichsbahndirektion Halle . A plant was to be built according to the most modern requirements, including: the later expandability of the plant, the shortest possible transport routes and the arrangement of the workshops according to the technological flow. In March of the next year, construction work began on behalf of the city, but for the account of the Reichsbahn. The first stop was the Dessau Süd stop . At the same time, the Haideburg train station was closed to passenger traffic. Between 1924 and 1925, the transfer platform pit , the axle recess and the basement for the boiler house were built. The foundations for the steel structure have also been completed. Over the next few years, workshop 1 grew taller. The workshop 1 is divided into seven aisles and two transverse aisles, has a floor area of 30,385 m² and is 19 meters high. The height of the hall made it possible to arrange several crane tracks on top of each other and to lift locomotive boxes over other locomotives. With the locomotive lifting cranes it was possible to lift individual loads of up to 160 tons. The length of the working stands for locomotives was 26 m. In Hall V there is a transfer platform and enables the change between the locomotive stands located north and south of the transfer platform. Under the transfer table there is a pit that is divided into four equal rooms and is still used as a warehouse today. The entire construction, including the mechanical equipment, cost 30 million Reichsmarks.
On December 2, 1929, after around six years of construction, the repair shop was put into operation. At that time, the plant was an operations department of the Reichsbahn repair shop (Raw) Halle and had a workforce of 180 people. The first locomotive to be repaired was the E 50 50 that had an accident on November 20, 1929 at Dessau station . The Deutsche Reichsbahn initially assigned the E 01 , E 06 , E 30 , E 71 and E 77 electric locomotive series to the plant. At the beginning of the 1930s, small locomotives (up to 100 hp), combustion engine multiple units , omnibuses and their trailers as well as other passenger vehicles followed.
On August 1, 1933, following a decision by the Deutsche Reichsbahn, the plant became an independent Reichsbahn repair shop. The number of employees had risen to over 400. In the fall of the same year, the plant had to rent more than half of its hall space to Junkerswerke for a rent of 100,000 Reichsmarks . The necessary maintenance work now had to be carried out on a much smaller area, which in turn led the administration to grant the plant 1.5 million Reichsmarks to expand the plant. This money was used to build two administration buildings, a canteen and a workshop for railcars (today Hall 2). A combustion engine test bench, a test field for railcars and an outside sliding platform followed by 1936.
Second World War
The outbreak of war in 1939 did nothing to change the basic tasks of the plant, as electric train transport was not of any higher significance during the war than in the pre-war years. The first bomb attack , which was supposedly aimed at the plant, took place on January 16, 1945. Three high-explosive bombs hit the plant during the attack and another 27 fell 50 to 200 meters away. However, the most severe damage to the plant was experienced when the city of Dessau was bombed on March 7, 1945 . The city was largely destroyed and the factory was badly damaged to 60 percent. The repair shop experienced the end of the war after an eight-day siege on April 21, 1945 - American troops occupied the city and the Raw Dessau. The Americans found Hall 1 badly damaged after the bombing, siege and fire. The skylights, windows and the offices on the east gable were destroyed. Hall 2 and the canteen were completely burned out. Numerous technical documents, machines and measuring equipment had already been burned or destroyed during the war. The critical situation was exacerbated by the removal of received technical documents by the American occupiers. Only in the early years of the GDR, in 1954, was the Deutsche Reichsbahn able to buy back the documents. On July 9, 1945, the agreed exchange of territory between the victorious powers took place. The Anhalt areas came under the Soviet occupation zone under their military administration.
On August 31, 1945, the Soviet military administration in Germany (SMAD for short) ordered the President of the Central Transport Administration to organize the repair of locomotives and wagons. In the Soviet-occupied zone alone there were almost 5,000 locomotives and 33,000 wagons. This was the starting signal for the resumption of operations in the repair shop. In October 1945, the factory had 845 employees again, but the number of employees was still lower than that during the war. For example, in January 1945 1,066 people were working in the entire plant. The resumption of operations was very difficult due to missing or unassignable spare parts, missing drawing documents and broken machinery. Fortunately, it turned out that some employees in the technical office had hidden drawings or made sketches during the last days of the war.
