Find place in Bilzingsleben

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Coordinates: 51 ° 16 '21.4 "  N , 11 ° 3' 33.6"  E

Map: Germany
Find place in Bilzingsleben

The Bilzingsleben site is an extraordinary archaeological and palaeoanthropological site in the north of Thuringia . The finds were dated to an age of 400,000 years and attributed to Homo erectus . They belong to the earliest traces of the genus Homo in Central Europe . The site is about 1.5 km south of the village of Bilzingsleben on the edge of the Wippertal . The surface of the former quarry "Steinrinne" is about 35 m above today's floodplain and 175  m above sea level. NN . The small spur-like elevation is framed by the Wipper in the east and the vortex brook in the south.

View of the exhibition hall
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A memorial stone has been commemorating the discovery of the site since 1999

Geology and paleoecology

The village and thus also the site on the Steinrinne are located on the northern edge of the Thuringian Basin , which is geologically mainly shaped by the Keuper (Triassic) deposits . Only a few kilometers away in the north-west and north-east rise the up to 480 m high peaks of the Hainleite , the Kyffhauser and the Schmücke , which consist of deposits of the red sandstone and the shell limestone .

Bilzingsleben is located on the northern edge of the so-called Kindelbrücker fault zone, which is part of the hercynian course of the Finn fault. This in turn belongs to a system of parallel faults up to the edge of the Thuringian Forest . The Finn fault begins in the northwest near Sondershausen and runs to Gera in the southeast. The Pohlen disturbance begins there as a continuation. The Finn Fault also forms the southern edge of the Hermundurian plaice.

Such faults and faults are the cause of the emergence of numerous springs in this area, of which the Gründelsloch near Kindelbrück, south of Bilzingsleben, is still an impressive sign today. The lime-rich rocks of the Triassic , which dominate the Thuringian Basin and its "peripheral areas", and seepage and spring water emerging from them, which dissolve the lime , are the cause of the travertine cover , which was created under hot-weather conditions and was protective over the site its strength could not be easily removed by erosion processes. It made it possible for the Bilzingsleben site to be preserved for almost 400,000 years and thus to report the presence of early humans in Thuringia.

General geological situation

The general geostratigraphic situation can be determined from the various river terraces . Such terrace stairs, typical for Central European river areas, were created during the change from warm to cold periods during the Pleistocene .

In the lower Wippertal in the southern Harz region, at least eight river terraces are formed, each at 55 to 60 m, 45 m, 32 to 35 m, 27 m, 20 to 22 m, 15 to 18 m, 8 to 10 m and −3 to −5 m above today's floodplain. With the exception of the two highest terraces, all the others have been proven south of Bilzingsleben.

The two highest terraces are only detectable north of Bilzingsleben and do not contain any Nordic flint in their gravel , which means that they were formed before the first main ice advance of the Elster glaciation, as the flint reached Central Europe only with this glaciation phase .

The other terraces have developed south of the village due to the change in the Wipper course after the Elster glaciation. Significant are the consequences of the travertine formation Bilzingsleben I (at 32 m), II (at 27 m) and III (at 22 m), which form the elevation of the so-called "stone channel" and thus the abandoned quarry. Today's relief with the travertine is by strong erosive to explain activity Wipper that the soft mudstone of the Keuper abtrug and leaving the hard travertine, making it an " inverted relief came." The stratigraphic sequences of the sequences are very similar, in that travertine blocks several meters thick were formed on fluvial sediments or loess and loess derivatives. The sequence Bilzingsleben II bears the old Paleolithic find horizon.

The valley floor of the series Bilzingsleben IV is 15 to 18 m above the floodplain and is attributed to the main terrace from the early Saale period, which is correlated with the Drenthe glaciation . The series Bilzingsleben V lies on the 5 to 10 m high terrace of the Warthe glaciation and carries the travertine of the Eem , while the series VI consists of the Vistula period gravel and the Holocene travertine in today's floodplain.

The terrace travertine sequence from Bilzingsleben covers the entire Middle and Young Pleistocene in Central Germany. The 45 m terrace with the deposits of the Elster icing and the early hall time main terrace at 15 to 18 m (Part IV) can be used as striking geochronological indicators. Thus, a position of the site between the last glaciation of the Elster complex and the first glaciation within the Saale complex ( Saale icing in the true sense) is to be regarded as secure. This period is called the Holstein Complex. Since the three terrace sequences I, II and III represent complete basic cycles of the change from cold to warm periods, this complex must be divided into at least three climate cycles. Bilzingsleben II belongs to the mean warm period (Reinsdorf warm period) and is therefore much older than previously assumed.

