Ludo Moritz Hartmann

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Ludo Moritz Hartmann (around 1900)

Ludo Moritz Hartmann , also Ludwig Moritz Hartmann (born March 2, 1865 in Stuttgart , † November 14, 1924 in Vienna ) was an Austrian historian , diplomat and social democratic politician .


Origin and education

Ludo Moritz Hartmann was the son of the Austrian writer Moritz Hartmann and his wife Bertha, daughter of Achilles Roediger , a boarding school director in Geneva and a bourgeois-liberal educator. He was non-denominational. When his father died on May 13, 1872, he was seven years old. Previously, in the last few years of his life, his father was increasingly bedridden due to an illness. During this time, his son had intensive contact with his father as well as with the numerous visitors and guests. The Hartmann family frequented bankers, writers, scientists, doctors, artists and university professors, including the Reich German politician and MP Ludwig Bamberger , the surgeon Theodor Billroth , the historian of philosophy Theodor Gomperz , the legal historian Adolf Exner and the historian Heinrich Friedjung .

After the early death of the father, the 33-year-old widow took care of the upbringing of the son alone, supported by two co-guardians, Ludwig Bamberger and the Viennese banker Leopold von Lieben, at the request of the deceased. Hartmann graduated from Wasagasse grammar school in Vienna and studied history, legal history and economics at the universities of Vienna and Berlin . His teachers included Otto Hirschfeld , Lujo Brentano and especially Theodor Mommsen .

After he received his doctorate in ancient history in Berlin in 1887 with the dissertation De exilio apud Romanos ( Exile among the Romans ) , he went to Rome. In 1888 he moved to Paul Scheffer-Boichorst in Strasbourg and then went to the Institute for Austrian Historical Research . In 1889 he completed his habilitation in Ancient and Medieval History at the University of Vienna. In the same year he received a permanent lecturer position for Roman and Medieval history.

One of the main areas of his research was the history of Italy in late antiquity and in the Middle Ages, and he also worked on the edition of the letter register of Gregory the Great . In addition, he wrote a number of sometimes very extensive contributions for Pauly-Wissowa . From 1893 to 1900 he was editor of the magazine for social and economic history together with Stephan Bauer , Carl Grünberg and Emil Szanto .

On January 21, 1893, Hartmann married Grete Chrobak (1869-1946), the daughter of a Viennese gynecologist. In the same year, daughter Else (1893–1978, married Paneth) and in 1894 son Heinrich (Heinz) Moritz (1894–1970) were born. He was buried at the Döblinger Friedhof .


In Vienna Hartmann began to get involved in politics and administration. He became head of the university community education commission and from 1900 founded five adult education centers in Vienna. He was particularly committed - together with Emil Reich  - to the Ottakring Volksheim . The foundation of the Salzburger Hochschulwochen , the association for the holding of scientific teaching courses for women and girls ( constituted on May 21, 1900 as the Athenäum women's college ) as well as (with regard to the observance of the Reichsvolksschulgesetz ) the one that acts against the rule of the Catholic hierarchy are based on his activities association Free school (constituted on 19 March 1905). In 1901 Hartmann joined the Social Democratic Workers' Party , but without ever distinguishing himself in party politics.

In 1918 he was appointed Associate Professor of History and Authorized Archives for Austria. In December 1918, Hartmann was appointed the first ambassador of the Republic of Austria to Germany by Karl Renner . He remained so until November 1920. Hartmann was also an advisory member of the State and Constitutional Committee of the Weimar National Assembly . The choice of the colors black, red and gold as the Greater German symbol can be traced back to him.

From March 1919 to November 1920, Hartmann was also a member of the Constituent National Assembly. In December 1920 he was sworn in as a member of the Federal Council . In 1922 Hartmann was appointed full professor. In these positions he worked particularly for the processing of the archives of the recent past and, like his father, fought vehemently for the annexation of Austria to the German Reich , which a special article in the Weimar constitution expressly provided and which the Vienna Parliament had also decided but had been prohibited by the victorious powers.


He was awarded an honorary doctorate by the universities of Heidelberg and Bonn .

The Ludo-Hartmann-Platz in Vienna- Ottakring is named after him. Every two years the Association of Austrian Adult Education Centers awards the Ludo Hartmann Prize for outstanding work in the interests of Austrian popular education.

