Counterfeit money is coins and banknotes that are intended to imitate legal tender or are not authorized by the respective central bank . They are supposed to simulate the value of real money to the unsuspecting owner . Counterfeiting is the production of counterfeit money (by copying or counterfeiting) and, like the placing on the market of counterfeit money, is internationally punishable. By using security features on banknotes ( watermarks , security threads , holograms ), the central banks try to prevent counterfeiting.
The Supreme Court in the German Reich had "certified each by the state or by a person authorized by him to place as a value carrier, defined for circulation in public transport certain cash." 1904 Money A authorized by the State teller station is internationally usually the central bank . “Counterfeit money” is therefore anything that is not authorized by central banks, but which is intended to simulate authenticity . Counterfeit money also includes counterfeit sorts or gold coins , the real versions of which are officially accepted as means of payment in their countries of origin (such as the American Gold Eagle , Goldvreneli or Krugerrand ). Money's function as a means of payment continues until it is “out of course”, that is, it is finally removed from circulation by a state act of sovereignty .
The history of counterfeit money is almost as old as that of money itself. For the first time in the time of Solon (640-560 BC) counterfeiters were threatened with the death penalty . In the Roman Empire it was legally decreed by Emperor Constantine that counterfeiters should be punished with death by fire , in addition to confiscating all of their property . In the year 271 AD, the counterfeit coins of the Imperial Finance Minister Felicissimus led to a bloody revolt in Rome . Around 220 AD in Riississen , today a district of Ehingen in Baden-Württemberg, which at that time belonged to the Roman province of Raetia, false Roman denarii were made on a large scale with the help of clay casting molds; Counterfeit coins and molds can be viewed in the Rississ Roman Museum. A similar find from around AD 100 is also known from the Roman city of Arae Flaviae , today's Rottweil . The bite into a gold thaler was used, for example, to distinguish fake coins (mostly made of harder material) from real ones. In the Middle Ages, counterfeiters faced draconian penalties, they were dipped in boiling oil. (See also Hustaler # medalists )
The minting of the Philippsthalers had a completely different reason for producing counterfeit money . The production of the coins was not commissioned by the Landgrave, although the execution of the taler says exactly that, but was initiated by his followers. The thaler is therefore wrong, although it was fit for circulation. The aim here was to spread the wrong message.
From February 1925, the Portuguese counterfeiter Artur Virgílio Alves dos Reis almost ruined the Portuguese economy with 300 million escudo in banking . After serving his prison sentence, he died in 1955 - impoverished. The "Operation Bernhard" was in September 1943, the British economy destabilize counterfeit money. Jewish forced laborers in Sachsenhausen concentration camp produced around 140,000 pounds, the equivalent of 570 million euros today . It was the largest known counterfeiting campaign in history. In 1973 the graphic artist Günter Hopfinger, known as "Blumenrembrandt", was caught . He had copied more than 100 thousand euro banknotes and one hundred DM notes by hand with ink. Since 1994, North Korea has been suspected of making a near-perfect counterfeit of the US dollar known as the super dollar . In April 2007 the German Hans-Jürgen Kuhl succeeded in producing approx. 16.75 million US dollars in "excellent" quality, one of the most qualitatively significant false money finds in criminal history worldwide. The largest counterfeit money found in Great Britain was in May 2012 with 5.1 million euros.
In March 2008 - according to the records of the Federal Criminal Police Office - a coin counterfeiting workshop was uncovered for the first time in Austria's history. A punching machine had already been procured in 2006, and since 2007 fake 50 euro cent coins have been pressed by hand, but have not yet come into circulation.
However, if these security features are overcome and banknotes are forged, counterfeiting is sometimes severely punished internationally.
Counterfeiting of money ( StGB ) is a crime in Germany that is punished with a prison term of at least one year. Even at the German Reichsbank notes was charged with prison sentences threatened: Who imitates banknotes or falsified or forged or falsified procures and markets it, shall be punished by imprisonment under two years. On the German DM notes from 1974 onwards, prison was replaced by imprisonment . The threat of punishment was not mentioned with the fourth series of the Deutsche Mark from 1990.
