Montessori education

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Maria Montessori

Montessori education is one of Maria Montessori in 1907 developed and particularly in Montessori schools applied educational training concept, which covers the period from toddlers to young adults. It is based on the image of the child as the “builder of himself” and therefore uses the form of open teaching and free work for the first time . It can be described as experimental insofar as the observation of the child should lead the teacher to apply suitable didactic techniques in order to optimally promote the learning process . The basic idea of ​​Montessori education is the request “Help me to do it myself”.


Maria Montessori

Demonstration of the Montessori principles in Berlin in 1929

The Montessori pedagogy was founded by Maria Montessori , born in Italy in 1870, who was one of the first women to complete a medical degree with a doctorate . She came from a middle-class, Christian family, had traveled widely and was strongly committed to personal rights in general and women's rights in particular. She worked with mentally handicapped children in the psychiatric ward of a hospital. In the course of the therapy, however, it turned out that these children were by no means mentally underdeveloped, but that they had so far only lacked any support. Maria Montessori developed special work materials, the "sensory material", with which she succeeded in stimulating the children, arouse their curiosity and stimulate their attention and concentration.

Casa dei Bambini (children's house)

In 1907, Maria Montessori founded the first Casa dei Bambini (“children's house”) in San Lorenzo, a poor district of Rome , in which some neglected children from the lower social classes were cared for. The children learned arithmetic and writing in a very short time with great success. It was here that Montessori first realized her ideas about education and expanded her method.


Montessori Children's Home in Hamburg (1928)

The first Montessori children's home was founded in 1919, with a significant contribution from Clara Grunwald , in Berlin-Lankwitz and the first German Montessori school on June 2, 1923 in Jena in the former elementary school of Wenigenjena . It existed until the spring of 1933 and was then banned and closed by the National Socialist government of Thuringia . The Montessori material , some of which was produced and financed by the parents, was handed over to the Friedrich Schiller University in Jena .

Under the direction of Ilse Simachowitz (later Ilse Bulova), the second Berlin Montessori children's house was opened on May 2, 1924 in Berlin-Wedding . A short description of this “Volkskinderhaus am Leopoldplatz”, which had to be closed in 1933, can be found by Diana Stiller, who also goes into the work of Ilse Simachowitz.

Ilse Simachowitz later husband, Ernst Bulova , was director of the “Montessori experimental school in Berlin-Dahlem” from 1928 onwards.

Ernst and Ilse Bulova had to emigrate in 1933 and worked at the Beltane School in Wimbledon (London) from 1934 to 1940 . "The Montessori pedagogy practiced there represented an innovation for the English school system." The Bulovas moved to the USA in 1940, where they set up Buck's Rock Work Camp from 1942/1943 . The guiding principle for the camp education practiced there always remained Montessori education.


The first Montessori children's home in Austria was founded by Franciscan Sisters in Vienna in 1917 . In 1922 Lili Roubiczek and her colleagues founded the “House of Children” on Troststrasse in Vienna. The first Montessori school in Austria opened there in 1924. During this time, Montessori pedagogy spread rapidly in the municipal kindergartens in Vienna. Between 1924 and 1936, Maria Montessori visited the city several times. At that time, Vienna provided essential impulses for the further development of Montessori art pedagogy and Elise Braun Barnett developed music didactics.

In 1938 all Montessori facilities were closed by the National Socialists. After 1945, the building was rebuilt in Innsbruck , where an international Montessori training course took place in 1951. On this occasion, the Austrian Montessori Society was founded, which was active until 1954. In 1990 the “Montessori Austria - Federal Umbrella Association” was founded, shortly thereafter the Austrian Montessori Society was re-established.

From the 1970s onwards, a number of Montessori facilities emerged in Austria, especially in the children's home area.


The Montessori method is often described as a philosophy that focuses on the child and their individuality . Maria Montessori believed in the child's intrinsic worth. Comparisons with traditional standards are not desirable in Montessori practice. Instead, Montessori advocates believe that children should learn freely, with no disability or judgment. Montessori believed that both rewards and punishments are detrimental to a person's attitude that children naturally want to learn from their own motivation. Mainly because it is in their nature to want to participate in (adult) life.