The first repair work was carried out on combustion railcars, control cars and sidecars, as well as freight and small railroad cars. Steam boilers and tenders followed later, and even two steam locomotives ( 38 1713 and 38 2958 ) were refurbished or repaired.
According to the Potsdam Agreement , which said that all war operations were to be dismantled, the Dessau repair shop also fell under this provision, as parts for the Junkers aircraft and engine plants , which were then subordinate to the Ministry of Aviation and thus more or less under the Wehrmacht , were also manufactured there. In 1946, dismantling began in the plant with the dismantling of electric train transport. The dismantling supervision set up at the plant had 85 percent of the equipment dismantled and shipped to the Soviet Union. This included locomotive lifting cranes, wheelset lathes and power generation systems. Last but not least, the remaining electric locomotives were collected, put together into locomotive trains and also transported away. The dismantling ended after nine months on December 31.
New beginning and time in the GDR
It was not until the end of 1952, with the repatriation of the confiscated electric locomotives, systems, spare parts and vehicles for electric train transport from the Soviet Union, that the maintenance of electric locomotives could be resumed. The plant was now a plant in the maintenance concept of the Deutsche Reichsbahn . Factory hall 2, the administration building and the dining room were also rebuilt because the factory wanted to store work for the aircraft industry again. The aircraft construction episode ended after June 17, 1953. The Raw Dessau received the order to recondition the returned electric locomotives. The condition of the machines was poor, the newer series E 44 and E 94 had been converted to Russian broad gauge and SA3 central buffer couplings for test operation near Perm , although they were not designed for both changes. The bogies therefore had to be brought into the delivery condition at great expense. The remaining locomotives, including all of them with rod drives, had been unpreserved and unprotected outside since they were sold in 1946. In addition, the approximately 5000 drawings that had survived the air raids were also delivered and not returned. In addition to 46 E 44 and 23 94, twelve E 04 two E 17 , three E 18 , two E 21 , ten E 77 , three E 95 and the single E 05 103 were rebuilt. However, rods for steam and sometimes also electric locomotives were also built manufactured. The repaired electric locomotives had to be transferred to Koethen for a test drive by March 1958 because of the missing contact line . The contact wire on the Köthen – Halle railway line had been under tension again since 1955, the Dessau – Bitterfeld line did not follow until March 17, 1958. On July 26, 1957, the 50th repaired electric locomotive was able to demise thanks to the further expanded infrastructure within the plant Operation.
On October 1, 1960, the first three vehicles received the quality grade 1 in the acceptance test, including an E 18 electric locomotive , a small locomotive and a railcar. For the first time, the factory was able to assume guarantee periods. In addition to maintenance, another task was added in 1960; the contract to build 30 new small locomotives (Kö) of performance group II was taken over . Gears and motors from GDR production were installed in the locomotives.
In the 1960s, the demand for vehicles at the Deutsche Reichsbahn increased so much that new vehicles had to be procured. After testing the E 11 001 and E 11 002 built in LEW Hennigsdorf , the first 20 locomotives of the E 11 and E 42 series were put into service in Dessau. In addition, the Raw became a customer service workshop for the V 75 diesel locomotives imported from Czechoslovakia . In 1962, the Dessau plant was home to 105 electric locomotives, including the E 04 , E 05 , E 17 , E 18, E 21 , E 44, E 77, E 94 and E 95 series in various numbers . The maintenance portfolio also included the VT 135 and VT 137 combustion railcars and the ET 25 012 electric railcar . The burned-out railcar was rebuilt in the factory in 1959, it received an intermediate car created from the control car ES 25 005.
The aforementioned diesel and electric multiple units only remained at home in Dessau until the plants were rearranged in 1965. After the reorganization, its maintenance was outsourced to the Raw Berlin-Schöneweide and Wittenberge. For this, the Raw Dessau received the 15 rectifier locomotives of the BR 251 , which were used on the Rübelandbahn between Blankenburg and Königshütte in the Harz Mountains.
