New Gallery (Kassel)

from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
New gallery
New gallery, Kassel 2012.jpg
Main entrance
place Schöne Aussicht 1
34117 Kassel
architect Heinrich von Dehn-Rotfelser
opening December 28, 1877
ISIL DE-MUS-073716

The Neue Galerie is a museum in Kassel . The building is located on the so-called "beautiful view" between town hall and Karlsaue . The Neue Galerie shows art from the 19th century to the present with a focus on painting.

The building, erected as a picture gallery, was built between 1871 and 1877 according to plans by the architect Heinrich von Dehn-Rotfelser in the neo-renaissance style . It originally housed the “Old Masters” painting collection . After it was destroyed in the Second World War, this collection was moved to Wilhelmshöhe Castle . In 1976 the Neue Galerie opened with a new concept and under its current name. The building has also been used as a temporary exhibition space for documenta since the 1960s .

Building history

Floor plans first floor and ground floor (planning around 1870)
Section of the entrance area with stairs to the upper floor (planning around 1870)
Construction site (1873)

A previous building was by François de Cuvilliés d. Ä. was built in the years 1749 to 1752 at the beautiful view . This building, erected for Landgrave Wilhelm VIII , housed his collection of paintings. During the French occupation under Jérôme Bonaparte , a false ceiling was put in there to use the exhibition building as a city residence. The skylight halls, which were progressive for the time, were thus omitted. After the annexation of the Electorate of Hesse by Prussia in 1866, the extensive collections of the landgraves and later electors were transferred to state administration. The Chief President Eduard von Möller , appointed by the Prussian King , campaigned for a new building in order to be able to present the famous collection of Wilhelm VIII in appropriate rooms and under better lighting conditions.

In August 1869, the construction site was determined: next to the Palais Bellevue and with a view over the Karlsaue . Heinrich von Dehn-Rotfelser , building officer and professor of architecture at the Academy in Kassel, presented his plans shortly afterwards and work began in the summer of 1871. The opening took place on December 28, 1877.

The Alte Pinakothek in Munich, planned by Leo von Klenze and built between 1826 and 1836, is considered a structural model . Dehn-Rotfelser reduced the dimensions of his Kassel gallery building and reduced the size of the corner pavilions. The Gemäldegalerie Kassel has a central middle wing on the ground floor and first floor. The central halls on the upper floor were designed as skylight halls. Sidelight cabinets are connected to the central wing. On the upper floor there is a loggia to the southeast, towards the Karlsaue. According to the architect, paintings should only be presented on the upper floor. For the first floor, in addition to administration and storage rooms, he planned to present the collection of natural objects. But that did not happen, in the end, antique plaster casts and the handicraft collection (porcelain, majolica, glass) were not exhibited on the ground floor.

Dehn-Rotfelser's gallery building was 89.3 m long. The width of the pavilion was 24 m, that of the central building 22 m. The roof started at a height of 15 meters. The ground floor with its cornice was 6 m high, the upper floor with a cornice was 7.60 m high. The three skylight rooms in the central building were 8.63 m wide and 8 m high up to the edge of the light opening in the ceiling. The middle hall was the longest at 17.72 m, the two next to it were 11 m long. The fourth skylight hall, located in the western pavilion, was 15.53 m long, 10 m wide, and 8.60 m high up to the edge of the light opening.

Equipment program

As is typical of the period and based on the Munich Pinakothek, the picture gallery had extensive decor on the outside and inside of the building.

On the exterior, the 6 gable fields of the corner pavilions were provided with reliefs, the representations of which relate to the function of the building. On the entrance side, two niche figures were integrated into the facade above the entrance: “ Rembrandt ” and “ Rubens ”. Gable panels and niche figures were designed by the sculptor Karl Hassenpflug . The south portal, facing the Karlsaue, was framed by two caryatids (supporting figures) made of sandstone. These came from Karl Echtermeier and were carried out by Franz Schwarz .

