SS main offices

from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

In the course of the dictatorship, the National Socialist party organization SS developed an umbrella organization consisting of various “main offices ” and their subdivisions, and by 1942 at the latest they formed a regular state within the state .

The name " Reichsführung SS " , which has been known since the 1930s, was used as a comprehensive term for the main offices .

The structure of the SS as a whole (as of 1941)

There were 12 main offices that arose from the widespread organizational structure of the SS :

SS main office

The "SS-Hauptamt" (SS-HA) was originally the guiding body and main administrative office of the entire SS. Heads of the main office were Curt Wittje (1934–1935), August Heissmeyer (1935–1939) and then Gottlob Berger . As the party organization grew, the SS-HA could no longer cope with the tasks that were now emerging. So new main offices were created, which gradually took over the tasks of the SS-HA. Around 70% of the tasks were handed over to the other offices, which is why the influence of the SS-HA on the SS was ultimately minimal. However, the SS main office was still subordinate to the "SS supplementary office", which was further expanded under Berger. So this office was responsible for the care and administration of the personnel files of the SS men and the NCOs. Until 1939/40, the SS Main Office was responsible for the command offices of the General SS , SS Disposal Troops and SS Guard Units .

In 1939, Berger advised Adolf Hitler, among other things, to allow Theodor Eicke to set up his own front association. This should be formed exclusively from volunteers of the skull standards . Furthermore, Berger proposed to combine the command offices of the available troops and the guard units in a new command office, the "command office of the Waffen-SS". The recruiting offices of the Waffen SS in the occupied countries were also subordinate to the supplementary office .

SS leadership main office

The “SS-Führhauptamt” (SS-FHA) was the actual operational staff unit (headquarters) of the armed SS from August 1940. It was created by hiving off the SS-Hauptamt and was initially owned by Himmler personally, and from January 1943 by his previous chief of staff SS -Obergruppenführer Hans Jüttner headed. It directed and managed supplies and supplies, wage payments and equipment. He was also responsible for the command offices of the General SS, the Waffen SS and the SS guards. These command offices were created in 1935 and were considered the control centers of the armed SS units. (A separate “control center of the Germanic SS ” was later introduced for the “Germanic” volunteer associations within the Waffen-SS .) The SS-FHA was also responsible for the training facilities, troop inspections and medical services of the Waffen-SS. In 1944 the SS headquarters had 450 employees.

Personal Staff Reichsführer SS

The "Personal Staff RFSS" was subordinate to SS-Obergruppenführer Karl Wolff . This staff was one of the Berlin main offices and was intended for all Himmlerian matters that did not fall within the scope of an SS main office. The private organizations “ Lebensborn ”, “ Freundeskreis Reichsführer SS ”, “ Ahnenerbe ” and “ Supporting members of the SS ”, also the Wewelsburg, were subordinate to him .

Race and Settlement Main Office

The “Race and Settlement Main Office” (RuSHA) was one of the three oldest main SS offices, alongside the main SS office and the SD main office. The "Race Office of the SS" was founded at the end of December 1931 and was responsible for race examinations and marriage permits for members of the SS. Later it was called the "Race and Settlement Office" and from January 1935 was run as the main SS office. In connection with the formation of the “ Reich Commissioner for the Consolidation of German Volkstum ” and the elaboration of the “ General Plan East ”, it took on the tasks of racial selection of the populations of the occupied territories as well as the selection of candidates for the planned settlement of released SS members in the east.

Head of Office RuSHA

The heads of the Race and Settlement Main Office SS:


The heads of office of the Race Office:

The heads of the settlement office:

Main office SS-Obergruppenführer Heissmeyer

The National Political Educational Institutions (NPEA) were subordinate to the "Hauptamt Dienststelle SS-Obergruppenführer Heissmeyer " . This department thus had a major influence on the education of German children and young people. Heissmeyer had gained control of the state schools by 1940 and intended to transfer the most talented students to the NPEA. There they were supposed to be used for the future leaders of the SA and SS.

Reich Security Main Office

The " Reich Security Main Office " (RSHA) was formed on October 1, 1939 by merging the Main Security Police Office with the Main Office SD and was successively by Reinhard Heydrich (killed in an assassination attempt in Prague in 1942), then temporarily by Heinrich Himmler and then by Ernst Kaltenbrunner guided.