In the mid-1960s, the Deutsche Reichsbahn relativized its plan to replace steam operation with electric locomotives. The dieselization resolution of 1965 included the goal of achieving a diesel traction share of 72% by 1978. In addition to short additional routes, only electrification projects that had already started were to be completed. Reasons for a higher planned diesel share were probably the completion of the friendship oil pipeline to the Soviet Union and thus a more secure supply of diesel fuel as well as the high costs of route electrification. The Reichsbahn needed a commissioning and maintenance point for the diesel locomotives to be procured. This opened up a whole new perspective for the work. The Raw Dessau was chosen because the diesel locomotives of the series 120 and 130 to 142 were equipped with diesel-electric power transmission and it already had expertise in reconditioning combustion engines. The first two diesel locomotives of the V 200 series left the Raw Otto Grotewohl , as the plant was called since June 11, 1966, on November 7 of the same year.
In 1968 the first repair work began on the imported diesel locomotives. The processing of individual assemblies and components of the diesel locomotives, such as B. bogies, wheel sets and traction motors were taken over by the Stendal Reichsbahn repair shop , as the capacities in Dessau were not sufficient. Four years after the V 200 was put into service, the first Soviet class 130 diesel locomotives were put into service in the first half of 1970 . The first test dismantling of an electric traction motor of the BR 130 took place in 1972. In June of the same year the first repaired 130 (130 006) was handed over to the Reichsbahn. In order to keep up with the increasing number of diesel locomotives, the plant was fundamentally restructured and expanded. For example, master craftsmen were set up in which 60 to 70 employees were subordinate to a master , and new social rooms, storage areas and workshops were built.
As a result of the oil crisis , the Reichsbahn withdrew from the dieselization project and the focus was again on electric traction. With the commissioning of the six-axle electric locomotive of the 250 series , which had a disproportionately higher proportion of power and control electronics compared to the older electric locomotives, the maintenance of the diesel locomotives of the BR 130-142 was given to the Raw Cottbus . Until the beginning of 1984, the maintenance of the BR 120 (ex V 200) and some components of the BR 130-142 remained in Dessau.
With the commissioning of the 212 001 in 1982, Raw Dessau also became responsible for the DR series 243 . As part of the test dismantling, the 212 001 was converted into the 243 001. In 1983 the first series machines were put into service. In 1986 the refurbishment of the last diesel locomotive components ended. From now on, the plant was again a purely electric locomotive plant.
Since 1989 it was clear that the total of 20 two-system locomotives of the 230 series , unlike previously planned, would not be kept in Raw Cottbus, but in Dessau. The first test dismantling of the pre-production locomotive 230 001 did not take place until 1990. In the same year, the number of employees also peaked at 2059.
After the turn
Since January 16, 1990, the plant has been repairing class 150 locomotives as a repair aid for the Deutsche Bundesbahn , and the revisions of this class were also to be carried out in Dessau from then on. The first three Bundesbahn electric locomotives to be overhauled in Dessau, however, were 110 114 , 140 033 and 140 037. In November 1990 they left the repair shop, which was renamed Reichsbahnausbesserungswerk Dessau . But the main focus was still on the electric locomotive series of the Reichsbahn - so in 1990 the thousandth examination was carried out on a locomotive of the 242 series on the 242 115, the last locomotive of the 243 series was put into service and the locomotives of the 254 series (formerly E 94 ) were turned off. In 1990 the shell for the new complex building at the Dessau Süd stop was also completed. The building was built using a panel construction . With the increasing number of electronic components in vehicles, additional capacities were required for their processing. For this purpose, the former diesel engine test bench was converted into an electronics workshop.
After the fall of the Wall, the status of the training workshop and the vocational school sector also changed. The vocational school sector was transferred to the municipality, and the training workshop became a training workshop for the training and further education of factory employees.