As a pedagogy, the Montessori method focuses on the needs, talents and abilities of the individual child. Montessori teachers and educators believe that children learn best at their own pace and in their own way. Children are encouraged to independently control the pace, theme, and repetition of the lessons. It is based on the fact that every deviation from the ideal of the divine child represents a disorder that can be corrected (normalized) through the use of learning methods.

According to Maria Montessori herself, her pedagogy or the so-called Montessori method is "a complex, educational and social movement that arose directly from and through the revelation of the child."

The guiding principle of the method is to nurture the child's natural joy in learning. According to Montessori, this joy in learning is a core component of the being of every child. Supported and guided with respect and esteem, it leads to the development of a self-contained and balanced personality.

Children who learn at their own pace and in line with their own interests experience self-confidence and independence and thus best internalize what they have learned. Independence is supported by the work of daily life (skills that are directly applicable in practical life). Montessori kindergarten children learn (primarily by imitation) to dress, to wash themselves, to prepare the dining table, etc. The children can usually choose themselves with whom and also what they want to work on. The Montessori method always focuses on the learner as a guide for his own development.

For Maria Montessori it was a priority to offer the child the opportunity to develop with all of his senses in a prepared environment that is adapted to his psychological needs. It is particularly important that the teachers see themselves as learners, take into account each child's own rhythm and recognize what they are dealing with. For example, it may be that a child does not use mathematics with the materials intended for this purpose (developed by Montessori), but does so when measuring, when building a machine. In order not to let the mutual influence of the two learners (child and companion) slide in undesirable directions, the use of supervision is essential.

Developmental psychology

According to Montessori, the child development process is divided into three phases: first childhood stage (0 to 6 years), second childhood stage (6 to 12 years) and adolescence (12 to 18 years), each of which represents a distinctly new phase of development. The first and third phases are further divided into three-year sub-phases.

The first stage of childhood (0-6 years) is influential, according to Montessori, because at this time the personality form and abilities of the child. Montessori understands the child's first six years of life as a second embryonic growth phase in which the child's mind and psyche develop. The age of 3 to 6 years is interpreted as the development phase in which the previously (0-3 years) embryonic intellectual, motor and social functions are further developed and finally stored in the mneme (originally by Richard Semon as a property of living beings To be able to store experiences). For Montessori these engrams are largely irreversible. “No upbringing can later extinguish what was incarnated in the constructive epoch of childhood.” And further about the mnemes : “To want to change adult individuals is a futile attempt.” It is precisely through this property of the mneme that Montessori sees a chance through cultivated Etiquette to reduce the gap between classes. It demands getting used to discipline and order. “The child's freedom must have the common good as a limit, what we call a well-behaved manner in his manners and appearance as a form. So we have to forbid the child from anything that may offend or harm the other or that is considered an improper or unfriendly act. "

She describes the second childhood stage (6–12 years) as the stable phase.

The adolescence (12-18 years) is the time for a radical transformation. The many physical and psychological changes at this age lead to profound insecurity. At the same time, young people begin to feel part of society and want to be recognized by it. According to Montessori, the following needs of young people are now in the foreground and should be met in school: Young people must be able to feel protected and they must learn to understand the role of people in society. It is also important to strengthen self-confidence and develop a feeling for one's own dignity. Montessori speaks of this phase of life as an epoch of social sensitivity. The young people want to live in social relationships, take on social responsibility and be taken seriously as independent people. Montessori therefore suggests creating prepared environments for them in the countryside in which they can experience independent living in a community. There they should learn both intellectually (on a more abstract basis than in the previous phases of life) as well as work practically and gain the experience of making money for a living.