The Reich Security Main Office was the central point for exercising the police and intelligence functions of the Schutzstaffel (SS). In addition to the “ Security Service of the Reichsführer SS ” (SD), the Secret State Police ( Gestapo ) as well as the criminal and border police were subordinate to him . The SD and Gestapo acted as secret services to combat external and internal opponents as well as to spy on the population. The Gestapo and the criminal police were state authorities shaped by civil servants, while the SD was run by SS employees. Many of the perpetrators who made the final solution organizationally possible came from the RSHA, for example from Adolf Eichmann's Section IV B 4 . The notorious Einsatzgruppen of the Security Police and the SD that carried out the mass murders in the eastern areas were accordingly subordinate to the RSHA. Contrary to the widespread image of the desk perpetrator , care was taken to ensure that the management staff themselves took an active part in the mass murders.

In the judgment of the International Military Tribunal against the major war criminals (IMG), the SD, SS and Gestapo were declared criminal organizations .

Main office of the SS court

The “Main Office of the SS Court” emerged from the “SS Disciplinary Office” and the “SS Legal Office”, which had existed for a long time and were incorporated into the new main office on June 1, 1939. His area of ​​responsibility was initially the processing of disciplinary and complaint matters for the Reichsführer SS . It was subordinate to SS-Obergruppenführer Paul Scharfe and Franz Breithaupt . It was the central and ministerial instance of the entire SS and police judiciary with its seat in Munich (Karlsstrasse 10, from August 1944 relocation to an alternative quarter in Prien am Chiemsee ). The main office was - an equal footing with the military law of the armed forces - as a special criminal jurisdiction for the entire range of the SS and the police responsible. Responsibility was later extended to German and foreign civilians for all crimes committed in the operational area, and from January 1945 even to all prisoners of war . His files were either largely lost in air raids or were deliberately destroyed by his employees at the end of the war and must therefore "in any case largely be considered lost."

Legal foundations

The work of the special jurisdiction of the SS and police was based on the Military Criminal Code and the Military Criminal Court Code, from which, however, a number of cases were deviated from.

Head of SSG

The first head of the main office was from June 1, 1939 until his death on July 29, 1942, SS-Obergruppenführer and general of the Waffen-SS Paul Scharfe . Successor and last head of the main office was SS-Obergruppenführer and General of the Waffen-SS Franz Breithaupt on August 15, 1942 . When Breithaupt took office, Himmler decreed that a lawyer was never allowed to head the main office of the SS court.

SS and police courts

In the main office in Munich, a “Supreme SS and Police Court” was set up for all cases of high treason and treason, espionage, for all crimes by SS and police officers in the general rank, as well as for crimes of particular importance. The Supreme SS and Police Court was not a higher court in the sense of an appeal instance. In all criminal proceedings of the SS and police, each court decided, in accordance with the military courts of the Wehrmacht, without the possibility of appeal in the first and last instance. However, it often happened that Himmler, to whom an enormous number of judgments were presented or presented personally, corrected judgments himself, be it aggravating sentences or weakening death sentences by transferring convicts to so-called probation units (see below).

Up to 38 regional SS and police courts were subordinate to the main office of the SS Court. They were each set up at the headquarters of a Higher SS and Police Leader , who also acted as judge in the proceedings . At the SS and police courts, SS leaders with the qualification for judicial office worked as so-called SS judges who had to belong to the Waffen-SS. With a chronic shortage of qualified lawyers, there were at least 605 SS judges subordinate to the main office of the SS court in the summer of 1944 - a clear indication of the high number of criminal cases in the ranks of the SS and police.

By Himmler's decree of May 16, 1944, an “SS and Police Court z. b. V. ”(for special use), which was exclusively entrusted with the investigation and prosecution of some crimes committed in concentration camps , in particular embezzlement and corruption . The two concentration camp commanders Karl Otto Koch ( Buchenwald concentration camp ) and Hermann Florstedt (Buchenwald concentration camp and Majdanek concentration camp ) were sentenced to death . Koch was shot in Buchenwald , Florstedt's fate is not entirely clear. At least three other deposed concentration camp commanders were arrested and sentenced. There were preliminary investigations against SS Oberführer Hans Loritz ( Dachau and Sachsenhausen concentration camps ), Rudolf Höß ( Auschwitz concentration camps ), and even against the head of the SS Economic and Administrative Main Office Oswald Pohl and his representative August Frank . These investigations were stopped on direct instructions from Himmler.

