Type F prison
A type F prison ( Turkish F Tipi Cezaevi ) or officially closed Type F high security penal institution (F Tipi Yüksek Güvenlikli Kapalı Ceza İnfaz Kurumu) are high security prisons in Turkish penal law .
The type F prisons were built primarily to house members of militant organizations. But there are also people accused of drug offenses or organized crime . They also serve to keep prisoners in custody who, among other things, have been sentenced to life imprisonment with stricter enforcement. This type of imprisonment replaces the death penalty , which was abolished in 2002, and according to Art. 47 of the Turkish Criminal Code (tStGB) generally lasts until the death of the convicted person. In contrast to the normal life sentence, imprisonment always takes place in the (type F) institutions named in the law and the provisions.
Until the introduction of the so-called cell system (oda / hücre sistemi) with individual and smaller communal cells , prisoners in Turkey were housed in barrack-like cells with 20 to 100 people (koğuş / topluluk sistemi) . This enabled political organizations such as the DHKP-C in particular to maintain their organizational cohesion in prison. Not least because of this, Art. 78 / B of the old penal code stipulates that convicts who were classified as unwilling to reform or rebellious represented a danger to the lives of their fellow inmates or who were arrested more than three times within two years or were subjected to similar disciplinary measures Permission from the Ministry of Justice could be relocated to special prisons with individual or communal rooms for three prisoners each.
Eskişehir “pilot project”
In August 1989 a prison that had been built two and a half years earlier in Eskişehir was cleared after the discovery of escape tunnels and reopened in February 1991 as a "special type" (özel tip) with additional solitary cells . The inmates of the prison, which is now classified as a high-security penal facility, criticized the previously unfamiliar individual cells as tabutluk (“coffin room, narrow torture cell”). On April 12, 1991, the Grand National Assembly passed the controversial Anti-Terrorism Act (ATG), according to which Article 16, Paragraph 1, persons convicted of ATG offenses were to be accommodated in special penal institutions, which, according to the “cell system”, had individual and communal cells for three each Prisoners were built (Type F). Art. 16 para. 2 ATG stipulated that contact between prisoners in such institutions was to be prevented. In November 1991, 206 political prisoners were transferred to Eskişehir. After the then Justice Minister Seyfi Oktay and the State Minister responsible for human rights Mehmet Kahraman , accompanied by representatives of the Human Rights Association (İHD), the Human Rights Foundation of Turkey (TİHV) and the Medical Association (TTB) had heard the allegations of torture and mistreatment of the prisoners, the decision was made the Council of Ministers on November 24, 1991 to close the prison. It was reopened in October 1995. The attempt in 1996 to transfer all prisoners sentenced under the anti-terrorism law in Istanbul was abandoned after twelve prisoners died on a hunger strike declared a death fast . The European Committee for the Prevention of Torture (CPT) visited Eskişehir prison in August 1996 at the invitation of the Turkish government. Although it found structural defects (such as some windowless cells), it came to the opinion that the 8.5 m² cells could not be called “coffin cells”.
On August 1, 1999, Law No. 4422 came into force. According to Art. 13 of this law, the provisions of Art. 16 ATG apply to members of criminal organizations.
Despite the legal provision in Art. 16 ATG, until 2000 there were no prisons with individual or community cells for three prisoners each.
The events of 2000
In the middle of 2000, the discussion about type F prisons intensified. The then Justice Minister Hikmet Sami Türk was determined to make the transition to the “cell system”. In response to their planned transfer to the new prisons in which they allegedly in solitary confinement would be held, started prisoners in the prisons Bayrampaşa, Bartın, Çankırı , Çanakkale , Aydın , Bursa , Uşak , Malatya , Niğde , Buca, Ankara ( central closed prison ), Konya-Ermenek, Nevşehir , Gebze and Ceyhan went on hunger strike on October 26, 2000. As of November 19, 2000, 816 prisoners in 18 prisons had joined the hunger strike. They explained that the hunger strike will now be continued in the form of the "death fast" (olüm orucu) , during which inmates only consume water, sugar and salt. At times, more than 1,000 prisoners and their families took part in the hunger strike.
The concessions made by Justice Minister Hikmet Sami Türk on December 9, 2000 (no immediate transfer to type F prisons and a relaxation of Art. 16 ATG) were not enough for the prisoners, so that well-known personalities, including Nobel laureate Orhan Pamuk, tried to mediate , failed. On December 19, 2000, Turkish security forces stormed around 20 prisons, including the prisons in Bayrampaşa, Ümraniye and Çanakkale, in an operation called "Operation Return to Life". At least 30 prisoners and two security officers died.