During its development, the child goes through so-called "sensitive" or " sensitive periods ". In such phases, the child is particularly receptive to certain stimuli from the environment, for example in connection with movement, language or social aspects. If the child finds an occupation during a sensitive phase that precisely addresses his needs, the child is capable of deep concentration , which is known as the polarization of attention . In such a phase of deep concentration, the child does not allow himself to be distracted by other stimuli - he goes through a process of knowledge that not only influences his thinking but, according to Montessori, his entire personality development. Montessori coined the term “normalization” for this process, i. H. the restoration of the true positive possibilities that the child has by nature, but which are distorted if improperly treated by the adults ("deviations"). “And from now on” - sums up Montessori - “it was my endeavor to look for exercise objects that enable concentration; and furthermore I carefully studied which surroundings offer the most favorable external conditions for this concentration. This is how my method began to develop. "

It is crucial for the development of Montessori's pedagogy and teaching materials to observe that one of the most important sensitive phases of every child is that of “refining the senses”. Every child has a natural urge to touch, smell and taste everything. From this observation, Montessori derives her knowledge that access to childlike thinking does not take place in an abstract way, but fundamentally through the child's senses. Grasping and grasping become a unit in the learning process . From this point of view, Montessori is strongly influenced by the work of Jean Itard and Édouard Séguin . Furthermore, parallels to the Kentenich pedagogy can be discovered in many essential aspects , especially the sentence “Freedom as much as possible, limits as much as necessary” can be found in Maria Montessori and Josef Kentenich . However, the two methods very likely arose without mutual knowledge and influence.

Based on this knowledge, Montessori develops her teaching materials, which always appeal to the child's senses. Your mathematical material, for example, allows the child to get a sensual impression of the mathematical sizes 1 or 1000 by touching and holding a pearl and a block of 1000 pearls, long before the child develops an abstract understanding of numbers of this size.

Cosmic education

Cosmic education is the educational theory model of Montessori education. It is about the pedagogical implementation of an idea already represented in ancient Greece that the human being as a microcosm is part of a cosmic whole, the macrocosm, and that his “creative task” consists in participating in the realization of a universal “cosmic plan”. In Montessori's view, however, the “creation” is not yet complete; all “interrelationships” should ultimately form a “great unity”. In order for this to be successful, every living being has to fulfill a special “task”. According to the model behind cosmic education, humans with their intelligence can become aware of this "task" in contrast to animals. He changes nature to culture and therefore occupies a special position. He should not act at the expense of others, but as part of "creation". In this part of Montessori education there are consequently also religious references. In stories about the origin of the earth ( Cosmic Tales ), an image of God is used.

As part of the cosmic education according to Montessori, the child should therefore learn independence and a sense of responsibility in order to be able to fulfill his "cosmic task". In order to bring the "cosmic principle" closer to the child during the time when he / she has a special interest in the "bigger picture" (sensitive phase), the cosmic education forms the basis of school lessons in Montessori schools for 6 to 12 -year-old children (primary level 1 and 2).

The prepared environment

The prepared environment is an important and necessary part of Montessori education. It gives the child the opportunity to gradually break away from the adult and independently acquire the skills they need for independence.

The educator is responsible for the prepared environment. The children are required to look after them.

Appropriate for the children

The environment must be suitable for children. The furniture in Montessori facilities is tailored to the proportions of the child. Chairs and tables can be carried by the children themselves. This also serves to train the children's motor skills. They should learn to carry the objects as quietly as possible so that they do not disturb other children while they are working.

The external order

The materials and the surroundings themselves have an “external order”, that is, they are clearly arranged and kept tidy. This external order should serve as an orientation for the child's mind and ultimately also lead to an internal order. The environment is attractive and aesthetic, which is intended to motivate children to use. All materials and utensils are of high quality. The child should thereby acquire dexterity and learn to appreciate things.

The material

At Montessori, the material is divided into five learning areas:

  • Daily living exercises
  • Sensory material
  • Math material
  • Language material
  • Material for cosmic education

The material stands freely, at the children's reach, on the shelf. Its appearance as well as its placement in the room give the material an inviting character. Each material is only available once: so the children should learn to be considerate. It is also used to estimate the value of each material from the child. At Montessori, children can freely choose which material they want to work with, depending on their level of development. As soon as the educator or teacher determines an interest, it is "offered" by him. He then introduces the child to the use of the material. The aim is for the child to develop a relationship with the material. If the child works with the material, the educator can withdraw. A material introduction often also includes the introduction of new terms as part of a three-step lesson .