Penal system

Those sentenced to imprisonment were sent to the Danzig-Matzkau prison of the SS and police in Danzig -Matzkau, which was under the control of the Waffen-SS. The camp conditions corresponded to the ideology and human contempt of the SS and police and were consistently described as extreme. A member of the SS-Sonderkommando Sobibor , who had been sentenced to six months in Matzkau because of a false statement, was hardly recognized by his comrades on his return due to his physical condition.

It was also possible to serve a sentence as a so-called “ frontline probation ” in the notorious “Dirlewanger” penal unit , which was commanded by convicted SS and police officers and was considered a “ suicide mission ” that many did not survive.


To illustrate the thinking and procedure of the Supreme SS and Police Court, excerpts from the “Field judgment in the name of the German people” of May 24, 1943 against the Waffen SS member SS-Untersturmführer Max Täubner “because of the shooting of 510 Ukrainians Jews "(men, women and children) and other offenses:

“1.) Because of the Jewish actions as such, the accused should not be punished. The Jews must be destroyed, it is not a pity for any of the Jews killed. Even if the accused should have said to himself that the extermination of the Jews is the task of commandos specially set up for this purpose, he should be credited with the fact that he may, however, be entitled to participate in the extermination of Judaism himself. Real hatred of Jews was the driving force behind the accused. In the process, however, he allowed himself to be carried away in Alexandria to atrocities that are unworthy of a German man and SS leader. Nor can these attacks, as the accused wants, be justified by stating that they are only just retribution for the suffering that the Jews did to the German people. It is not the German way to use Bolshevik methods in the necessary annihilation of the worst enemy of our people. The actions of the accused border on these questionably. The accused brought about such a brutal brutalisation of his men that they behaved like a desolate horde under his lead. Male discipline has been jeopardized by the defendant in a way that could hardly be worse. Even if the accused took care of his men in other ways, his behavior grossly neglected his duty of supervision, which, according to the opinion of the SS, also includes the fact that he does not let his men deteriorate mentally. The defendant has therefore made himself a criminal offense under Section 147 of the MStGB. However, since this criminal provision only provides for prison or fortress up to 15 years as a penalty, the application of Section 5a of the Special War Criminal Law Ordinance is required, since such a dissolution of male discipline requires a heavier punishment.

2.) Insofar as the defendant took pictures of the events or had them taken, had them developed in photo shops and showed them to his wife and friends, the defendant was guilty of disobedience. Such images can create the greatest dangers to the security of the empire if they fall into the wrong hands. [...] The disobedience is therefore to be regarded as a particularly difficult case. […] According to all of this, the accused is to be punished for this act in accordance with Section 92 of the MStGB. [...]

3.) The shooting of the Ukrainian militia commander is punishable according to § 115 MStGB. The accused caused subordinates to shoot Chamrai and is therefore to be punished as the perpetrator. Even in this case the Supreme SS and Police Court cannot call the accused a murderer. In this act, the accused was guided by the idea that Chamrai was connected to communist gangs. But he knew very well that he was not allowed to shoot Chamrai [...]. This act is therefore a manslaughter within the meaning of § 212 ... RStGB. [...]

4.) The defendant was ultimately guilty of inciting an attempted abortion. [...] The accused is to be punished in this respect according to § 218, 48 RStGB. [...]

5.) [...]

6.) [...] The Supreme SS and Police Court sentenced the accused to a total of 10 years in prison. This meant that the accused was inevitably expelled from the SS and declared unworthy of defense. The conduct of the accused is in the highest degree unworthy of an honorable and decent German man. It was therefore recognized according to Section 32 RStGB that it had lost ten years of honor . [...] "

(Note: This document was the basis of a trial in Heilbronn against subordinates of Max Täubner in 1981. Täubner, who had already been convicted by the Supreme SS and Police Court in 1943, only appeared as a witness in court alongside his judges who were still alive at the time.)