Immediately after the "Operation Return to Life", the transfers to type F prisons began, which according to the Minister of Justice, taking into account the UN Minimum Principles for the Treatment of Prisoners, the European Prison Rules and Recommendation No. R (82) 17 of the Council of Europe had been established. On December 21, 2000, the Justice Department announced that 524 prisoners had been transferred to Edirne, Kocaeli and Sincan Prisons. But that did not end the prisoners' resistance.
Development after 2000
At the beginning of 2001, according to the Justice Minister, 1,118 prisoners were on hunger strike and 395 were on the death fast. In May 2001, the regulation of Art. 16 Paragraph 2 ATG (no contact between prisoners) was relaxed. At the end of 2001, the presidents of the Istanbul, İzmir and Ankara bar associations made a proposal which they called “three doors, three locks” (üç kapı, üç kilit) . This would have made it possible for nine prisoners (three each in three rooms) to be together during the day. While the prisoners on hunger strikes announced that they would end their action if the proposal were accepted, Justice Minister Hikmet Sami Türk declared this to be unacceptable and made the counter-proposal that ten prisoners could come together for five hours a week.
In May 2002 the chairman of the İHD, Hüsnü Öndül , called on the justice minister to enter into an intensified dialogue and appealed to the prisoners to put an end to senseless death. On May 28, 2002, the supporters of almost all groups involved in the death fast ended their action. From then on, the DHKP-C was the only organization whose supporters continued the death fast.
In the period that followed, there were several expressions of solidarity and demonstrations. For example, the solidarity association TAYAD, which is considered the legal arm of the DHKP-C, occupied the Associated Press building in Ankara in 2006 to protest against solitary confinement in type F prisons.
End of the Death Fast: Circular 45/1
Istanbul attorney Behiç Aşçı joined the Death Fast on April 5, 2006 (the day Turkey celebrates “Lawyer’s Day”) and managed to get the media discussed again. Bülent Arınç , then President of Parliament, met with Aşçı's family members and representatives of non-governmental organizations at the end of 2006. He said the resistance had achieved its goal and the Justice Department and Parliament would act.
Behiç Aşçı ended his death fast after a total of 293 days. Together with two prisoners who were most recently on the death fast, he announced an "interruption" of their action after they had read Circular No. 45/1 of the Ministry of Justice. Circular No. 45/1, which does not only apply to type F prisons, allowed up to ten prisoners to come together for ten hours a week, which until then had only been possible for five hours a week.
The action, which lasted almost seven years, was accompanied by official interventions such as force-feeding . Inside and outside the prisons, a total of over 130 people died as a result of the death fast, and many prisoners suffered from permanent or consequential damage, such as Wernicke-Korsakov syndrome .
In its 2006 annual report, the TİHV cites the following figures for the respective causes of death:
number Cause of death 32 Operation "return to life" 48 Death fast in prison 13 Continued death fast after discharge 3 Death during treatment 7th Relatives on the death fast 5 Police action against solidarity strike 14th Immolation in protest
In July 2006 Art. 16 ATG was deleted from the Anti-Terror Law. Corresponding provisions of the Turkish Prison Act (tStVollzG) and the Prison Act (tStVollzO) apply .
Closed high security penal institutions are described in Art. 9 Para. 1 tStVollzG and Art. 11 Para. 1 tStVollzO. According to this, the institutions secured against breakouts with technical, mechanical, electronic and physical means consist of solitary confinement rooms and communal cells with three places each, the cell doors of which are generally locked. The prisons also have staff for external and internal security. Jandarma is responsible for external security (cf. Art. 7 Para. 1 lit. a of Act No. 2803). The task of internal security is carried out by internal staff (infaz ve koruma görevlileri) in accordance with Art. 33 para. 1 sentence 1 tStVollzG, Art. 44 para. 1 sentence 1 tStVollzO , with the Jandarma if necessary - for example in the event of uprisings or fires or earthquake - can intervene by order of the enforcement management.
Which prisoners are kept in the closed high-security prisons is regulated in Art. 9 Para. 2 tStVollzG and Art. 11 Para. 2 tStVollzO. According to this, these are initially those who have to serve a life sentence with more stringent enforcement or, regardless of the duration of the sentence, persons who have been arrested or convicted for establishing or running a criminal organization . In addition, there are prisoners who have committed crimes against humanity (Art. 77, 78 tStGB), intentionally killed (Art. 81, 82 tStGB), produced narcotics and stimulants or traded in them within the framework of the activities of a criminal organization (Art. 188 tStGB) as well as offenses against the security of the state (Art. 302–304, 307, 308 tStGB) or against the constitutional order and its functioning (Art. 309–315 tStGB). Prisoners from other institutions, whose assault and behavior require special surveillance and who violate order and discipline or who refuse to be reformed, are transferred to closed high-security penal institutions, Art. 9 Para. 3 TStVollzG, Art. 11 Para. 3 tStVollzO. In contrast, inmates of type F prisons, who are not granted any relaxation in enforcement according to Art. 137 tStVollzO , can be transferred to other penal institutions if they have served at least a third of their prison term and are well managed, Art. 9 para. 5 tStVollzG, Art. 11 para. 5 tStVollzO.