The Deutsche Bundesbank's right to spend money is constitutionally secured ( GG ). Because of the international importance of the monetary system, the principle of universal law ( No. 7 StGB) applies under criminal law in Germany , according to which the domestic state submits every monetary crime, even if it affects foreign banknotes, to its jurisdiction. In Germany, counterfeiting is a subcategory of document forgery . The Criminal Code uses the generic term “money sign” so that, in addition to the legal tender, valuables are also included that are also used in payment transactions instead of money.
The central norm is thing so physically that it can be mistaken for another. Counterfeit money is also created when coins are re- minted in an official mint without the federal government having issued an order. "Falsification" is when the money is given the appearance of a higher value by changing it. “Obtaining” means that the perpetrator takes possession of himself or his power of disposal and accepts the will for independent disposal. “Placing on the market” is an actual acceptance by third parties in the context of payment transactions . Money must be released from custody in such a way that someone else is actually able to gain control over it. Counterfeit money is “genuine” as soon as it gets into the hands of an innocent person. In the case of placing on the market, contrary to the wording “as genuine”, the passing on to an initiated intermediary for the purpose of smuggling into payment transactions also constitutes the offense. Since it is a crime, the attempt is also punishable.StGB, which distinguishes between “imitate” and “falsify”. “Imitating” means treating one
With good faith counterfeit money has acquired, and this passes after it has determined that it is counterfeit. Counterfeit money is acquired in good faith by anyone who believes it is genuine. According to StGB, securities are equated with money. The criminal offenses are intended to serve the security and reliability of money transactions.para. 1 of the Criminal Code also the one who is punished, the
The Deutsche Bundesbank, credit institutions and their employees must take suspected counterfeit money out of circulation ("stop"; Bundesbank Act ), send it to the police and notify the Bundesbank of this ( (2) BBankG). Counterfeit money is collected and stored by the Bundesbank in accordance with (2) BBankG .
In Austria, §§ 232 ff. ÖStGB, the offense and the legal consequences of counterfeiting are very similar to German criminal law.
- Paragraph 1: “ Anyone who forges metal money, paper money or banknotes in order to bring them into circulation as genuine will be punished with imprisonment for not less than one year. »
- Paragraph 2: “ In particularly minor cases, the penalty is imprisonment for up to three years or a fine. »
- Paragraph 3: “ The offender is also punishable if he committed the act abroad, was entered in Switzerland and is not extradited, and if the act is also punishable at the place of commission. »
The notes themselves read in all national languages :
- « Banknotes are protected by criminal law. »
During the war of secession , “illegal currency” was not counterfeit, but it was not recognized by the Union as a legal tender. The US Bureau of Engraving and Printing uses a special, very heavy mixture of cotton and linen with long, solid fibers that are more like fabric than paper for the “ greenback ” . It is provided with a thread inserted during the scooping process, has watermarks and has the dimensions 155.956 mm × 66.294 mm. Cranes Crest paper weighs 90 grams per square meter and is non-luminous under UV light.
The prevention and protection against counterfeit money is one of the tasks of the cash handlers, as counterfeit is by the state confiscated and not refundable. The cash handlers are in turn supported by training from the police, the state banks and by machine systems such as banknote checking devices in the checkout area. The recognition of counterfeit money by the citizen is in turn guaranteed by properties that cannot be counterfeited or are difficult to copy, the security features.
Cash that is suspected to be wrong or that is securely wrong is "stopped" by the authorities, i. H. withdrawn from payment transactions by security.
- Intaglio printing
- Security thread (silver thread )
- Color change when tilting (OVI)
- See-through register
- Special foil / special foil element
- Pearlescent stripes / color change
- UV light - fluorescence (fibers in the paper, phosphors in the printing ink)
- Infrared: absorption or IR fluorescence property
- Special paper
- M-Feature - a special machine-readable coating that is still a surefire way of distinguishing counterfeits from real banknotes. On average, each banknote reaches a central bank branch about every three months and is then checked.