In 1875 the art historian Jacob Burckhardt wrote about the largely completed structure:

"The new museum in Kassel, which is under construction and still unfinished on the inside, is finally a really beautiful and noble building - but unfortunately at the door the architect was unable to lift the goddamn caryatids again."

Inside, the group of statues designed by Karl Echtermeier on the balustrade of the staircase parapet was particularly remarkable. The life-size female robed figures were personifications of the European art countries. They were made of Carrara marble and thus stood out clearly from the Nassau marble of the floors and the stair balustrade. The loggia on the upper floor in particular was also richly furnished: benches were integrated into the arched niches of the rear walls, the side panels of which had been worked as lion sphinxes according to Echtermeier's designs from Saxon dark gray-green garnet serpentine. Above the benches, marble busts by famous artists were placed on consoles. These busts, which were representative of the various painting and sculpture schools, were made by Karl Hassenpflug.

The collection of the picture gallery

The highlight of the exhibition in the Gemäldegalerie was the collection of Dutch Old Masters , works by painters such as Rembrandt , Paulus Potter , and Philips Wouwerman . Visitors were made aware of the importance of this collection by the royal gallery director Oskar Eisenmann , head of the collection until 1908:

“The famous painting gallery, probably the greatest treasure of the city of Kassel, was moved from the insufficient rooms of the Bellevue Palace to its new home in the autumn of 1877, which is located at the highest and most beautiful vantage point of the Bellevue [beautiful view].
The collection was founded by Landgrave Wilhelm XIII., Who, as governor of Breda and Maastricht in the first and second decade of the last century, [...] bought several excellent private collections from Holland and also important individual paintings. Probably the most important purchase in terms of quality was that of the Reuver Collection in Delft, [... 1749 ...]. There were 8 pieces by Rembrandt, 3 by Potter, 6 by Wouwerman, etc., mostly by Dutch masters, which is characteristic of the composition of the whole collection, the main strength of which lies in the Dutch schools. The holdings of the present gallery were brought together through later smaller and less valuable acquisitions, namely Italian pictures and also local, especially Hessian artists. [...] "

Eisenmann mentioned the losses during the Napoleonic occupation, at the beginning of the 19th century, and points out that while from the inheritance Joséphine de Beauharnais numerous Kassel paintings to the court of Alexander, the Tsar of Russia and in the Hermitage Museum of St. Petersburg came . Nevertheless:

“But there is still enough of what is excellent and unique to undisputedly maintain the gallery's fame for being the richest in Germany in terms of Dutch masters of the 17th century, next to Dresden and Munich. As for Rembrandt, the number and value of the works of this greatest painter even surpassed all the collections in the world with the exception of those at Petersburg. [...] "

War destruction

As an important traffic junction and seat of the armaments industry, Kassel was one of the German cities hardest hit by air raids during the Second World War. In autumn 1943, incendiary bombs ensured that the interior of the gallery building was destroyed by fire; only the loggia on the upper floor was not affected by the fire damage. The north wall of the east pavilion on Frankfurter Strasse was later broken open by an explosive bomb. The outer walls of the pavilion got out of whack and the main staircase to the upper floor collapsed. Wall paintings in the loggia were destroyed by the tremors during the bombing. The rest of the furnishings in the loggia - at the time, this also included the staircase statues by Echtermeier - were retained. The iron roof structure of the building was also preserved. The central section of the gallery building was provisionally used as the post office. The painting collection had been relocated in good time. The 60 most important works were in Vienna at the end of the war and did not return to Kassel until 1956.

New concept after 1945

Other Kassel museums were also affected by war damage, and extensive collections were lost. Against this background, a discussion began on the reconstruction of the buildings and the future structuring of the collections. The most important question since the late 1940s has been the accommodation and presentation of the old masters. As part of the planned reorganization, there were critical voices about the building of the Gemäldegalerie: the historicizing overall character is out of date, the arrangement of the rooms is too rigid and cannot be used flexibly. The demand for the immediate demolition of the damaged building was also made. Large circles in the city of Kassel and the state of Hesse favored the expansion of Wilhelmshöhe Palace to the location of the painting collection.