The role of the adult in Montessori education

From the moment it is born, the child strives for freedom and independence from the adult. Montessori describes this process as a basic biological law of human life. Just as the child's body develops its abilities and gives the child freedom of movement, so the child's mind is filled with a thirst for learning and intellectual autonomy .

In this process, the adult can become the child's ally and provide the child with an environment that is tailored to the child's needs and thirst for learning. The adult's self-image in Montessori education is that of a helper who paves the child's path to independence, according to Montessori's motto "Help me do it myself". The process of learning and realization happens in the child, the child is his own teacher. The adult must learn to lead the child towards learning, in order to then withdraw and ultimately accompany the child's cognitive process as an observer.

Since each child goes through individually sensitive phases, the curriculum in a Montessori children's home or a Montessori school is geared towards the individual child . The teacher is trained to recognize sensitive phases in the child and to lead the child into activities that should pique their interest. In principle, however, the child has the freedom to choose their own work.

Criticism of Maria Montessori's pedagogy

Particular hermeneutical difficulties in the interpretation of the primary sources - which are mainly due to the genesis of the texts - constitute both the great challenge and the object of criticism.

Embedding Montessori in its historical context

From a scientific point of view, the inadequate embedding of Montessori's works in the historical context of the current literature is to be criticized. That would lead to a relativization of Montessori's statements. Montessori's works are strongly anchored in the positivism of the 19th century. In the lectures that form the basis of the Antropologia Pedagogica , Montessori deals with the ideal image of the human being developed from physiological and morphological studies. It also integrates approaches from experimental psychology , concepts of evolution and biology and social eugenics .

According to Helmut Lukesch , Maria Montessori's “old-fashioned and at best everyday psychological statements cannot be reconciled with today's developmental or educational-psychological knowledge”. To derive a coherent “Montessori method” from her stimulating “ideas” in individual cases would be “unrealistic”. .

According to Erwin Hufnagel, Montessori did not develop any scientific system and did not go beyond an eclecticism carried by missionary pathos.

Terms such as “scientific”, “experimental” or “scientific” in Montessori's writings are, according to today's understanding, “rhetorical phrases” to emphasize the message.

Criticism of socio-psychological hygiene

Montessori assumes, among other things, that educational research - in an analogy to medicine - must first identify external causes of the deviation from the normal and healthy development of the individual. Then - also analogous to medicine - educational measures should be provided as therapy. As a result of this approach, it calls for socio-psychological hygiene in all of society. Because, according to Montessori, it is not enough to influence individual children in their behavior, but it demands the “normalization” of the entire population through this hygiene, the removal of harmful influences on the children. This approach of a homogeneously designed environment not only leads to a society that dampens the individual characteristics of the children, but also to a uniform, homogeneous, dialect-free world culture. When formulating this world culture, Montessori ignores power relations and politics.

Empirical research

In 2004, based on the learning level survey VERA 2004 comparable studies conducted at Montessori schools. The investigations were carried out by the lecturers' group theory of the German Montessori Association. Since the VERA learning level survey does not prescribe any cross-corrections, i.e. the schools themselves carry out the correction and performance assessment of their own students, the informative value is questioned by many places, see also VERA, section criticism . The study by the Montessori Association sees advantages in the subjects mathematics and German for Montessori students. For the comparative study, only pupils from the 4th grade of primary school were used. In 2005 the Milwaukee study The early years: Evaluating Montessori Education followed , which was published on September 29, 2006 in the renowned journal Science . At the beginning of the 1990s, special education teacher Gottfried Biewer examined the effectiveness of Montessori education with mentally handicapped students by observing a class over an entire school year. He found that the pedagogical and didactic approach is equally applicable to this group of students. In addition, he described abnormalities in students with very severe disabilities and dealt with stereotypical material choices. In a later research project at the University of Munich, Gottfried Biewer used the practice of the “ Aktion Sonnenschein” school to show how Montessori pedagogy could be used in school integration and what deviations there were from the originally intended concept.