Major works

  • History of Italy in the Middle Ages , 4 volumes, 1897–1915. - Full texts online: Volume 1/4 , Volume 2/4 , Volume 3/4 , Volume 4/4 .
  • Theodor Mommsen . A biographical sketch . Friedrich Andreas Perthes AG, Gotha 1908. - Full text online .
  • Roman history , 1916
  • The compilation of a world history directed by him in a commonly understood presentation (7 parts, 1919–1925) remained unfinished


  • Hartmann Ludo (Ludwig) Moritz. In: Austrian Biographical Lexicon 1815–1950 (ÖBL). Volume 2, Publishing House of the Austrian Academy of Sciences, Vienna 1959, p. 195 f. (Direct links to p. 195 , p. 196 ).
  • Hans Jürgen Rieckenberg:  Hartmann, Ludo Moritz. In: New German Biography (NDB). Volume 7, Duncker & Humblot, Berlin 1966, ISBN 3-428-00188-5 , p. 737 ( digitized version ).
  • Hartmann, Ludo Moritz , in: Salomon Wininger : Große Jüdische National-Biographie , Volume 3, Cernăuţi, 1928, p. 7f.
  • Wilhelm Filla : educator and organizer. the scientist, popular educator and politician Ludo Moritz Hartmann. Association of Wiener Volksbildung, Picus-Verlag, Vienna 1992, ISBN 3-85452-234-7 .
  • Volker Herholt: Ludo Moritz Hartmann, old story between Darwin, Marx and Mommsen . Weißensee Verlag, Berlin 1999, ISBN 3-934479-00-6 .
  • Hartmann, Ludo Moritz. In: Lexicon of German-Jewish Authors . Volume 10: Güde – Hein. Edited by the Bibliographia Judaica archive. Saur, Munich 2002, ISBN 3-598-22690-X , pp. 198-213.
  • Gerold Unterhumer: "Freedom, Equality, Brotherhood" Democracy and Popular Education with Ludo Moritz Hartmann ", Diploma thesis, Vienna, October 2005 [1]
  • Gerold Unterhumer: All learning should lead to thinking. Democracy and adult education with Ludo Moritz Hartmann . VDM Verlag Dr. Müller, Saarbrücken 2010, ISBN 978-3-639-24052-8 . (At the same time diploma thesis entitled: Freedom, Equality, Fraternity . University of Vienna, Vienna 2005).
  • Thomas Jaretz: Ludo M. Hartmann and the adult education center as a space of knowledge in the late Habsburg monarchy . epubli GmbH, Berlin 2011, ISBN 3-8442-1495-X . - content text .
  • Christian H. Stifter, Ludo Moritz Hartmann. Scientific popular educator, socially deterministic historian, unrealistic politician . In: Mitchell G. Ash / Josef Ehmer (eds.), University - Politics - Society (650 Years University of Vienna - Dawn of the New Century, Vol. 2), Göttingen: Vienna University Press 2015, ISBN 978-3-8471-0413 -1 , pp. 247-255.
  • Celine Wawruschka: Ludo Moritz Hartmann (1865-1924). Historiography in the light of early social democracy in Austria . In: Karel Hruza (ed.): Austrian historians. CVs and careers 1900–1945 , Vol. 3, Vienna a. a .: Böhlau 2019, ISBN 978-3-205-20801-3 , pp. 67–96.

Web links

Wikisource: Ludo Moritz Hartmann  - Sources and full texts

Individual evidence

  1. ^ Ludo Moritz Hartmann (1917): The memory of the mother. In memory of Bertha Hartmann recorded by her son for her friends - Im Selbstverlage des Verfassers, Vienna, p. 3 f.
  2. Permalink Austrian Library Association .
  3. ^ Ludwig Hartmann grave site , Vienna, Döblinger Friedhof, Group 28, No. 10.
  4. ^ Günter Fellner:  Athenaeum. The story of a women's university in Vienna. In:  Zeitgeschichte , year 1986, No. 3/1986 (XIV. Year), pp. 99–115. (Online at ANNO ).Template: ANNO / Maintenance / ztg
  5. Domestic. (...) Vienna, December 4th. Protest rally against Catholic Day. In:  Neue Freie Presse , Morgenblatt, No. 14831/1905, December 5, 1905, p. 8, top right. (Online at ANNO ). Template: ANNO / Maintenance / nfp.
  6. Messages from the audience. (...) Association "Free School". Call. In:  Neue Freie Presse , Morgenblatt, No. 14559/1905, March 5, 1905, p. 7, center. (Online at ANNO ). Template: ANNO / Maintenance / nfp.
  7. The "Free School". In:  Neue Freie Presse , Abendblatt, No. 14574/1905, March 20, 1905, p. 7 middle. (Online at ANNO ). Template: ANNO / Maintenance / nfpand
    Lilli Bauer et al. (Red.): Free school, association. In: - Web dictionary of the Viennese social democracy. SPÖ Vienna (Ed.)
  8. Versailles Treaty , Section VI. (the section contains only one article: Art. 80 )
predecessor Office successor
Gottfried zu Hohenlohe-Schillingsfürst Austrian ambassador to Germany
Richard Riedl