The factory since 1994
Since January 1, 1994 - the founding date of Deutsche Bahn - the plant has been part of the maintenance landscape of the newly founded, now nationwide, German railway company. Dessau was now the head office of the Dessau regional division, which also included the Halle repair shop and the Wittenberg branch . The regional division had 2201 employees in 1994, around two thirds of them at the headquarters. The downward trend in the workforce has thus continued since 1990. Between 1994 and 1995, the plant was presented with projects by a consultancy that should increase its efficiency and thus make it fit for the future. As part of the process Plant 2000 - Lean Plant , the plant was segmented. In 1995, the plant was divided into the following five segments:
- Locomotive production
- Locomotive production 2 in Wittenberg
- Bogie, traction motor and wheelset workshop
- Transformer workshop, electronic switchgear and auxiliary elements
- Electronics workshop
The regional structure was abandoned as early as 1996 as part of the Long-Term Works Regulations (LWO). The Halle plant became independent again. The Wittenberg branch, on the other hand, and the wagon repair centers for freight wagons in Wittenberg and Roßlau were permanently integrated into the plant structure as production segment 5. In 1997 the plant only had 1184 employees.
The next phase of reorganization of the maintenance works took place in 1998 as part of the preparation to spin-off the local, long-distance and freight transport divisions into independent companies under the umbrella of Deutsche Bahn as a holding company in 1999. The locomotives of a division were assigned to each works. The consequence of this rearrangement was a general reallocation of numerous locomotives. The series 150 and 155 of the DB Cargo division were assigned to the Cottbus plant, while the 110 and 111 series of the DB Regio from the Opladen plant to Dessau. The electric locomotives of the DB Regio, including the series 110, 111, 112.0, 112.1, 113 , 143 and 171 , now belonged to the maintenance program of the plant . After the completion of the spin-off of DB-Regio as a subsidiary, the plant was assigned to DB-Regio in 1999.
But this assignment of works should not last long either. In 2001, all maintenance workshops were integrated into the newly established vehicle maintenance division within the board department for technology at Deutsche Bahn. From now on, Dessau took over the electric locomotives division within vehicle maintenance. In the same year, the first three so-called new-build locomotives come into the plant - the Siemens Eurosprinter locomotive 127 for a simplified overhaul and the 101 104 and 145 009 for accident repairs. In 2002 the series 152 , 185 and the Siemens ES64U2 from HUPAC paid a visit to the factory. The first scheduled overhaul of the 101 series and the trial dismantling of the 146 series will also be carried out in 2002 . Since the new locomotives have three-phase drives, the drive workshop project for modern three-phase drives was initiated in 2002 in order to enable the drives of the new series to be reconditioned in the factory. In 2003 the Dessau plant took over the series 139 , 141 , 151 and 181.2 freight locomotives from the closed Opladen plant and the 155 series (formerly 250) from Cottbus. This makes the Dessau plant the only repair shop operated by Deutsche Bahn for electric locomotives. The Cottbus plant is now responsible for the combustion engine locomotives product area.
Since January 1, 2004, the subsidiary DB-Fahrzeuginstandhaltung and thus also the plant belong to the Services division. Within vehicle maintenance, the plant is classified in the locomotive product area (electric and V-locomotive). However, the scope of duties remains the same - maintaining the electric locomotive fleet of Deutsche Bahn. In addition to Deutsche Bahn as the main customer, since the 2000s third railway companies have increasingly had their vehicles refurbished and repaired in Dessau. In 2013 around 1430 people are employed.
In August 2014, the 85th anniversary of the plant was celebrated with an open house. At this point in time, there were over 1200 employees and over 90 trainees in the plant.