In 1961, the responsible Hessian ministry decided to use the central building of Wilhelmshöhe Palace as the location for the collection of antiques, the graphic collection and the collection of paintings. The new use of the gallery building on the Schönen Aussicht was proposed in the following year by Erich Herzog , the new director of the Staatliche Kunstsammlungen Kassel . His overall concept for the gradual reconstruction of the Kassel museum landscape from 1962 was approved by the state government. Herzog's plan was to use the former old gallery as a new gallery, as a gallery for modernism .

Erich Herzog later wrote about his thoughts at the time:

"It was an awkward situation that in a city the size of Kassel with two art colleges (Hochschule für bildende Kunst and Werkkunstschule) there was no large permanent collection of newer art, especially since major exhibitions of modern art that attracted worldwide attention took place here in 1955 and 1959 ( Documenta 1 and 2). As the cultural center of Niederhessen and the only major city between Frankfurt / Main and Hanover, Kassel had a lively painting tradition since the 18th century, which was supported by the artists of the academy. It was a depressing state of affairs for the Staatliche Kunstsammlungen, too, that in almost all departments the holdings ended around 1830, that a discussion of the immediate past or of one's own present could not take place and that immobility and lifelessness were virtually imposed on the museum. It still remained open whether this planned Neue Galerie should be under state or municipal management. In any case, this saved the gallery building. "
Louise von Bose as a child (painting by August von der Embde in the Neue Galerie )

Herzog's problem: the state collection of works from the 19th and 20th centuries was far too small to fill a new gallery. The landgrave-electoral collections ended with Elector Wilhelm II , who had bought works at the beginning of the 19th century. The elector intended to continue the collection tradition of his ancestors with contemporary additions. However, with his resignation from the government in 1830, this tradition broke off. Under the Prussian government and state administration from 1866, contemporary new acquisitions did not play a major role. Likewise in the first half of the 20th century, additions remained exceptions. Erich Herzog therefore suggested that the state collection (of the State of Hesse) be presented together with the holdings of the former City Picture Gallery of Kassel. The Bose Collection, which fell to the city in 1887 and was the estate of Countess Louise von Bose , a daughter of Wilhelm II , formed a basis for the city's art collections . Another basis was the collection of the Kunstverein. In 1911 he handed over his club gallery to the city. Significant urban purchases were made in the 1920s under the direction of Hans Sauter . During the Nazi era, however, most of these were lost again as “ degenerate art ” from the collection. There were also additions in the years after 1945.

In discussions the Herzog had with the Mayor of Kassel Lauritz Lauritzen in 1963 , it turned out that the city was not ready to renovate the gallery building and to cover the costs of running the museum and adding to the collection. Under his successor, Lord Mayor Karl Branner , the plan was pushed forward to run the Neue Galerie under state management, into which the city collections would be brought on permanent loan . The state of Hesse and the city of Kassel signed an agreement on this. The independent continuation of the municipal art collections was also laid down in it. These remained city property and did not become the property of the country. The city collections were handed over on January 1, 1971.