Counterfeits (in the technical term " falsified certificates ") are generally detected at the branches of the state banks ( Deutsche Bundesbank , Swiss National Bank ) and transmitted to specified authorities. In Germany this is the counterfeit money office of the Deutsche Bundesbank, in Switzerland the central counterfeit money office of the Swiss Federal Criminal Police . Counterfeits are divided into counterfeit classes according to quality.
Various techniques are available in the branches of the Deutsche Bundesbank in Germany to detect counterfeits:
- For paper money , there were semi-automatic machines (type ISS 300) from 1977, fully automatic machines (type ISS / BPS 3000) from 1992, the BPS 1000 multi-denomination machine since 2005 and the BPS M7 since 2017. The detection reliability of forgeries is 100%. The counterfeit certificates are recognized by special sensors (black box principle) that check the security features of banknotes .
- Coins are controlled by fully automatic coin processing machines (NGZ 6000), which have a lower detection rate of 96% compared to paper money processing machines.
The most common counterfeit coins in the euro area are two and one euro coins and 50 cent coins. In 2006, 77,000 counterfeit coins were discovered in Germany, a high since the introduction of the euro. In Switzerland, the most frequently counterfeit coin is the five-franc coin, the 5-franc coin.
The volume of counterfeit money with two-euro coins is very high and the number of pieces is considerably higher than with paper counterfeit coins. Experience has shown that processing 75,000 two-euro coins results in around 15 to 25 counterfeit coins. In 2006 there were 141,000 false two-euro coins and 14,000 one-euro coins in circulation. The number of counterfeit certificates, however, depends on the region (the volume of counterfeit money in metropolises is greater than in rural areas). The chance for a layperson to recognize a false coin is almost impossible in everyday life. The easiest way to unmask counterfeit euro coins is with a magnet: counterfeit euro coins are mostly strong or not at all magnetic, while the real one and two euro coins only stick slightly to the magnet.
After counterfeit 5-franc coins (five-franc coins) appeared in Switzerland, which were produced in Italy, the situation calmed down somewhat after the counterfeit workshop was closed. As a measure, all five-franc pieces from 1985 to 1993 are currently being confiscated and destroyed, as they have recessed marginal writing. They have been invalid since 2007, but the National Bank continues to withdraw them at their face value. Other years have raised margins and are therefore more difficult to forge. While over 21,000 counterfeit coins were found in 1998, in 2004 there were only 339 coins. In addition, a larger number of forged two-francs and the twenty-franc gold vreneli were found.
There are various counterfeit identifiers for coins that are also used for identification in vending machines:
- Weight and center of gravity (due to not exactly centered embossing)
- Electrical resistance
In the first half of 2004, the most common counterfeits in Germany were 50-euro notes (43.6%), followed by 20-euro (28.2%) and 100-euro notes (21.3%). Fake 500 euro bills (0.4%) were the least likely to be discovered. In total, around 594,000 counterfeits appeared in the entire Eurozone in 2004, 579,000 in 2005 and 565,000 in 2006, which means that the number of counterfeits is falling. In Germany, the number of registered counterfeits fell from 80,583 (2004) to 40,204 (2007) counterfeit euro bills. In the introductory phase of the euro, several attempts were made to circulate fake 300 and 1000 euro notes (which do not even exist as real money), which in some cases actually succeeded. In 2006, however, the 20-euro note was the most counterfeit at 36%. The most counterfeit banknote as of 2010 is the 50 euro note at 59%.
Of the Swiss notes, 7,938 counterfeit notes with a value of 4.1 million Swiss francs were seized in 2004 . The proportion of counterfeit money in the face value (total circulation 34 billion francs) was 0.022%. Of the 4 million francs counterfeit money, 2.3 million francs were so-called facsimile notes. These are mainly used when handing over money in organized money laundering to deceive recipients who are not familiar with Swiss notes. In this case, facsimile notes are often handed over in a bundle of money between real bank notes.