This classification is supported by radiometric measurement methods such as B. the uranium / thorium , uranium series and electron spin resonance dating , which were carried out by various institutes. The latest investigations were carried out by the Archaeometry Research Center of the Heidelberg Academy of Sciences , Heidelberg, and the Thuringian State Office for Archaeological Monument Conservation (TLAD) Weimar. They gave the find layer an age of around 350,000 - 400,000 years.

Stratigraphy of the terrace Bilzingsleben II

On the cold-age river gravel of the terrace Bilzingsleben II there is solifluction debris and loess, which were also deposited under cold climatic conditions. They form the natural surface of the Bilzingsleben / Reinsdorf warm period and thus the horizon of the Pleistocene people of Bilzingsleben. Due to the formation of a pseudogley , the upper sections of the loess were bleached and took on a greenish to gray color. This layer is followed by a horizon of travertine sand or a horizon in which travertine sands are mixed with sea ​​chalk . This horizon represents the main find layer A. It is covered by solid sea ​​lime (find layer B), which was formed by calcareous algae (characeae or charophytes). The finds from this layer are to be regarded as relocated. The solid, up to 8 m thick, structural travertine is separated from the find layer by another layer, which consists of loose travertines and often has structures of moss, reeds and grass.

Geomorphology of the terrace Bilzingsleben II

A travertine slab was already forming on the Bilzingsleben I terrace. It formed a valley slope that sloped to the valley of the Wipper and formed a niche in which a rising karst spring emerged. The spring had a drain to the Wipper. A travertine cascade dammed this runoff into a lake into which the spring water flowed in a wide alluvial fan . To the southwest of it was a peninsula-like shore terrace on which the camp of Homo erectus was.

Natural environment

Due to the abundance of remains of fauna and flora, the natural environment in the vicinity of the "stone channel" can be reconstructed very precisely. The plant remains include impressions in the travertine and preserved pollen . Two phases of vegetation could be distinguished by pollen analysis. In the first phase, which includes the sea lime with the travertine sand, hazel pollen ( Corylus ), ash ( Fraxinus ) and oak ( Quercus ) dominate. In contrast, the second phase (pure sea lime) is characterized by a decline in the species mentioned in favor of hornbeams , alders and pines . Calculated over both phases, the woody proportion of pollen is 97 to 99% and 0.75 to 2% for non-tree pollen. The travertine flora shows a total of 36 species. In addition to around 14 tree species, there are over 20 shrubs. Herbs and perennials are only sparsely represented. Broad-leaved plants predominate among the hardwood species, such as Quercus robur ( pedunculate oak ), Acer campestre ( field maple ), Acer pseudoplatanus ( sycamore maple ), Tilia platyphyllos ( summer linden ), Fraxinus excelsior ( common ash ), Cornus mas ( cornel cherry ) and Corylus avellana ( hazelnut ) . In addition, there are also small-leaved deciduous trees such as Populus tremula ( trembling aspen ), Betula pubescens ( downy birch ) and Berberis vulgaris ( buckthorn ). Evergreen conifers are rare. Some species that were detected in the travertine in Bilzingsleben are no longer native to this area today, but have a Mediterranean or subcontinental distribution. In addition to Syringa josikaea ( Köröser lilac ; today distributed in the Pontic region), above all Buxus sempervirens ( boxwood ; today distributed in the Adriatic-Iberian), Celtis australis ( southern hackberry ; today generally distributed in the Mediterranean), Pyracantha coccinea ( firethorn ; today distributed in the Mediterranean-Pontic region ) and Potentilla fruticosa ( finger shrub ; distributed subcontinental today).

It can be concluded that there is a dry mixed oak forest. Since Buxus sempervirens (boxwood) often occurs in this mixed forest , it can be referred to as Buxo-Quercetum. Buxo-Syringetum is another important plant community. Based on the pollen analysis, the storage place belongs to the transition period of the mixed oak forest - to the hornbeam phase .