Building renovation 1962–1976

In 1961 the documenta initiator Arnold Bode was looking for rooms for his planned next exhibition. The great success of the first (1955) and second (1959) documenta required additional exhibition space beyond the previously used Fridericianum . Erich Herzog pointed out the destroyed gallery building to Bode. The central building and the west pavilion can be repaired with comparatively little means. In 1962, the state government approved funds to restore windows. In addition, interior walls were renovated. In 1964 part of the documenta III was presented in provisionally prepared rooms . The actual reconstruction planning took place from 1965. A major change resulted from moving the main staircase from the east pavilion to the central building. The side staircase has also been moved: from the southeast corner to the western end of the western pavilion. The east pavilion was completely removed and rebuilt. Only a third of the original stone material of its facade has been reused. A column-free area was created on the first and second floors of the east pavilion, which could be subdivided with flexible partition walls. This approximately 500 m² exhibition area offered space for changing exhibitions. Contrary to the concept of Dehn-Rotfelser, and due to the technical progress in artificial light, not only the upper floor but also the ground floor should be used as a gallery space. Exhibition rooms were now even provided in the basement. The aim was to continuously connect all of the rooms on the outer walls (side light cabinets and halls, south gallery and loggia). What was wanted was the possibility of a tour without visitors having to walk through the halls in the central axis. It should be possible to temporarily close these rooms, for example to hang things around or to prepare exhibitions. The costs for the reconstruction of the Neue Galerie totaled around 12 million DM. The funds flowed in annual installments of around one million. Erich Herzog later complained that the completion had taken "far too long" and also criticized the quality of the state planning:

“Unfortunately, the Hessian finance minister strictly refused to hire a freelance architect. The difficult task of making radical changes in an existing high-quality building and merging the new with the old into one unit is overwhelming for a state building authority. [...] I am convinced that the cooperation of a qualified independent architect would have resulted in a more sensitive solution in the overall planning and, above all, in the details. "

Reopened in 1976

The newly designed and renovated Neue Galerie opened on September 4, 1976.

On the ground floor, paintings from the 18th century were exhibited in the northern cabinets. Works by the Tischbein family in particular dominated . Johann Heinrich Tischbein (the elder, "Kasseler Tischbein") and Friedrich August Tischbein were dedicated to their own rooms. On the south side, facing Karlsaue, 19th century Kassel artists were presented. Main works of German Impressionism around 1900 were shown in the east pavilion on the upper floor. Works by Lovis Corinth in particular took up a lot of space, supplemented by loans from the Rothmann Collection at the time of the reopening. In addition, Kassel genre painting of this time, as well as pictures from the Willingshausen School of Painting . In the cabinets on the north side there were paintings by German and French painting schools from the 19th century. In the western area, works of classical modernism were presented. The loggia served as a sculpture gallery with works from the 18th, 19th and 20th centuries. At the opening, Erich Herzog succeeded in acquiring and exhibiting two important private collections of European and American contemporary art : the Herbig Collection and the Krätz Collection. This contemporary art was shown in the entrance area, in the two middle rooms on the ground floor and in the skylight rooms on the upper floor. The Herbig Collection included work complexes by Joseph Beuys . His works were presented in a room on the ground floor, selected by the artist and furnished by himself. This room was dominated by the installation The pack (the pack) .

Changes in 1983

In 1982, documenta 7 used almost the entire upper floor of the Neue Galerie. The museum director at the time, Bernhard Schnackenburg , used the documenta extract to make changes to the concept and the hanging. There was a stronger emphasis on the 20th century. Works by Ernst Wilhelm Nay , Fritz Winter and Willi Baumeister were now on display in the skylight hall of the east pavilion . The classic modern got a skylight hall in the middle building. The entrance area has also been greatly changed. In 1982 the city of Kassel and the state of Hesse agreed for the first time to provide special funds in each documenta year to buy works by documenta artists for the Neue Galerie. One of the latest purchases was an outdoor sculpture by Ulrich Rückriem . The other new acquisitions were presented in the entrance area. In the center is the sculpture Isola (island) by Mario Merz , surrounded by paintings by Walter Dahn , Mimmo Paladino , Gerhard Richter , Armando , Per Kirkeby and Markus Lüpertz .

Changes 1985/86

In 1985, the new documenta acquisitions were moved by Marianne Heinz , museum director since 1984, from the entrance area on the ground floor to the skylight hall of the east pavilion. In this context, there were further changes to the hanging on the upper floor until 1986. In the first skylight hall, works from the 1950s were shown: paintings by the Quadriga group , Hann Trier , Emil Schumacher and the group of works by Ernst Wilhelm Nay. The cleared entrance area on the ground floor was now used for temporary exhibitions that had previously been shown in the basement. In 1986 trees were also planted in front of the main entrance at the east pavilion as part of the landscape artwork 7000 oaks by Joseph Beuys.