Counterfeiting of the euro in Switzerland is causing most of the difficulties; in 2004, counterfeit euro notes and coins worth two million euros were seized. In addition, there are dollar forgery worth around one million US dollars.
Of the values, the 100-franc note was the most popular object at 53% in 2003. This is followed by the 50-franc note at 16% and the 20-franc note at 14%. The 1,000-franc note with a share of 2.9% is the least counterfeit. In addition, a 2000-franc note was secured, which officially does not even exist.
Some counterfeit certificates can only be recognized by trained specialists from the Bundesbank and counterfeit money officers from the police, but there are also some suitable counting machines.
Warning notices on banknotes
On the 50 and 100 DM banknotes of the second series, potential counterfeiters were warned by means of a small print: "Anyone who copies or falsifies banknotes, or who procures counterfeit or falsified notes and puts them into circulation, will be punished with a prison sentence of no less than two years" . This note is also on the back of all notes of the third series ("BBk I"). The quotation of the paragraph on counterfeiting from the Criminal Code should serve prevention and has no legal significance, so it was omitted in the fourth series ("BBk III") without replacement.
This notice is already on Kei Chatu paper money. During the Mongolian rule, the Cao was introduced into Iran based on the Chinese model in 1294 and replaced metal money. On it was the indication of the value with the following note: “The Padischa of the world introduced this blessed paper money into the kingdom in 693 [corresponds to 1294 AD]. Whoever falsifies or falsifies it will be executed with wife and child and his property confiscated by the state. ”In addition, the Muslim creed was printed in Arabic.
Money processing machines in Germany
The cash processing already existed in the Reichsbank and was constantly improved in quality. Where previously banknotes and coins were probed by hand on counting boards , powerful machines are now available:
The fully automatic coin processing machine NGZ 6000 consists of various machine components (Percotronic, LCC20, computer, work table, touchscreen) and can process coins with denominations of 2 euros, 1 euros, 50 and 20 euro cents. The NGZ can also process coins with denominations of 5 DM, 2 DM, 1 DM and 50 pfennigs. The throughput rate depends on the denomination and quality of the coins.
Percotronic - The contents of the opened bag are poured into the Percotronic and separated on a plate, each coin is checked for electrical resistance, magnetism, size, thickness and warping. The pre-checked coins are transported on to the so-called LCC20 and then separated again by a plate. A camera photographs every single coin and compares it with an image stored in the computer.
Coin sorting machines
The Deutsche Bundesbank uses machines from Scancoin to sort coins, which sort coins according to their strength, magnetism and diameter. The accuracy of the Scancoin is 95%. The problem with the Scancoin is round blanks and foreign coins. The coins are then usually packaged in the same way and issued in the form of a coin roll .
Banknote processing systems separate the deposited banknotes and use sensors to check their condition (fitness) and authenticity. Fit banknotes are stacked and issued as packets of 100 banknotes. Defective notes are automatically shredded using a particle cut. Finished parcels are vacuum-sealed as money parcels of ten. The semi-automatic ISS 300 was developed in the 1970s and was approximately 2.7 m × 1.7 m × 0.8 m in size. It achieved a throughput of 20,000 banknotes / hour and cost the equivalent of around 450,000 euros to purchase. This machine was developed by G & D and produced by AEG.
The fully automatic ISS / BPS 3000 was used from 1992. In contrast to semi-automatic machines, bills that do not meet the standard are placed on special reels with the sender's wrapper and processed on a manual reworking station. The fully automatic machines were approx. 3.7 m × 2.0 m × 1.8 m in size and, like the semi-automatic machines, were equipped with shredder modules. It achieved a throughput of 80,000 banknotes / hour
The semi-automatic and fully automatic machines were successively replaced from 2000 by the successor system BPS 1000, which was upgraded from 2005 to 2007 for the simultaneous processing of all denominations (multi-denomination processing) and achieves a throughput of up to 60,000 banknotes / hour. Since 2017, the BPS 1000 have been replaced by the successor system BPS M7, which achieves a throughput of up to 90,000 banknotes / hour.