SS Personnel Main Office

The “SS-Personalhauptamt” emerged from the SS-Personalamt in 1939 and was subordinate to SS-Obergruppenführer Walter Schmitt and Maximilian von Herff . The main office was practically the personnel department of the SS and was busy looking after the SS leaders. The SS Personnel Office had been issuing the " Seniority Lists of the NSDAP's Schutzstaffel " since 1934 , the last edition of which appeared in 1944 and which initially listed the lower, middle and upper SS leadership corps. Towards the end of the war , only the middle and upper SS leadership corps were listed.

In mid-1944, the Main Personnel Office published the “Seniority List of the Waffen-SS (as of July 1, 1944)”, which, however, was not made available to all SS and police stations, as was customary at the time. This seniority list remained a single copy for the purely internal use of the main personnel office and is a curiosity compared to the other SS seniority lists .

Main Office of the Ordnungspolizei

From 1939 onwards, the “Hauptamt Ordnungspolizei ” bundled the management of the uniformed police in Germany. In this way, the state police organization was tied to the SS and controlled by the party. The police leadership was initially under SS-Obergruppenführer Kurt Daluege (who was eventually promoted to SS-Oberst-Gruppenführer ) and later SS-Obergruppenführer Alfred Wünnenberg .

SS Economic Administrative Main Office

Unter den Eichen 135, former SS Economic and Administrative Main Office (2012)
Berlin memorial plaque on the Unter den Eichen 135 house in Berlin-Lichterfelde

The "SS-Wirtschafts-Verwaltungshauptamt" (SS-WVHA) was founded in March 1942 by SS-Obergruppenführer Oswald Pohl . The "SS Main Office for Administration and Economics", which had existed since 1939, and the "Main Office for Households and Buildings" of the Reich Ministry of the Interior , both of which had also been headed by Pohl, were combined in it. The WVHA administered the SS's own industries, trades and businesses in the concentration camps and brought them together to form their own corporations . The WVHA worked closely with the SS main office. From 1942/43 the entire concentration camp system was subordinate to him.

The location of the former SS-Wirtschafts-Verwaltungshauptamt is Unter den Eichen 135, 12203 Berlin, district of Lichterfelde. The office had built a bunker under the “ Fichtenberg ”, around 500 meters away, to accommodate the files and staff during the air alarms . After 1945 the building was a burned-out ruin. Today there is a branch of Department VI of the Federal Office for Building and Regional Planning .

The SS-WVHA consisted of the following five official groups:

  • "Office A: Troop Administration" under SS-Brigadführer Fanslau
  • "Office B: Troop Economy" under SS-Gruppenführer Lörner
  • "Office C: Construction" under SS-Gruppenführer Kammler
  • "Office D: Concentration Camps " under SS-Gruppenführer Glücks
  • "Amt W: Wirtschaftsunternehmungen" under the direct direction of Pohl.

The official groups and offices in the SS-WVHA

The former "Administrative Office of the SS Leadership Main Office" was ultimately responsible for controlling the General SS with regard to the five areas. In reality, when the war broke out in 1939, the importance of the General SS had sunk enormously as its members entered the field troops (mainly the Wehrmacht). Rather, the Economic Office began to provide economic support initially to the SS disposable troops and finally to the Waffen SS ; The administration of 38 SS front divisions alone (1945) was a considerable undertaking. In addition, from 1942 onwards, all skull groups with their concentration camp guard banners were subordinate to the WVHA . These have now been summarized in the "Inspection of the concentration camps and reinforced SS-Totenkopf standards" in the "Office group D".

In January 1944, the administrative center of the “Hauptamt Ordnungspolizei” was formally added and after its destruction by Allied bombing, its tasks were now de facto taken over by the Economic and Administrative Main Office.

After the Waffen-SS was viewed as a state institution as a whole, its financing became more than complicated. The funds of the Waffen-SS were monitored by the Reich Ministry of Finance , while the General SS was considered part of the NSDAP . The General SS received its funds from the party's treasurer, Franz Xaver Schwarz , who was much more generous with his means. So it came to the curiosity that the funds for the Waffen-SS were strictly controlled, while the now insignificant General SS as such and also its security service of the Reichsführer SS (SD), one of the absolute instruments of power of the National Socialists, were subject to almost no financial restrictions .

The WVHA had its own administration school in Dachau (" SS Administration School Dachau "), in which its own junior administrators were trained. However, the administration of this school was housed in the local concentration camp.

Together with the SS Leadership Main Office, the Economic and Administrative Main Office was responsible for the SS's own supply system: while the SS-FHA was responsible for weapons and ammunition, the WVHA had to take care of the troops' uniforms and personal equipment.