Changes in 1990/91

In 1990 the walls of the main staircase were painted white. During the building renovation from 1962 to 1976, a color-structured natural stone cladding was installed there. The redesign resulted in additional hanging space for large-format pictures and an improvement in the light situation in the stairwell and the adjoining rooms. The colored textured wallpaper used in many rooms during the building renovation had already been gradually painted over. This last happened in 1996 in the ground floor rooms of the 18th and 19th century painting. In 1991 the Krätz Collection, on loan since the reopening in 1976, was withdrawn and auctioned on the art market in the same year. Three works from the collection were purchased with city funds between 1983 and 1985. Marilyn Idolo by Wolf Vostell , Skyscraper by Sigmar Polke and Große Reflexion VI by KH Hödicke therefore stayed in the Neue Galerie.

From the Herbig Collection 1997

In 1997 the Herbig collection was withdrawn (since 1976 in the Neue Galerie) and auctioned in New York the following year. Jost Herbig had already announced in 1991 that he would withdraw his collection. Within this collection, the museum management considered the Beuys room to be the “programmatic centerpiece”. It was considered to be particularly significant for the Neue Galerie because Joseph Beuys, as a multiple participant in the documenta and initiator of the 7000 oaks campaign, “was closely connected to the city of Kassel”. As a result, the space was purchased with funds from the Hessian Cultural Foundation and the support of the Kulturstiftung der Länder . The official handover of the Beuys room, consisting of plastic pictures, showcases, drawings and the installation The pack (the pack) took place in January 1993. The purchase price at the time was 16 million marks and was initially able to prevent the remaining Herbig collection from moving away. After the death of her husband, Barbara Herbig moved the remaining 114 works in her collection from the Neue Galerie at the end of 1997. The museum management saw the withdrawal as a major turning point and a great loss, especially when it came to depicting the artistic upheavals of the late 1960s.

The Old Masters in the New Gallery 1997 to 1999

At the end of the 1990s, Wilhelmshöhe Palace was renovated. Meanwhile, parts of the collection of Dutch and Flemish Old Masters were shown in the cleared skylight halls of the Neue Galerie. The paintings were returned to the exhibition site that had been built for them in the 19th century for a period of two years.

Around 2000

Caryatids on the facade along the beautiful view

At the turn of the millennium, based on its history and that of its collection, the Neue Galerie saw itself as “primarily a house of painting”. The aim of the museum was to document the changing concepts and developments in painting since 1750 almost completely. The hanging of the works - as was the case since the reopening in 1976 - was largely done in chronological order in order to better illustrate these developments to visitors. Important areas of the collection were spatially combined, partly in the skylight halls: the works of the Tischbein family, the German Impressionists and Neo-Impressionists , art from the 1950s and contemporary art.

Reconstruction and renovation 2006 to 2011

In 2006 the Neue Galerie was closed. The rooms were completely emptied and the collection was put into storage. The now vacant Neue Galerie served as one of the central exhibition locations at documenta 12 for 100 days in 2007 . After the documenta moved out, the renovation and renovation work, which ended in November 2011, began. The design for the renovation comes from the architectural office Staab Architekten .

Temporary exhibitions

In the years and decades after the reopening in 1976, numerous temporary exhibitions, each lasting around two to three months, took place. The theme was art and artists from the 18th century to the present, the Neue Galerie's collection area. This involved partly the takeover of special exhibitions that had been designed by other institutions, and partly exhibitions that had been developed in Kassel. Catalogs have also been published for some of these temporary exhibitions. The museum management saw the special exhibitions developed in Kassel as an opportunity to present the public with hidden items from the collection, those that were not permanently included in the permanent collection. The exhibition space was initially in the basement of the Neue Galerie. Since the mid-1980s, the temporary exhibitions have been shown in the entrance area, the column-free ground floor room of the east pavilion.