Combating counterfeit money
When counterfeit money appears, it is forwarded to the respective national central bank, in Germany to the Bundesbank. The Bundesbank has set up a National Analysis Center (NCC) in Mainz. Depending on the quality and significance, the forgery is also passed on to the European Central Bank (ECB). The ECB has set up a Counterfeit Analysis Center (CAC) for all of Europe . The Counterfeit Monitoring System (CMS) database managed there provides information on counterfeit money to the member states.
In Switzerland, the Federal Office of Police and the Federal Criminal Police are the executive bodies responsible for counterfeit money.
In addition to the European Central Bank, Europol and Interpol are particularly concerned with counterfeit money. In addition, the Central Bank Working Group for Combating Counterfeiting was founded by various central banks as an international working group to combat counterfeit money: (CBCDG).
Numbers for counterfeit currency
In 2003, the European Central Bank seized counterfeit money with a face value of over 26 million euros, and the trend was upwards at that time. In the first half of 2012, 251,000 counterfeit euro banknotes were withdrawn from circulation. This was offset by 14.6 billion real banknotes in circulation. The largest number of counterfeit euro banknotes was reached in 2009/2010. Since then (as of 2020) this value has decreased.
In 2010 around 60,000 counterfeit banknotes were registered in Germany (14% more than in the previous year). The most common counterfeit banknote is the 50 euro note (35,113). The number of counterfeit euro coins was 67,407. The number of counterfeit coins thus fell significantly compared to the previous year (78,500 pieces). The total damage increased in 2010 to 3.4 million euros (2009: 3.1 million euros). The volume of counterfeit money in Germany has been falling since 2011, with around 39,000 flowers appearing. This is the lowest number since the euro was introduced in 2002. Overall, the volume of counterfeit money is falling across the euro zone.
Of the 41,507 counterfeit notes seized in Germany in 2012, 309 were 5-euro notes, 687 10-euro notes, 19,099 20-euro notes, 14,001 50-euro notes, 5,111 100-euro notes, 1,924 200-euro notes Notes and 376 500 euro notes. Compared to 2011, the volume of counterfeit money increased by 6.4 percent.
In 2003/2004 around 100 cases were registered in Germany in which customers claimed to have received counterfeit money from ATMs - but not a single case could be proven. However, it is possible that, for reasons of cost, the machines were filled from the banks' stocks instead of banknotes checked by the Bundesbank .
In 2016, a total of 2,370 counterfeit notes and 6,273 counterfeit coins were found in Switzerland; they had a total face value of 371,907 francs. In addition, 367,205 euros, 113,947 US dollars and small amounts of other currencies were seized.
In 2003, the face value of the counterfeit notes and coins was still 18,034,010 francs, which was a multiple of the amount in 2016, although this included 17,627,000 francs in the form of 1,000 franc notes with a facsimile imprint. These were mainly used in rip deals .
Flowers and Reproduction Allowed
Flowers are colloquial as counterfeit money, but not in official police German. Blossoms are play money here , for example for Monopoly . In the "Guidelines for the exchange of messages in the event of counterfeit money offenses" of the Hessian State Criminal Police Office from 1985, it says: "Flowers are images / imitations of banknotes that are printed on one or two sides, often have different print images and, according to the manufacturer's wishes, are not used as a means of payment should . "
In Switzerland it is clearly defined when a reproduction is permitted ( leaflet on the reproduction of banknotes of the Swiss National Bank):
- if the side length is less than 66% or more than 150% of the original grade
- Any, if less than 40% of a page of the original note is shown
- Printing on a material that clearly cannot be confused with paper (e.g. metal , glass , marzipan )
- if it differs in color from all course grades.
There is also a corresponding regulation in the euro zone: The ECB decision No. 4 from 2003 of March 20, 2003, there in particular Article 2 paragraph 3, contains in subsections a – f a “positive catalog” as to when reproductions of euro -Banknotes are allowed. If at least one of the points a – e is fulfilled in the case of physical reproductions, the entire reproduction is permitted. Point f regulates the admissibility of electronic reproductions. In detail:
- a) One-sided reproductions (= no print similar to banknotes on the other side) if the edge lengths are either increased or decreased by 25% compared to the original.