The " Inspection of the Concentration Camps " (IKL) was the central administrative and management authority for the National Socialist concentration camps . Before the inspection was incorporated into the SS Economic and Administrative Main Office as "Office Group D", it was entitled "General Inspection of the Reinforced SS Totenkopfstandarten".

Commercial enterprises, "Amt W" in the SS-WVHA

Even before the beginning of the war, the SS had started to buy up smaller commercial enterprises, mostly Jewish businessmen, ( Aryanization ) and to found companies themselves. These were then subordinate to the later Obergruppenführer Pohl, who was appointed as head of the SS administrative main office.

With the war in the east, almost all intact companies in the occupied territories came into Pohl's hands, and with the expansion of the concentration camps into huge industrial companies, his influence was virtually immeasurable. In the German Reich alone, 500 companies belonged to the Main Economic and Administrative Office. His influence extended from agriculture and construction to vehicle construction and the beverage sector. The holding company Deutsche Wirtschaftsbetriebe GmbH was founded for the purpose of managing a large part of the operations in an economically efficient manner .

In 1945 the "Amt W" of the main economic and administrative office had the following offices:

  • "Office I - excavations and quarries" was subordinate to the SS-Obersturmbannführer Karl Mummenthey as "Deutsche Erd- und Steinwerke GmbH" . This office was divided into numerous other sub-offices in the Buchenwald, Neuengamme, Sachsenhausen, Stutthof, Großrosen, Mauthausen and Natzweiler concentration camps .
  • "Amt II - Baumaterialien" was subordinate to the SS-Obersturmbannführer Hanns Bobermin as a "building materials plant and cement factories" . This office was also divided into numerous sub-offices, which were distributed in Posen, Bielitz, Zichenau and above all Auschwitz .
  • “Amt III - Food” was to be seen as a merger of the food industry. Companies like "Sudetenquell" and " Apollinaris " were connected here. The slaughterhouses of the Auschwitz, Dachau and Sachsenhausen concentration camps were also subordinate to this office, and the bakeries of the Auschwitz, Dachau, Herzogenbusch, Lubin, Plaszow and Sachsenhausen camps were also represented here.
  • "Amt IV - German Equipment" was responsible for the clothing and equipment of the front divisions of the Waffen SS.
  • "Office V - Agriculture, Forestry, Fisheries" was responsible for the breeding and conservation of plants and animal breeds. This office was held in high regard by Heinrich Himmler, who himself was a hobby farmer and in this office wanted to have realized his tangled racial theories.
  • "Office VI - Textile and Leather Utilization" was responsible for reworking leather goods and uniforms; the leather SS special clothing came from this office.
  • "Office VII - Books and Pictures" were subordinate to the publishing house "Nordland" (SS own book publisher) and the art restoration companies. This office was responsible for the works of art with which Himmler furnished his “Ordensburg” Wewelsburg .
  • "Office VIII - Cultural Buildings" was responsible for the preservation and renewal of old and destroyed monuments.

Main office Volksdeutsche Mittelstelle

Entrance to the Volksdeutsche Mittelstelle in Adolf-Hitler-Strasse, Lodsch operations staff , guard post (1940)

The “Hauptamt Volksdeutsche Mittelstelle ” (VoMi) was responsible for “ Volksdeutsche ” living outside the German Reich and since February 1937 has been under the command of SS Obergruppenführer Werner Lorenz . The forerunner was a "Volksdeutscher Rat" in the Foreign Office (AA) under Otto von Kursell . As the central office, VoMi took over the administration and distribution of all aid funds for national work. As early as 1938 it had a budget of 50 - 60 million Reichsmarks , which corresponded to the entire budget of the AA.

Between 1939 and 1940, the main task of this main office was to organize the resettlement of German ethnic groups under the slogan Heim ins Reich . By 1940, the VoMi settled around one million ethnic Germans, primarily in the annexed areas - in the Reichsgauen Wartheland (Posen) and Danzig-West Prussia (Danzig).

In the Nuremberg Trial of the Race and Settlement Main Office of the SS , the VoMi was convicted of participating in the mass expulsions in the occupied countries of Europe.

Main Office of the Reich Commissioner for the Consolidation of German Volkstum

The “Staff Main Office of the Reich Commissioner for the Consolidation of German Volkstum ” was under the direction of SS-Obergruppenführer Ulrich Greifelt and worked closely with the VoMi. The main task of this office was the so-called re-Germanization ” of German ethnic groups who, despite “being of German descent, were absorbed in a foreign environment”. Slavic parts of the population that were found to be good for “Germanization” were also recorded in this main office. VoMi and the main office were responsible for recording ethnic Germans and so-called German blood in various " German People's Lists ". The status of the owner within the "German Volksgemeinschaft" was determined on the basis of these people's lists:

  • Lists 1 and 2 contained persons "of German ethnicity who had demonstrably preserved their Germanness". These groups of people automatically received German citizenship and were intended for membership in the NSDAP.
  • List 3 contained people of German ethnicity who had already assumed “ties to Poland”. This list also included the members of the Masurians and Kashubians who were considered to be “capable of Germanization”. These list members were granted provisional German citizenship.
  • List 4 contained the "clearly Polonized Germans" who, despite their German descent, had given up their nationality and adopted the Polish language and culture. These list members were given German citizenship upon revocation and had to "[...] earn their final German citizenship ".

See also


  • Jan Erik Schulte : Forced Labor and Extermination: The Economic Empire of the SS. Oswald Pohl and the SS Economic Administration Main Office 1933–1945. Schöningh, Paderborn et al. 2001, ISBN 3-506-78245-2 .
  • Hans Buchheim : The SS. The instrument of rule. Report of the Institute for Contemporary History. In: Anatomy of the SS State . Volume I. Deutscher Taschenbuch Verlag, Munich 1967, ISBN 3-423-02915-3 , pp. 153-160.
  • Yehoshua R. Büchler: “Unworthy Behavior”: The Case of SS Officer Max Täubner . In: Holocaust and Genocide Studies 17 (2003), pp. 409-429.
  • Frank Flechtmann: The SS leadership main office at Kaiserallee 188 . In: Arbeitskreis Wilmersdorf (ed.): Wilmersdorf Views , Berlin 2003, ISBN 3-936411-81-6 , pp. 170–207 (for the number of employees, see p. 187).
  • Isabel Heinemann: Race, Settlement, German Blood. The Race and Settlement Main Office of the SS and the racial reorganization of Europe , Wallstein Verlag, Göttingen 2003, ISBN 3-89244-623-7 .
  • Miroslav Karny: The SS Economic Administration Main Office . In: Hamburg Foundation for the Promotion of Science and Culture (Hrsg.): German economy. Symposium "Economy and Concentration Camps" . Hamburg 1991, pp. 153-169.
  • Elisabeth Kinder: The Personal Staff Reichsführer SS. History, tasks and traditions . In: Heinz Boberach / Hans Booms (Ed.): From the work of the Federal Archives. Contributions to archives, source studies and contemporary history . Boldt, Boppard 1977, pp. 379-397.
  • Karin Orth : The system of the National Socialist concentration camps. A political organization story . Hamburger Edition, Hamburg 1999, ISBN 3-930908-52-2 ; 2nd edition TB Pendo, Zurich 2002, ISBN 3-85842-450-1 (30 pages bibliography).
  • Bernd Wegner: The special jurisdiction of the SS and the police. Military justice or the foundation of an SS-compliant legal system? In: Ursula Büttner (Hrsg.): Das Unrechtsregime. International research on National Socialism . Volume I. Christians, Hamburg 1986, ISBN 3-7672-0962-4 , pp. 243-259.

Web links

Individual evidence

  1. Digital library: SS and police jurisdiction (inventory). In: Bundesarchiv, BArch NS 7. Bundesarchiv Koblenz, accessed on January 6, 2020 .
  2. Burkhard Dietz, Helmut Gabel, Ulrich Tiedau (eds.): Griff nach dem Westen. The “Westforschung” of the national and ethnic sciences on the north-western European area (1919-1960) , part 2. Münster 2003, ISBN 3-8309-1144-0 , p. 582.
  3. A report by the "Haus Friedensburg", formerly Haus Zion, a deaconess home in Rathen , describes how the VoMi confiscated the home, no longer allowed the line to enter the house, paid no rent or delayed it. Manuscript Rector Glöckner, approx. 1947. Today's presentation: here , without the details.