Mollusks are represented with around 100 species, ostracods (mussel crustaceans) with around 30 species. With the help of these species, numerous small biotopes can be developed in the vicinity of the lake, which have flowing or stagnant water, as well as swampy or dry forest areas. Here, too, there are several species whose current distribution centers are in southern, southwestern and southeastern Europe (e.g. Helicigona banatica , Iphigena tumida , Belgranda germanica ). Thus the mollusks also speak for a warmer climate. The same applies to the ostracods (e.g. Microdarwinula zimmeri ; today distributed equatorially). There are also indicators of salty water ( Heterocypris salina and Candona angulata )

Remains of a forest rhinoceros from Bilzingsleben, Museum for Pre- and Early History of Thuringia, Weimar

The vertebrate fauna is very rich and includes 54 species. These include mammals  (35), birds  (6), reptiles  (3), amphibians  (5) and fish  (5). The mammalian fauna is referred to as palaeoloxodon-antiquus fauna, characterized by forest elephant ( palaeoloxodon antiquus ), rhinoceros ( Dicerorhinus kirchbergensis ), Steppe Rhino ( Dicerorhinus hemitoechus ) Auerochse ( Bos primigenius ), Steppe Wisent ( Bison priscus ) Horse ( Equus sp. ), Red deer ( Cervus elaphus ), fallow deer ( Dama dama ssp. ), Giant deer ( Megaloceros spec. ), Roe deer ( Capreolus suessenbornensis ), bear ( Ursus deningeri spelaeus ), cave lion ( Panthera spelaea ), wild cat ( Felis silvestris ), red fox ( Vulpes vulpes ) , Wild boar ( Sus scrofa ), wolf ( Canis lupus ) etc. a. The appearance of the macaque ( Macaca sylvana ), which is to be regarded as exotic here, is interesting . The old beaver ( Trogontherium cuvieri ) also appears as a stratigraphic indicator , which soon dies out in Central Europe.

Forest species such as the European forest elephant , forest rhinoceros , deer, roe deer, wild boar and fox dominate the mammals . The numerous open land species, such as the steppe rhinoceros , horse and steppe bison, however, show that the forest growth could not have been dense, but was more like an island. It can also be assumed that large mammals, especially elephants, rhinoceros and bison, kept the landscapes artificially open by feeding, as is still the case today in the savannah regions of southern and eastern Africa.

Some of the mammals can be interpreted as hunting prey for humans from Bilzingsleben, as can be seen in particular by the cut marks on the bones of large mammals. In addition, the percentage distribution of the species shows no natural distribution pattern. A total of 27% rhino, 15% beaver, 13% deer and 12% elephant occur. The fish can also represent the remains of hunting prey.

In summary one can say that there was a light oak-hornbeam forest with a high proportion of hazel and boxwood. Mollusks in the open landscape and plants such as B. Artemisia species, sorrel , ferns and sweet grasses prove the existence of open steppe and meadow-like locations, which is also confirmed by the large mammal finds. The bank was covered with reeds and sedges, and water lilies and pondweed grew in the slightly salty lake . The peat moss here indicates acidic locations with an intermoor character .

The warmth-loving species from fauna and flora, which are now native to more southerly climates, indicate a warmer and more balanced climate during the Bilzingsleben Reinsdorf warm season than is prevalent in Central Europe today. The amount of precipitation was 800 to 850 mm higher than today. A two-peak precipitation distribution, similar to today, was decisive for the dry summers in the area.

Research history

The travertines of the Steinrinne have been known since the Middle Ages and have been dismantled since then. The city wall of Kindelbrück , built in 1508, consists largely of this tufa . Documents and an inscription on the Kindelbrücker church prove a mining activity that goes back to the 13th century .

The first written mention of fossil jawbones and teeth from the quarry can be found in "Rudera diluvii testes ie Signs and Witnesses of the Flood" , a work by David Sigmund Büttner from the year 1710. Since then, the site has been visited by various scientists and lay researchers , of which the most important are only mentioned here as examples. The discovery of a human skull, which Baron Ernst Friedrich von Schlotheim (1765–1832) mentioned in 1818 in “ Leonhard's Mineralogical Pocket Book ”, is significant . This is said to have been covered with lime and should therefore come from the travertine. Von Schlotheim mentioned the skull several times in the following years, but it can no longer be found today. However, it would be interesting to know whether it was really a fossil skull, because if it were, the Bilzingsleben find would represent one of the earliest known finds of a fossil human.