- b) Double-sided reproductions, if the edge lengths are either doubled or halved compared to the original.
- c) Individual design elements, if these are applied to a background that is not banknote-like.
- d) One-sided reproductions if less than 1/3 of the front or back is reproduced.
- e) Reproductions on a material which is clearly different from paper (in general), if this material does not show any similarity to the material used for making banknotes.
- f) Electronic images that are accessible to everyone at any time ( Internet ), if these
- (in clearly contrasting color and a legible text type the word "Specimen" engl. for pattern) is printed in a minimum size of 75% of the reproduction width and 15% of the reproduction level, and ...
- the resolution of the image, based on the original size of the reproduced banknote, is a maximum of 72 dpi.
Disused money, fancy money
The forgery of money that is no longer valid, such as the D-Mark , is not regarded as a criminal offense , according to the prevailing opinion . It is argued that banknotes or coins that are out of exchange do not fall under the concept of money, as they are no longer a valid means of payment. In addition, it should be remembered that banknotes and coins that are out of exchange can no longer be used for payment, but only the submission to the Deutsche Bundesbank remains. The forgery will not remain hidden from this. On the other hand, the prevailing opinion is that fake money (example: 700 EUR note ), based on the layout of other banknotes in the same currency, falls under the criminal liability of counterfeiting. In the cable car castle one can still 0-euro banknote to be acquired. A Braunschweig company also offers such 'collector's items'.
In the case of out-of-exchange money, however, it would also be possible to consider that it should not be used as a means of payment, but that the counterfeit coins and bills are offered as supposedly antique collectors' items, which - like the counterfeiting of antiques - is likely to represent a fraud .
- Coin valuation or coin deterioration
- Organized crime
- John Haberle
- Kipper mints (Kursachsen) - production of counterfeit coins on behalf of the state
- Anne-Francine Auberson, Harald Derschka , Suzanne Frey-Kupper (eds.): Faux - contrefaçons - imitations / forgeries - additions - imitations (= Études de numismatique et d'histoire monétaire / studies on numismatics and monetary history , volume 5). Éditions du Zèbre, Lausanne 2005, ISBN 2-940351-01-5 .
- Florian Osuch: "Blossoms" from the concentration camp. The "Operation Bernhard" counterfeit money campaign in the Sachsenhausen concentration camp . VSA, Hamburg 2009, ISBN 3-89965-389-0 .
- Jürgen Bartholomäus, Eduard K. Liedgens: Counterfeit money detection . 4th edition, Bank-Verlag Medien , Cologne 2005, ISBN 3-86556-107-1 .
- Adolf Burger : The devil's workshop. The counterfeiting workshop in Sachsenhausen concentration camp. Forced to forge. A factual report . Verlag Neues Leben, Berlin 1999, ISBN 3-355-01486-9 .
- Günter Wermusch : Counterfeit money affairs . Die Wirtschaft, Berlin 1988. ISBN 3-349-00390-7 .
- Tips from the German police to protect against counterfeit money
- Deutsche Bundesbank - counterfeit money
- SNB - Swiss National Bank
- Swissmint, also for banknotes
- OeNB - Austrian National Bank
- ECB security features
- Search for counterfeit money in the German Digital Library
- Search for counterfeit money in the SPK digital portal of the Prussian Cultural Heritage Foundation
- Silent film about a discovery of counterfeit money (1 Reichsmark ) with a criminal drama: Police report attack by Erno Metzner, 1928, at archive.org . The film was banned by the censors of the Weimar Republic because of its drastic depiction of misery and brutality.
- RGZ 58, 255
- Alexander Elster / Heinrich Lingemann / Rudolf Sieverts: Superstition: Kriminalbiologie , Volume 1, 1966, p. 254.
- Codex Theodosianus 9.24.2
- From Jacob Hoffmeister's historical-critical description of all Hessian coins known to date, (1857–1880), pp. 106–108
- Richard Wires: The Cicero Spy Affair , 1999, p. 95.
- David Churchman: Why We Fight , 2013, p. 213.
- Süddeutsche.de of April 27, 2011, Economy: The Great Forgers ( Memento of February 7, 2015 in the Internet Archive )
- high Taken: dug Münzfälscherwerkstatt near Graz. In: oe24.at , March 12, 2008, accessed April 15, 2017.
- BGH, judgment of February 7, 1995, Az. 1 StR 681/94, full text .
- BGH, judgment of September 27, 1977, Az. 1 StR 374/77, full text = BGHSt 27, 255
- BGHSt 3, 156
- BGH, judgment of March 24, 1998, Az. 1 StR 558/97, full text = BGHSt 44, 62
- BGH, judgment of October 4, 1951, Az. 3 StR 640/51, NJW 1952, 311, 312
- Wolfgang Ruß: StGB Groß-Commentary § 146-222 StGB , March 2000, p. 85
- Alexander Elster / Heinrich Lingemann / Rudolf Sieverts: Superstition: Kriminalbiologie , Volume 1, 1966, p. 256.
- Hubert Hinterhofer: Criminal Law Special Part II: §§ 169 to 321 StGB , 2005, p. 178.
- Walther Hadding / Franz Häuser: Festschrift for Walther Hadding on his 70th birthday , 2004, p. 1140.
- Counterfeit money point H 12 ( Memento from June 4, 2004 in the Internet Archive ) based in Mainz, accessed June 6, 2008
- Börsen-Zeitung, Frankfurt am Main, January 13, 2007.
- Bundesbank: Registered false euro notes from 2002 to 2007
- FedPol Statistics ( Memento from May 17, 2013 in the Internet Archive ) (PDF; 27 kB)
- Akbert Pick: paper money lexicon . Mosaik Verlag, Munich 1978, ISBN 3-570-05022-X
- Central Bank Counterfeit Deterrence Group ( Memento of April 15, 2008 in the Internet Archive ) - The CBCDG is an association of 27 central banks and banknote printing companies under the leadership of the President of the National Bank of Belgium
- Dorit Hess: New features should make life more difficult for counterfeiters . In: Handelsblatt . No. 247, December 20, 2012, , p. 34 f.
- Dorit Hess: Play it safe . In: Handelsblatt . No. 247, December 20, 2012, , p. 34 f.
- Information from the Deutsche Bundesbank on the volume of counterfeit money ( memento of April 11, 2012 in the Internet Archive )
- Million with Euro blossoms Counterfeiters rely on Zwanziger - ntv.de July 16, 2012
- Dorit Hess: Security you can touch . In: Handelsblatt . No. 78 , April 23, 2013, ISSN 0017-7296 , p. 32 f .
- Press release: False reports (PDF file) ( Memento of February 3, 2007 in the Internet Archive )
- Fedpol: Counterfeit Money Statistics 2016 , accessed on October 11, 2017
- Fedpol: Counterfeit Money Statistics 2003 , accessed on October 11, 2017
- Fedpol: Counterfeit Money Management Report 2003 , page 8 f. (to rip deals)
- Fedpol: Rip Deals ( Memento ( Memento of October 23, 2004 in the Internet Archive ) of October 23, 2004)
- According to the Duden, The dictionary of origin , 3rd edition, p. 104, how the infamous use of "blossom" in the sense of "fake banknote" developed has not been clarified with certainty.
- Decision of the European Central Bank of March 20, 2003 on the denominations, characteristics and reproduction as well as exchange and withdrawal of euro banknotes (PDF file)
- Hubert Hinterhofer: Criminal Law Special Part II: §§ 169 to 321 StGB , 2005, p. 178.
- Günter Stratenwerth : Switzerland. Criminal Law , Bes. Part II, 4th edition, § 33 N. 5; Ernst Hafter , Switzerland. Criminal Law , Bes. Part II, p. 573 Note 2)