The artistic field was neglected by Montessori, and creativity education was still in its infancy for children at the beginning of the 20th century. It is a great challenge for the educator to pack the creative intentions for self-expression (such as expressing themselves painterly or singing) in an easily accessible environment, so that children can also choose freely in these areas.

Well-known Montessori students


Montessori institutions in Germany in the mid-1990s

The Association Montessori Internationale (AMI), founded in 1929 by Maria Montessori and based in Amsterdam, ensures the continuation of her life's work after Montessori's death. A number of national Montessori societies that meet certain quality criteria are affiliated with the AMI. In addition, there are a number of national and international Montessori associations that are independent of the AMI and differ from the AMI in terms of interpretation, implementation and quality understanding of Montessori education.

In Germany, over 600 daycare centers work according to the principles of Montessori education. At the end of 2012 there were 225 Montessori elementary schools and 156 secondary schools in Germany. Most of the institutions are independent.

At the beginning of the 1970s, after intensive research for the local Tibetan school system, Montessori education was introduced in Dharamsala, India . In Dharamsala there is a special care for Tibetan orphans and refugee children. Since 1979, between 700 and 1500 children from Tibet have come to India every year.

Reception in traffic education

Montessori education , along with other educational reform ideas such as those of Comenius , Rousseau , Pestalozzi or the philanthropists , has left clear traces in traffic education , especially the traffic education modeltraffic education from the child ”. Above all, this includes the view of childhood as an independent, full-fledged phase of life and the activation of the child's self-education. The adolescents should not be treated as “unfinished adults” and patronized and incapacitated in their traffic (example: parents' taxi on the way to school ), but should learn to take responsibility for themselves and for road safety in an age-appropriate manner.

In the critical reappraisal, however, all ideological elements such as “cosmic education” were avoided. In contrast to the Montessori method, even in preschool and elementary school age, children are not dealt with pedagogically prepared teaching materials by parents and educators, but are instructed in developing their own toys. This takes place, for example, in the form of their own school route game , which the children are allowed to design and produce themselves as a board game on the basis of their guided tours to school.


Educational writings of Maria Montessori

  • Independent upbringing in early childhood. Methodically presented according to the principles of scientific pedagogy (1909)
  • Antropologia pedagogica (1910)
  • The self-education of the child (= the school of life - series of writings of the Federation of Decided School Reformers , No. 12, 1923)
  • Children are different (1936)
  • About human education (1949)