At the beginning of the 20th century , the work of Ewald Wüst was the main one . In 1908 he reported for the first time about flint tools as an indication of the presence of fossil humans in Bilzingsleben. In 1922 Adolf Spengler took over the scientific supervision of Bilzingsleben. He collected both archaeological and paleontological material. The discovery of a human molar, which he discovered in the sea lime layer at the end of the 1920s, is outstanding. This find is also lost today.

In the following period, Bilzingsleben remained in the focus of scientific events, even if the interest increasingly shifted to the travertines and their rich archaeological and paleoanthropological finds from Ehringsdorf . At that time, almost all scientists who dealt with the Bilzingsleben findings started from a very young position. Should Bilzingsleben Thus, despite the high position above the Wipperaue, the sites of Weimar , Burgtonna and Ehringsdorf be assimilated and eemzeitliches own age.

During Quaternary- paleontological investigations in 1969 by Dietrich Mania (at that time the State Museum for Prehistory Halle) numerous fossils and artifacts were discovered in the previously little-known find layer, which led to the beginning of an archaeological research excavation from 1971. A short time later, in 1972 or 1973, the first remnant of a fossil human, an occiput , was found, but it was only recognized as such when looking through the material in 1974. The age was also revised very early.

In the course of the excavations, Bilzingsleben grew into one of the most important ancient Paleolithic sites in Europe . By 2002, 37 human remains had been exposed. The finds recovered so far include more than 140,000 flint artifacts, thousands of other devices made of stone, bone, antlers, ivory and wood, as well as several tons of faunistic and botanical material. From this material, the culture and environment of early humans can be reconstructed with high accuracy. An international research team with specialists from several European countries was set up, and scientists from America , Asia and Australia also worked on the site.

On April 1, 2003, Clemens Pasda , Department of Prehistory and Early History at the Friedrich Schiller University Jena, took over the archaeological investigations in Bilzingsleben and carried out excavations on the site in the spring and summer of 2004.

The pre-human finds from Bilzingsleben

By 1999 Bilzingsleben had delivered 37 fossils of the genus Homo . These include 27 parts of the skull - including remains of the occipital bone, parietal bone and frontal bone - a toothless branch of a lower jaw and nine individual teeth. The remains belong to at least three individuals, with one juvenile among them.

The fossils examined by the Prague researcher Emanuel Vlček (1925–2006) were assigned to Homo erectus and in 1978 identified as its subspecies Homo erectus bilzingslebensis . According to his analyzes, there are similarities in particular to the Homo erectus fossil OH 9 from the Olduvai Gorge in Tanzania , the Peking man ( Sinanthropus III) and the Java man ( Pithecanthropus VII). A reconstruction of the skull shows that it has an elongated shape with a typical "erectoid" tent-like cross-section and a strong constriction behind the eyes (postorbital). The occiput is angled and has a large transverse bulge, while the bulge above the nose is not interrupted. The lower jaw also shows strong similarities to the Peking man.

Internationally, European finds of fossils of the genus Homo from this epoch are often assigned to the Chronospecies Homo heidelbergensis , from which the Neanderthals arose; the transitions from Homo erectus , Homo heidelbergensis and early Neanderthals are, however, fluid, which is why different delimitations are represented in the specialist literature.

The archaeological remains

Zonal structure

The find situation allows the previously excavated area of ​​the storage area to be divided into a total of six activity zones.

  • Zone I: alluvial fans of the source stream; Finds of mostly bone and artifact debris
  • Zone II: in a 2–3 m wide strip of banks; mainly large cutting tools and remains of large mammals; it may be a cutting area
  • Zone III: residential area with settlement structures
  • Zone IV: workshop zone (dimensions 3 × 8–10 m); Can be divided into subgroups (e.g. in the south of the zone area with numerous travertine underlays and exposure to fire, but only a few flint and rubble devices)
  • Zone V: paved area
  • Zone VI: undefined area of ​​activity west of the huts; numerous flint, wood and anvil finds

Stone artifacts

Around 140,000 flint artifacts have been found to date , of which around 20% represent devices in the narrower sense (with retouched working edges). This is a very small inventory with an average length of 25 to 35 mm. Larger artifacts of 50 to 90 mm in length also occur, but these are rare. Booked and toothed devices predominate. In addition, scraper-like devices, drills, points (Tayac and Quinson points) and knife-like cutting devices, some of which have a dull back, also occur. The special shapes include points retouched on both surfaces and types with a wedge knife. The Bilzingsleben site is characterized by the lack of real hand axes . Some tees and cores show that the technique of the prepared core was well known. In addition to flint, other lithic raw materials such as shell limestone , quartzite , quartz , travertine , etc. were also used. So far, more than 6,000 artifacts are known from these raw materials. They were mainly used to make hammer stones, choppers and chopping tools , but there are also some real types of equipment, such as points or bays. Anvils and working documents made from these materials were also used. These rubble devices are consistently larger than the flint artifacts. Choppers can weigh up to 8 kg, some travertine blocks even up to 30 kg.