To support the repair of multi-system locomotives , the construction of a corresponding locomotive testing center began in 2014. First a test track was completed, which is equipped with different voltage systems as well as with different train control systems. The construction of a test hall for multi-system locomotives with four tracks and eight test stations was then planned. A total of around 13 million euros should be invested. Trial operation in the new test hall to the north of the large locomotive hall should begin in January 2017. In addition to being used as a test center, it is also used to record damage to locomotives and to inspect them after repairs have been carried out. The ceremonial opening of the new locomotive testing center took place on April 20, 2017. However, the start of trial operation was delayed considerably due to acceptance problems and is now planned for February 2019. The costs are now given at 18.5 million euros.
The Dessau repair shop regularly takes part in the Kurt Weill Festival , then concerts take place in the historic workshop.
Areas of responsibility
Despite the increase in services for third parties, the main area of responsibility is the repair of electric locomotives in all corporate divisions of Deutsche Bahn. This includes vehicles for long-distance , regional and freight transport as well as rail service vehicles and vehicles from the historic fleet. The area of responsibility for repairs includes overhauls and, in some cases, deadlines and inspections of locomotives and their components. For the reconditioning of the components, there are numerous workshops in the large workshop 1 as well as in numerous outdoor areas, including those for electric traction motors, wheel sets from old and new series, bogies, transformers and switchgear, pantograph systems, main air compressor systems as well as main switches and power electronics. The reconditioning of components still takes up a large part of the work of the plant today (2019) and has increased steadily since 2000. This means that sometimes complete locomotives no longer come to the plant, but only their components (e.g. wheelsets) that have reached their mileage or when they need to be examined or repaired (e.g. overhaul) and at the home depot were removed from the locomotive and sent to the factory.
In 2009, revisions still accounted for around a fifth, improvements to requirements five percent and services for third parties four percent of the distribution of services.
Since 2004, motor bogies of the ICE 1 and ICE 2 have also been main- tained in Dessau, and repairs are also carried out on the vehicles. S-Bahn quarter trains of the 485 series , which were shut down by the Berlin S-Bahn in 2005 and 2006, respectively , were reconditioned in the factory because the Schöneweide plant was already working to capacity with the 481 series . The first reactivated quarter train of the class 485 was able to resume operation on March 4, 2011.
Execution hall 1
The planning of the plant was based on the spatial equipment of the workshops. The large transfer platform field, in which the hulls of the Ju 52 were assembled before the Second World War , is now used as a storage room for components for the locomotives under repair.
If a vehicle comes to the main repair, it is first dismantled into its components. These are handed over to the relevant workshops. Any repairs to the locomotive body are carried out in the locomotive hall immediately after dismantling. Once all the individual parts have been worked up, the locomotive is assembled. The test is carried out outdoors. In a new locomotive testing hall there are overhead lines that supply the locomotives with the required contact wire voltage or that can be de-energized. Insulation tests can be carried out again on the finished locomotive. Otherwise the tracks in the workshop area are not electrified. At the southern end there are two through tracks known as wind locks .
The bogie workshop is located opposite the locomotive assembly stands in the straightening hall 1 and is the first point of contact of the drive after the locomotive box has been lifted off. After cleaning, the only components of the drive and the mechanical braking device are dismantled and handed over to the relevant workshops. There are 300 bogies a year in the workshop. A total of 35 different types of bogies are processed.
After dismantling, the scope of work includes the maintenance and testing of bogie attachments and coil springs, the bogie frame, the brake linkage, brake calipers and brake carriers as well as the testing of the springs of the primary and secondary suspension of the bogies. After the reconditioning of all components, including the electrical and pneumatic parts of the braking system, and delivery of the reconditioned parts of the running gear, the bogie is reassembled and checked.
A bogie press is available for this at the plant, with the help of which the assembled bogie is checked and measured with the load of the locomotive weight. An optical test with an accuracy of 0.01 mm is carried out using a laser measuring system. At the end, the painting is done in the basic colors.
Traction motor workshop
Traction motors or drives are supplied in various forms for reconditioning. Usually the wheelset and traction motor are delivered together. In the case of locomotives with asynchronous motors , the scope of mechanical reconditioning is limited to the ball bearings and, if necessary, replacing them according to mileage. In the case of the rotors of locomotives with AC series motors , the commutator must be turned to run out and the commutator grooves reworked with a commutator cutter.