Secondary literature

  • Emmy Bergmann : About education and instruction in the Montessori school. In: Die Neue Erziehungsheft 3/1925, pp. 155–168, Verlag CA Schwetschke & Sohn, Berlin 1925 (practice in Berlin's “people's children's homes”).
  • Winfried Böhm , Birgitta Fuchs: Education according to Montessori. Klinkhardt, Bad Heilbrunn 2004, ISBN 3-7815-1309-2 .
  • Julius Eisenstädter: Montessori system and proletarian education (= decided school reform . Volume 15, ZDB -ID 535778-0 ). Ernst Oldenburg, Leipzig 1923.
  • Franz Hammerer: Maria Montessori's educational concept. Start of implementation in Austria . Jugend & Volk, Vienna 1997, ISBN 3-7100-0255-9 .
  • Herbert Haberl, Franz Hammerer (ed.): Montessori pedagogy today. Basics - interior views - discussions. Jugend & Volk, Vienna 2004, ISBN 3-7100-1106-X .
  • Ingeborg Hedderich : Introduction to Montessori pedagogy. Theoretical foundations and practical application. 2nd, revised edition. Reinhardt, Munich et al. 2005, ISBN 3-497-01788-4 .
  • Helene Helming : Montessori pedagogy. A modern educational path in concrete terms. 17th edition. Herder, Freiburg im Breisgau 1998, ISBN 3-451-26770-5 .
  • Hildegard Holtstiege : Montessori model. Principles and current validity of Montessori pedagogy. 12th edition. Herder, Freiburg im Breisgau 2000, ISBN 3-451-27347-0 .
  • Karin Kortschack-Gummer: The cosmic aspect of "Cosmic Education". A basis of Maria Montessori's educational concept. Königshausen & Neumann, Würzburg 2005, ISBN 3-8260-3046-X (Dissertation University of Munich 2004).
  • Hélène Leenders: The Montessori Case. The history of an educational reform concept in Italian fascism. Translated by Petra Korte. Klinkhardt, Bad Heilbrunn 2001, ISBN 3-7815-1100-6 (dissertation Uni Utrecht 1999 under the title: Montessori en fascistische Italië ).
  • Harold Baumann: Montessori Pedagogy and Fascism - A reply. In: Fischer Reinhard, Heitkämper Peter (Ed.) Montessori Pedagogy Current and International Developments, Festschrift for Prof. Dr. Harald Ludwig , connection with the Montessori Association Germany eV (= impulses of reform pedagogy , volume 10). Lit, Münster, 2005, pp. 122-176. ISBN 3-8258-8429-5 .
  • Harald Ludwig (Ed.): Education with Maria Montessori. A reform pedagogical concept in practice. 5th total edition, 1st edition of the revised and expanded new edition. Herder, Freiburg im Breisgau 2003, ISBN 3-451-28118-X .
  • Michael Klein-Landeck and Tanja Pütz: Montessori pedagogy. Introduction to theory and practice. Herder, Freiburg i.Br. 2011. ISBN 978-3-451-32430-7 .
  • Eva Schumacher: Understand, apply and experience Montessori pedagogy. An introduction . Beltz, Weinheim 2016. ISBN 978-3-407-25739-0 .
  • Ulrich Steenberg: Children know their way. A guide to Montessori pedagogy (= Ulm contributions to Montessori pedagogy. Volume 1). 6th, unchanged edition. Kinders, Ulm 2003, ISBN 3-9802739-1-1 .
  • Ulrich Steenberg (Hrsg.): Handlexikon zur Montessori pedagogy (= Ulm contributions to Montessori pedagogy. Volume 4). 5th, unchanged edition. Klemm & Oelschläger et al., Münster et al. 2006, ISBN 3-932577-44-2 .
  • Diana Stiller: Clara Grunwald and Maria Montessori. The development of Montessori pedagogy in Berlin. Diplomica Verlag, Hamburg, 2008, ISBN 978-3-8366-6522-3 .
  • Hildegard Feidel-Mertz : Education in exile after 1933. Education for survival. Pictures of an exhibition. dipa publishing house, Frankfurt am Main, 1990, ISBN 3-7638-0520-6 .