Artifacts made from organic material

Bone find

The bones of killed animals (especially elephants) were also used as raw material for tool manufacture. The hard compacta was mainly used by long bones. Large bone scrapers, chisels, points and the like occur on devices. Ä. on. These devices are also relatively large and in some cases reach a length of 73 cm. Large mammal shoulder blades were used as working documents. Also to be mentioned in this context are antler picks and occasional polished ivory tips. For a few years now, wooden artefacts have also been proven, which, similar to the finds of the Schöninger spears , can be interpreted as throwing devices.

Archaeological features

Housing structures

Three residential buildings can be reconstructed from the site. It was probably a tent-like pole construction, the cover of which, probably made of animal skin, was fixed with bones and stones. Only the finds that were used for this fixation were preserved and were shown in the excavation area as circles with a diameter of 4 to 5 m. They were each equipped with a fireplace in front of them and with workplaces (with anvils). The location of the fireplaces makes the location of the entrances on the south sides of the residential structures likely.

Engraved bones

Several engraved bones probably represent the first graphic implementation of a human thought. The incised lines cannot have been created by using them as working documents, because a bone fragment shows two bundles of 7 or 14 parallel lines. Such an arrangement cannot be accidental. So they must have been attached intentionally.

Paved area

Another reference to the spiritual world of Homo erectus is an almost circular plaster-like place with a diameter of about 9 m. The bones and the z. Sometimes foreign stones were pressed into the loess and are only in a single layer. This plaster shows only a few artifacts and makes a "tidy" impression. In the northwest of this place there was a fireplace and an auroch skull, plus an anvil made from a travertine block and several human skull fragments. Splinters in the joints of the travertine block show the shattering of bones. To what extent this is related to the human skull remains is still unclear until the examination of the splinters has been completed. Interestingly, a row of stones also leads from the west towards the pavement and ends not far from the “workplace” shown above.

On the spiritual position of Homo erectus von Bilzingsleben

On the basis of the excavation findings from Bilzingsleben, not only can the culture and environment of man be reconstructed, but insights into his socio-cultural life are also provided. This is all the more important because it can show the already progressive spiritual development of Homo erectus .

The artificial microenvironment

According to all archaeological findings, the site is probably a long-lived settlement. It served as a base camp for a larger group. The numerous differentiated devices, the different raw materials used and the zonal structure of the entire place show that the people here did not have a short-term hunting stay, but rather lived and worked here. From here people went on hunting trips and forays to get food and raw materials. Both were brought to the storage area and processed. Mothers and children, the old and the sick, stayed behind under the shelter of the huts and the fire. He also found time to perform “non-practical” activities that were not directly necessary for survival, as may be the case with the plaster.

The long-term stay at a base camp resulted in a closer social union of the group. The relatively small residential buildings, in which a maximum of six people could find accommodation, are obviously indications that there were smaller social groups that felt more closely related than with the rest of the group and thus probably formed the germ of today's family. This deepened the biologically and economically conditioned division of labor between the sexes. This becomes clear z. B. with specially occurring types of artifacts within the intimate zones of residential buildings, which may indicate personal property.

Artifacts and systematic behavior

Due to their small format, the flint artifacts are special tools that were used to process organic materials. The different shapes of the artifacts and, above all, the type of working edges testify to a differentiated use, which includes scraping, scratching, sawing, drilling and the like. included. The flint artifacts were made with the help of small blowstones. Larger rubble devices were used for rougher work such as chopping and splitting or smashing. With the help of these stone tools, the coveted organic materials such as bones, antlers, ivory and, above all, wood were processed. Split large mammalian bones were used as scrapers or planes, antlers were made into hoes and wood into spears. In addition to the raw materials listed here, other raw materials that have not survived were used, such as hides, plant fibers, animal tendons, etc.