In the type F prisons the prisoners are according to Art. 75 tStVollzO i. V. m. Art. 24 tStVollzG grouped according to personal characteristics as well as physical, mental and health status and their interests and abilities and take part in various activities such as sport, vocational training, work and other social and cultural activities within the framework of planned improvement and education programs.
According to Art. 25 tStVollzG, inmates who have been sentenced to life imprisonment with more stringent enforcement serve their imprisonment in solitary cells. These prisoners are granted a one-hour walk in the courtyard every day, a ten-minute telephone call every 15 days and a one-hour visit from spouses, first-degree relatives and siblings.
Note: For parole see Prison Law (Turkey)
Like all "type" prisons (A, A1, A2, A3, B, C, D, E, F, H, K1, K2, L, L1, M, T), the F-type, as opposed to Typeless penal institutions (tipi olmayan ceza infaz kurumları) , built according to a specific, uniform construction plan . With type F, the open area is usually around 50,000 m² and the closed area 30,000 m². In principle, 368 detention places are available, which are divided into 59 individual detention rooms and 103 common detention rooms with three places each. The exception to this is the type F prison Tekirdağ № 2 with a capacity of 550 places.
The solitary confinement rooms are around 11 m² in size. For every two or three individual cells there is a courtyard with 42 or 50 m² for the courtyard walkway. The cells for three prisoners consist of 50 m² on two floors, the lower floor being used as a living room and the upper floor as a bedroom. A 50 m² courtyard is available for the inmates of these cells to walk in the courtyard.
The prisons are divided into five blocks - four inmate blocks (A, B1, B2 and C) and one administration block (D):
- A block
- In the A block there are a total of 36 common detention rooms and 15 solitary confinement rooms, as well as a lounge and consultation room for the prison staff, a prayer room , a tailor's shop and a hairdresser's room .
- B block
- The B block consists of two blocks:
- In the B1 block there are 17 common detention rooms, two observation rooms and 14 solitary confinement rooms. There is also a copper workshop and a painting room on the upper floor of this block.
- In the B2 block there are 14 common detention rooms, 15 solitary confinement rooms and a lounge and counseling room for prison staff. In addition, female inmates and - in a two-story kindergarten - children of the prisoners are housed here. On the upper floor there is also a workshop for making musical instruments and a carpentry shop .
- C block
- In the C-Block there are 36 common detention rooms, 15 solitary confinement rooms and a lounge and consultation room for the prison staff. There are also carpet weaving and glazing workshops on the upper floor .
- D block
- The prison administration is housed here. This block also contains the boiler room, changing rooms and showers for the staff, the wash room, the reception area, warehouse, storage of the prisoners' belongings, rooms for the Jandarma , the observation room, first aid rooms , a daycare center, sports and meeting rooms , the kitchen and treatment rooms.
Type F Prison Locations
1 Adana; 2 Ankara; 3 bolus; 4 edirne; 5 İzmir; 6 Kırıkkale; 7 Kocaeli; 8 Tekirdag; 9 van
In nine predominantly western Turkish districts there are a total of 13 type F prisons with a total capacity of 4966 prison places. On December 19, 2000, the Ankara No. 1, Edirne, Tekirdağ No. 1 and Kocaeli No. 1 prisons were the first type F prisons to start operating. The newest facility, which opened on July 19, 2007, is located in Kırıkkale . It is controversial whether the detention center on the island of İmralı is type F. From 1999 to 2009, Abdullah Öcalan , the former chairman of the Kurdish underground organization PKK , was the only inmate imprisoned there. At the end of 2009 a new wing was completed and five more inmates were moved there.