Web links

Wikiversity: Montessori  Education Course Materials

Individual evidence

  1. ^ Hans-Dietrich Raapke : Montessori today - a modern pedagogy for family, kindergarten and school . Rowohlt-Taschenbuch-Verl., Reinbek bei Hamburg 2006, ISBN 978-3-499-60537-6 , pp. 178 .
  2. ^ Kurt Meinl: Montessori facilities in Jena. In: Paul Mitzenheim, Walter Wennrich (ed.): Reform pedagogy in Jena. Peter Petersen's work and other educational reform efforts then and now. Jena 1991, pp. 183-214
  3. Manfred Berger: "Help me to do it alone!" - Maria Montessori died 50 years ago
  4. ^ Diana Stiller: Clara Grunwald and Maria Montessori. P. 66
  5. Hildegard Feidel-Mertz (updated version: Hermann Schnorbach): The Pedagogy of the Landerziehungsheime im Exil , p. 193
  6. Hildegard Feidel-Mertz: Pedagogy in Exile after 1933 , p. 140
  7. All information according to Haberl, H./Hammerer, F .: Montessori-Pädagogik in Österreich - Retrospect and Perspectives (PDF; 60 kB), in: Education and Teaching, Volume 147, H. 8/1997, p. 819 -832
  8. From Montessori, Maria: Door het kind naar een nieuwe wereld , trans. and edit von Am Joosten, Heiloo 1941, quoted. after Montessori, Maria: Education for a new world , Herder: Freiburg im Breisgau 1998, p. 17, in the translation of [[Harald Ludwig (educational scientist) |]].
  9. Montessori, Maria: The creative child . P. 106, quoted from Fuchs, B. (2003). Maria Montessori - An educational portrait . Weinheim and Basel: UTB
  10. Montessori, Maria: The creative child . P. 60, quoted from Fuchs, B. (2003). Maria Montessori - An educational portrait . Weinheim and Basel: UTB
  11. Montessori, Maria: Independent education in early childhood from: P. Oswald & G. Schulz-Bennesch (1994). P. 79
  12. Montessori, Maria: Erdkinderplan , in From childhood to youth . Freiburg im Breisgau 1979, p. 91ff
  13. ^ Gudula Meisterjahn-Knebel: Montessori pedagogy in secondary schools. The “Erdkinderplan” in practice. Publishing house Herder Freiburg im Breisgau 2003
  14. Maria Montessori: Helping life , Kleine Schriften 3, Freiburg 1992, p. 44 f
  15. Ela Eckert, Ingeborg Waldschmidt (Hrsg.): Cosmic stories in the Montessori pedagogy, Münster 2007, ISBN 978-3-8258-9882-3
  16. Holtstiege, Hildegard: Montessori model - principles and current validity of Montessori pedagogy. Freiburg 2000.
  17. Lukesch, Helmut: “Maria Monetssori. Marginalia for an educational discussion ”, in: Wisniewski, Benedikt and Andreas Schöps (eds.): Pedagogues on the wrong track: Ideas, ideals and errors of great school reformers (Schneider Verlag Hohengehren) Baltmannsweiler, 2016, pp. 135–154.
  18. Hufnagel, Erwin, The Scientific Character of Pedagogy. Wuerzburg 1990.
  19. Leenders, H., The Montessori Case. The history of an educational reform concept in Italian fascism. Bad Heilbrunn 2001, p. 45.
  20. William Suffenplan: The learning levels of Montessori classes at VERA 2004. PDF, accessed December 16, 2014.
  21. ^ Montessori pedagogy and empirical research. Summary of two empirical Montessori studies, accessed July 23, 2012.
  22. Gottfried Biewer (1997): Montessori pedagogy with mentally handicapped students. 2nd edition Bad Heilbrunn, Klinkhardt.
  23. Gottfried Biewer (2001): From the integration model for disabled people to school for all children. Neuwied, Berlin, Luchterhand.
  24. ^ Salisbury, DC: Peter Bergmann and the invention of constrained Hamiltonian dynamics. arxiv : physics / 0608067 , 2006.
  25. List of famous Montessori students on accessed on September 12, 2012
  26. Gabriel García Márquez: Life to tell about it , (German by Dagmar Ploetz ), Frankfurt a. M. 2004 (4th ed.), P. 120.
  27. a b Montessori institutions in Germany ( Memento from February 10, 2009 in the Internet Archive ).
  28. Heiner Barz: "Protect against printing notes" . In: Handelsblatt . No. 233, November 30, 2012, ISSN  0017-7296 , pp. 70 f.
  29. His Holiness is only a human being made of flesh and blood Michaela Schlagenwerth interviewed Jetsun Pema, magazine of the Berliner Zeitung from 10./11./12. May 2008.
  30. ^ Siegbert A. Warwitz: Traffic education from the child. Perceiving-playing-thinking-acting , Baltmannsweiler: Schneider-Verlag. 6th edition 2009.
  31. ^ Siegbert A. Warwitz: We create a game for ourselves on the way to school. First grader in an interdisciplinary project . In: Case-Word-Number 30 (2002) 47 pages 23-27.