The Neue Galerie building has been used temporarily as a documenta exhibition space since the 1960s . This happened against the background of growing popularity and visitor numbers of the exhibition for contemporary art that originally took place every four years, now every five years. The collection of the Neue Galerie now also includes numerous documenta acquisitions that have been made since 1982 ( documenta 7 ).

The artistic directors of documenta III (1964), 4th documenta (1968) and documenta 5 (1972) used the war-torn gallery building or its provisionally furnished rooms.

The documenta 6 took place in 1977, a year after the reopening of the Neue Galerie. This sixth documenta used the rooms to a lesser extent than in previous years: the “Books” section was in the head building of the upper floor and photographs were on display in the basement.

The documenta 7 (1982) nearly took the entire top floor. The documenta 8 (1987), and their leader, renounced the New Gallery as an exhibition space.

During the documenta IX (1992), not only the rooms of the Neue Galerie were used as before. Instead, some documenta artists were given the opportunity to work with the collection themselves, to include it in their works. For example, Joseph Kosuth hung up paintings and sculptures with labeled cloths and also put lettering on the walls. Part of his installation was purchased under the title Neue Galerie Flänerie .

The documenta X (1997) and Documenta 11 (2002) did not use the New Gallery.

East pavilion, ground floor during documenta 12 (2007). The Ballad of Kastriot Rexhepi by Mary Kelly as a frieze at head height along the outer walls. In the middle of the room is a round cabinet with collateral by Sheela Gowda inside.

After the Neue Galerie was closed in 2006 due to the upcoming renovation, the exhibited works were completely stored. In 2007, documenta 12 and its exhibition organizers, Roger M. Buergel and Ruth Noack , had the entire building at their disposal. The works of 34 artists were shown on 2,900 square meters on both upper floors and in the basement.

Buergel and Noack were able to integrate the Neue Galerie into their color and architectural concept (cf. documenta 12 # exhibition architecture and documenta 12 # exhibition locations ): Many of the walls and floors of the Neue Galerie were designed in a red or green shade. Large parts of the building were cautiously illuminated and therefore kept darker than the other main locations, the Aue Pavilion and the Fridericianum. In the small-scale architecture of the Neue Galerie, individual rooms that were available to individual artists predominated, insofar as they stood in contrast to the exhibition concept in the Aue Pavilion. The organizers of the exhibition changed the entrance situation in the Neue Galerie: Instead of the entrance in the east pavilion, the portal on the long side of the building facing the Karlsaue was used. The previous foyer area of ​​the gallery, on the ground floor of the east pavilion, served as exhibition space.