|Surname||County / Province||Web presence ( turkish )|
|Enclosed Type F High Security Correctional Facility Adana||Yüreğir / Adana||adanafcik|
|Closed type F high security penal institution Ankara № 1||Sincan / Ankara||ankaraf1|
|Closed type F high security penal institution Ankara № 2||Sincan / Ankara||ankaraf2|
|Closed Type F high security penal institution Bolu||Bolu / Bolu||bolufcik|
|Closed Type F high security penal facility Edirne||Edirne / Edirne||edirnefcik|
|Closed Type F High Security Penitentiary İzmir № 1||Buca / İzmir||izmirf1|
|Closed Type F high security penitentiary İzmir № 2||Buca / İzmir||izmirf2|
|Kırıkkale Enclosed High Security Correctional Facility||Kırıkkale / Kırıkkale||kirikkalefcik|
|Closed Type F high security Kocaeli Penitentiary No. 1||Kandıra / Kocaeli||kocaelif1|
|Closed Type F high security Kocaeli Penitentiary No. 2||Kandıra / Kocaeli||kocaelif2|
|Tekirdağ Closed High Security Correctional Facility № 1||Tekirdağ / Tekirdağ||
|Tekirdağ Closed Type F High Security Correctional Facility № 2||Tekirdağ / Tekirdağ||tekirdag2fcik|
|Enclosed Type F High Security Correctional Facility Van||Van / Van||vanfcik|
On September 6, 2006, the CPT, as an institution of the Council of Europe, published the report on a visit to three type F prisons in December 2005. The committee found that there was nothing wrong with the material conditions of detention in the prisons. However, the prisoners' opportunities for joint activities outside of their cells are inadequate and the situation in this regard is “still very unsatisfactory”. The CPT paid particular attention to the situation of those prisoners who had been sentenced to life imprisonment with more stringent enforcement and who had been placed in solitary confinement in accordance with Art. 25 tStVollzG. Before the new Prison Act came into force on June 1, 2005, they were still held in community custody and were able to participate in community activities. The CPT noted that the use of isolation-like detention could have very harmful effects on the person concerned and, under certain circumstances, could lead to inhuman and degrading treatment. The committee finally recommended that Article 25 tStVollzG be reconsidered.
Between December 24, 2007 and January 17, 2008, the Association of Contemporary Lawyers (ÇHD) carried out an investigation into the implementation of circular no. 45/1. 25 lawyers spoke to 120 prisoners in six prisons and reported that ten-hour weekly contact with fellow inmates in type F prisons Bolu , Kocaeli № 1 and Tekirdağ № 2, and in type F prison Tekirdağ № 1 has not been granted for three months. In type F prison Kocaeli No. 2, the prisoners received only two and a half hours per week. Time was also limited to two and a half hours in Edirne Type F Prison , but this was discontinued after a month. In its report of July 2010, the ÇHD found after a renewed investigation that since circular no. 45/1 was issued, no prisoner had been given the right to communicate ten hours a week with ten people he was comfortable with.
Reports by the Human Rights Association (İHD) also indicate that circular no. 45/1 is not being fully implemented in any of the prisons. The annual report of the İHD 2007 also mentions cell detention, restriction of community activities, restriction of sporting and cultural activities, insufficient health care, visiting bans, telephone and letter bans lasting several months, ban on the Kurdish language during telephone calls, confiscation of Kurdish-language newspapers, censorship, obstruction of the right to vote, discrimination, Arbitrariness, assaults and diverse and, in the opinion of the İHD, unjustified disciplinary measures in the prisons are reported. According to the İHD, a total of five prisoners died in 2008.
Even Amnesty International reported "hard and arbitrary disciplinary" and isolation of prisoners in F-type prisons.
In a reply to the Swiss government on June 27, 2007, the human rights organization Human Rights Watch wrote that abuse was a serious problem in type F prisons. The investigation by the independent prison monitoring group revealed a worrying pattern of abuse of inmates in Kırıklar Type F Prison (in Buca, İzmir ).
References and comments
- Law No. 4771 of August 3, 2002, Official Gazette No. 24841 of August 9, 2002 ( online ) established the death penalty in peacetime and Law No. 5218 of July 14, 2004, Official Gazette No. 25529 of March 21, 2002. July 2004 ( online ) completely abolished.
- Angela Davis : Are Prisons Obsolete? Seven Stories Press, 2003, ISBN 978-1-58322-581-3 , p. 101.
- Ordinance No. 6/8517 of July 5, 1967 on the Administration of Prisons and Prisons and the Enforcement of Sentences, Official Gazette No. 12662 of August 1, 1967.
- See Report to the Turkish Government on the visit to Turkey carried out by the CPT from 19 to 23 August 1996. CPT , March 1, 2001, p. 16 f. ( PDF file; 301 KB ).
- For the meaning cf. Entry ( page no longer available , search in web archives ) in Güncel Türkçe Sözlük des Türk Dil Kurumu .
- Anti-Terrorism Act No. 3713 of April 12, 1991, Official Gazette No. 20843 / Mükerrer of April 12, 1991, pp. 1 ff. ( PDF file; 476 KB ).
- See minutes of the 94th session of the General Assembly of the Grand National Assembly of Turkey. In: TBMM Tutanak Dergisi. Parliamentary period 21, vol. 62, legislative year 3, May 1, 2001, p. 35 ( online ).
- