Easter lush growth

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Easter lush growth
Aristolochia arborea

Aristolochia arborea

Department : Vascular plants (tracheophyta)
Subdivision : Seed plants (Spermatophytina)
Class : Bedecktsamer (Magnoliopsida)
Order : Peppery (Piperales)
Family : Easter lush growth
Scientific name

The aristolochiaceae (Aristolochiaceae) are a family in the order of the pepper-like (Piperales) within the flowering plant (Magnoliopsida). The approximately seven genera with around 500 species are distributed worldwide , except in the Arctic . The only Central European species are the common easter lousy and the common hazel root .


Illustration of the common easter egg ( Aristolochia clematitis )
Illustration of Pararistolochia goldieana

Vegetative characteristics

They are shrubs , lianas or perennial herbaceous plants . They grow upright on their own or often as a climbing plant . In some species, parts of the plant smell aromatic. There is initially superficial cork cambium . There can be secondary growth in thickness from a conventional cambium ring .

The alternate and spirally distributed leaves on the stem axis are mostly petiolate. The flat, membranous to herbaceous leaf blade is simple or divided. When the leaf blade is undivided it is often heart-shaped. If the leaf blade is divided then it is palmate, sometimes in three parts. The mostly dorsiventral or less often isobilateral leaf surface can be covered with glands. The leaf nerve is network-nerved and hand-shaped or pinnate-shaped. The stomata are anomocytic. There are no stipules , but sometimes the first one or two leaves of a branch look like stipules.

Inflorescence and flowers

The flowers are solitary or in lateral or terminal, simple or branched, zymous , racemose or spiked inflorescences .

Flowering diagram of the genus Haselwurzen ( Asarum )
Subfamily Asaroideae: flower of the common hazel root ( Asarum europaeum )
Subfamily Aristolochioideae: fruits and seeds of the common easter egg ( Aristolochia clematitis )
Subfamily Asaroideae: Hexastylis virginica
Subfamily Asaroideae: Saruma henryi
Subfamily Aristolochioideae: Pararistolochia promissa
Subfamily Aristolochioideae: Thottea sivarajanii

The small to often large flowers are hermaphroditic and smell unpleasant in some taxa . The radial symmetrical to strongly zygomorphic flowers are threefold. The three-fold bracts are either designed as differently shaped sepals and petals or similar, sometimes there is only one bract circle. If there is only one bloom circle, then it is the calyx, which are bell-shaped or tubular. The calyx tube forms the S-shaped "kettle traps" typical of Aristolochia . The mostly four or six, sometimes twelve, rarely up to 36 fertile stamens are not fused with the bloom cladding.

The stamens are free from one another or they are fused with one another and with the gynoeceum to form a gynostemium . Sometimes no stamens can be seen and the dust bags are then seated. In some species the tetrasporangiaten anthers are related. The two-celled pollen grains have no or one to seven apertures and are sulcat. There are four to six, mostly full or, less commonly partially constant carpels present and usually a one- to sechskammerigen ovary grown. There are many bitegmic, crassinucellate ovules per carpel. There may be a discus .

Fruits and seeds

The rarely fleshy fruits are very diverse: mostly capsule fruits , more rarely berries , nut fruits or cleft fruits , with Saruma follicles . The seeds often have an oily endosperm . At seed maturity the embryo is rudimentary to weakly developed.


Quercetin and sometimes kaempferol are always present in flavonols . Many types contain essential oils . Cells with essential oils are present in the leaves of some species . Some taxa are silicate body stored.

Plant parts contain the poisonous aristolochic acid , which is carcinogenic and nephrotoxic . It is the cause of the Balkan nephropathy .

Flower ecology

The pollination is effected by insects ( Entomophilie ). When "boiler traps" are formed are often Diptera (Diptera) is prevented by special hairs from exiting the S-shaped tube to the cup-pollination occurs. To attract the two-winged birds, the kettle traps of many easter flowers give off an unpleasant carrion odor . The often cloudy red or brown flower color is also used to imitate carrion or dung .


This family was set up in 1789 by Antoine Laurent de Jussieu under the name "Aristolochiae" in Genera Plantarum , pp. 72-73. Synonyms for Aristolochiaceae Juss. nom. cons. are Pistolochiaceae JBMull. and Sarumaceae Nakai .

The Aristolochiaceae are divided into two subfamilies with a total of about seven genera:

  • Subfamily Aristolochioideae Kostel. (corresponds to the Aristolochiaceae s. str.): The basic chromosome numbers are x = mostly 6-7 (4- more than 8). It contains about four genera with up to 400 species:
    • Pipe flowers ( Aristolochia L. ): It is distributed almost worldwide with around 300 species.
    • Asiphonia handle. : It contains only one type:
    • Pararistolochia (Hutch. & Dalziel) Hutch. & Dalziel : The approximately 18 species occur in tropical Africa and Malesia .
    • Thottea Rottb. : The 25or sospecies are distributed from India to Myanmar , Vietnam, Malaysia, Indonesia and the Philippines, and only one of them occurs in China.


Individual evidence

  1. a b c The family of the Aristolochiaceae at DELTA by L. Watson & MJ Dallwitz.
  2. ^ National Academy of Science , 2007, 104, 12129-12134.
  3. First publication scanned at biodiversitylibrary.org.
  4. Aristolochiaceae in the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN), USDA , ARS , National Genetic Resources Program. National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland.
  5. a b The family of the Aristolochiaceae on the AP website .

Web links

Commons : Aristolochiaceae  - Collection of images, videos and audio files