Web links

Commons : New gallery  - collection of pictures, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. a b c paragraph after Marianne Heinz: A house for modernity. 25 years Neue Galerie 1976-2001. Staatliche Museen Kassel, 2001, pp. 7 and 8
  2. ^ Paragraph after Heinrich von Dehn-Rotfelser: History and description of the new picture gallery building in Cassel in the directory of the pictures in the new picture gallery in Cassel , Kassel, 1878
  3. a b paragraph after Marianne Heinz: A house for modernity. 25 years Neue Galerie 1976-2001. Staatliche Museen Kassel, 2001, p. 9.
  4. Jacob Burckhardt in a letter to Max Alioth. Quoted from Klaus-Jörg Ruhl: Kassel in old and new travelogues. Düsseldorf 1991, p. 160.
  5. Quoted from Oskar Eisenmann in the foreword to Short List of Paintings in the Royal Gallery of Cassel , Third Edition. Kassel, 1890
  6. ^ Paragraph after Erich Herzog: The New Gallery in Kassel - building and collection up to the opening in 1976 - in Aus hessischen Museen , Volume 3, 1983. II. Destruction and Reconstruction , p. 138 ff. And p. 136 on the loggia.
  7. a b paragraph after Marianne Heinz: A house for modernity. 25 years Neue Galerie 1976-2001. Staatliche Museen Kassel, 2001, pp. 10–15.
  8. Quoted from Erich Herzog: Die Neue Galerie in Kassel - building and collection up to the opening in 1976 - in Aus hessischen Museen , Volume 3, 1983, S. 139 and 140
  9. ^ Yannick Philipp Schwarz: The art collection of the city of Kassel in the Weimar Republic. In: ZHG Volume 121, Kassel 2016, ISSN  0342-3107 . Pp. 285-302.
  10. ^ Paragraph after Erich Herzog: The New Gallery in Kassel - Building and Collection until Opening 1976 - in Aus Hessischen Museen , Volume 3, 1983. III. The collection and its history , pp. 144 ff.
  11. ^ Paragraph and quotation from Erich Herzog: The New Gallery in Kassel - building and collection until opening in 1976 - in Aus hessischen Museen , Volume 3, Melsungen, 1980. II. Destruction and Reconstruction, pp. 140–143.
  12. ^ Paragraph after Marianne Heinz: A house for modernity. 25 years Neue Galerie 1976-2001. Staatliche Museen Kassel, 2001, pp. 17–19.
  13. ^ Paragraph after Marianne Heinz: A house for modernity. 25 years Neue Galerie 1976-2001. Staatliche Museen Kassel, 2001, pp. 20–23.
  14. ^ Paragraph after Marianne Heinz: A house for modernity. 25 years Neue Galerie 1976-2001. Staatliche Museen Kassel, 2001, pp. 24–26.
  15. ^ Paragraph after Marianne Heinz: A house for modernity. 25 years Neue Galerie 1976-2001. Staatliche Museen Kassel, 2001, p. 26.
  16. ^ Paragraph and quotations from Marianne Heinz: A house for modernity. 25 years Neue Galerie 1976-2001. Staatliche Museen Kassel, 2001, pp. 30 and 69. There also a reference to the relevant publication: Joseph Beuys - Room in the Neue Galerie , Berlin and Kassel, 1993
  17. Sentence based on Dirk Schwarze: Does the Herbig Collection migrate in 1997? In: HNA , July 15, 1996 (accessed August 10, 2010)
  18. Paragraph after Dirk Schwarze: The context is important . In: HNA . January 15, 1998 (accessed August 10, 2010)
  19. ^ Paragraph after Marianne Heinz: A house for modernity. 25 years Neue Galerie 1976-2001. Staatliche Museen Kassel, 2001, p. 30.
  20. ^ Paragraph and quote from Marianne Heinz: A house for modernity. 25 years Neue Galerie 1976-2001. Staatliche Museen Kassel, 2001, pp. 30–33.
  21. Three tones are enough for all of art. Perfectly cleared: the successful renovation of the Neue Galerie Kassel. In: FAZ . dated November 15, 2011, p. 33.
  22. A list of the temporary exhibitions from 1976 to 2001 can be found in Marianne Heinz: A House for Modernity. 25 years Neue Galerie 1976-2001. Staatliche Museen Kassel, 2001, p. 37 ff.
  23. ^ Sentence after Marianne Heinz: A house for modernity. 25 years Neue Galerie 1976-2001. Staatliche Museen Kassel, 2001, p. 31.
  24. ^ Paragraph after Marianne Heinz: A house for modernity. 25 years Neue Galerie 1976-2001. Staatliche Museen Kassel, 2001, pp. 14–26.
  25. ^ Paragraph after Marianne Heinz: A house for modernity. 25 years Neue Galerie 1976-2001. Staatliche Museen Kassel, 2001, pp. 28 and 69

Coordinates: 51 ° 18 ′ 33.6 "  N , 9 ° 29 ′ 35.7"  E