Electrically, the windings of both motor types are revised and replaced if necessary, and an electrical insulation test is carried out. Then the motors are completed and assembled with the wheelset, and a test run is carried out. In the case of series motors with fixed and floating bearings, the concentricity can be carried out on the upright motor housing. In the case of engines of new locomotives, the second bearing is the gearbox of the wheelset. Here a test run can only be carried out in the assembled bogie. In addition to the traction motors, the electrical machines of the auxiliary gears are serviced in the traction motor workshop.
In the wheelset workshop, wheelsets that are currently being repaired and wheelsets from other plants are processed. The ultrasonic testing of axle shafts or wheel bodies plays an important role here.
With the wheelset press RP 500, wheel disks are pressed onto the axle shafts under computer control. Also wheel lathes , equipment for pressing tires and Abrollstände all work allow the railway wheel . Private railway companies supply many wheels with tires from old locomotives for repair. The wheel tire change is carried out conventionally with a snap ring, the heating to 200 ° C is carried out with induction loops. The finished wheelset is measured on the roll-off stand.
In addition to the machining of wheelsets, various other mechanical work such as the refurbishment of air compressors , drives or other components is carried out in the wheelset workshop .
For the processing of the transformers, the factory is equipped with a transformer press, which allows transformer sheets to press with a force of up to 900 kN. The work content is the maintenance of the transformer, the control circuit and the cooling circuit as well as electrical switching devices such as main switches, elements of vehicle control such as switchgear or, in the case of the new generation of locomotives, the switching electronics.
The safety and display elements are serviced in the electronics workshop. The pantograph workshop is located in an adjoining building with a workplace for renewing the contact strip , controlling and checking the pantograph mechanics for repairing and maintaining all types of pantographs .
After retirement from DB Regio, the Dessau repair shop took over 110 511 (formerly 139 134) as a transfer locomotive in its inventory in October 2005. In the course of the due general inspection, the locomotive was given a white color scheme with red decorative lines and the inscription "DB Fahrzeuginstandhaltung GmbH Werk Dessau". Occasionally the locomotive was also rented to third parties as a customer replacement locomotive. After the 2013 deadline, the vehicle was parked and sold to the Pressnitz Valley Railway. There it is in use with the label "National Express", marked with the Pressnitztalbahn road number 110 043.
- Electric locomotive factory Dessau, Die Lokomotivklinik, EK-Videothek, order number 8467, EK-Verlag Freiburg, 2019
- Descriptions, workshop tour for the open day at the plant on August 31, 2019
- The lonely platform in front of the entrance . In: DB World Region Southeast . No. 9 , 2017, p. 19 .
- Volker Rößler: Master of diodes and resistors. In: eisenbahn-magazin 9/2013, pp. 34–37
- Anniversary celebration at the railway in the Dessau plant. Deutsche Bahn AG, August 25, 2014, archived from the original on January 3, 2015 ; Retrieved January 3, 2015 .
- Dessau DB Vehicle Maintenance built modern Lokprüfzentrum. Deutsche Bahn AG, March 21, 2014, archived from the original on January 3, 2015 ; Retrieved January 3, 2015 .
- Test more efficiently and save . In: DB World Region Southeast . No. 11 , 2016, p. 18 .
- Because (l) Dessau can not only do locomotives . In: DB World Region Southeast . No. 4 , 2017, p. 19 .
- Delay for an expensive prestige object - the locomotive testing center in the railway works cannot start until 2019. In: Mitteldeutsche Zeitung . December 22, 2018, accessed December 27, 2018 .
- S-Bahn Berlin GmbH - News - 2011: Here comes reinforcements! Retrieved April 13, 2011 .
- DB Fahrzeuginstandhaltung GmbH Dessau plant (publisher): 80 years of the Dessau plant . Druckhaus Dessau GmbH, Dessau-Roßlau 2009.
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