This shows that Homo erectus von Bilzingsleben was able to use a wide variety of raw materials to secure his life and that he was also specifically looking for them. The fact that other previously produced tools were required to manufacture devices shows a high level of complexity and sophistication in technology at a very early point in human history , which was probably not possible without language. The hunt for large mammals, which are now extinct, also shows that the hunt for these giants required quite complex planning and possibly also a highly developed language, because these giants could not be captured by one hunter alone.

Food extraction strategies

Homo erectus' diet consisted of plants and animals. The former, however, have not survived. It is unclear what proportion both had in the menu, but due to the cool to cold winters during this time, a correspondingly large proportion of animal food must be assumed.

A large part of the animal bones must be interpreted as hunting prey. The spears from Schöningen prove active hunting. Around 60% of the prey was large game such as elephants, rhinos, wild cattle, wild horses, bears, a good 20% medium-sized game such as deer and roe deer and the rest small game such as beavers. In addition, the fish and some birds can also be safely viewed as leftovers.

Hunting big game requires knowledge of game behavior, local knowledge, memory and ability to combine, but above all knowledge of the seasonal course and its effects on animal behavior.

In particular, large game hunting for elephants up to 6 m tall requires complex strategies and presumably a highly developed language. This was not expected by researchers at this early stage in human history before the findings.

Due to the mobility of the large herds of animals, Homo erectus also had to be mobile. A safe prerequisite is the base camp, from which smaller groups set out and hunted and collected in a tail area with a maximum possible daily distance of 15 to 20 km. In addition, a considerably larger hunting district must have existed. Presumably this hunting district was limited to the Thuringian Basin and the adjacent highlands, as the wooded low mountain ranges act as a natural barrier.

Special mental and cognitive skills

Not only the engraved bone artifacts and the paved area are special features, but also the treatment of the human skull - apparently postmortem shattering, patrophagy (parental damage) or skull cult - indicate a confrontation with death. In addition, it can be assumed that Homo erectus was also mentally concerned with his environment.

Overall, the Homo erectus appears almost 400,000 years ago as a human being capable of spirit and culture, with a self-created socio-cultural environment with residential buildings, fire use and special areas of activity, an active hunter with ranged weapons and variable technologies, capable of abstract thinking and with a already trained language.


  • Clemens Bock, Volker Neubeck, Clemens Pasda : Non-flint from the Middle Pleistocene site Bilzingsleben (excavation from 1971 to 2002) , in: Quartär 64 (2017) 7–25.
  • Dietrich Mania : In the footsteps of primitive man. The finds from Bilzingsleben. Theiss, Stuttgart 1990, ISBN 3-8062-0832-8 .
  • Dietrich Mania: Homo erectus - its culture and environment. On the life picture of prehistoric man (= Bilzingsleben. Vol. 5 = Contributions to the prehistory and early history of Central Europe 40). 2nd unchanged edition. Beier & Beran, Langenweißbach 2004, ISBN 3-930036-99-1 .
  • Leif Steguweit: Traces of use on artifacts from the hominid discovery site in Bilzingsleben (Thuringia) . Tübingen works on prehistory, Volume 2, VML Verlag, Rahden / Westf. 2003, ISBN 3-89646-852-9 ( PDF download )
  • Emanuel Vlček: The fossil man of Bilzingsleben (= Bilzingsleben. Vol. 6 = contributions to the prehistory and early history of Central Europe 35). Beier & Beran, Langenweißbach 2002, ISBN 3-930036-69-X .
  • Thomas Weber: The stone artifacts of Homo erectus from Bilzingsleben. In: Dietrich Mania, Thomas Weber (ed.): Bilzingsleben. Volume 3 (= publications of the State Office for Monument Preservation and Archeology Saxony-Anhalt. State Museum for Prehistory 39). Beier & Beran, Langenweißbach 1986, ISBN 3-326-00148-7 , pp. 65-220.

Web links

Commons : Bilzingsleben exhibition hall  - collection of images, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. The allocation of European finds from this era is very inconsistent internationally. Many authors make such findings on Homo heidelbergensis .
  2. ^ Emanuel Vlček : A new discovery of Homo erectus in central Europe. In: Journal of Human Evolution. Volume 7, No. 3, 1978, pp. 239-242, IN3-IN4 and 243-251, doi: 10.1016 / S0047-2484 (78) 80115-8
This version was added to the list of articles worth reading on August 9, 2006 .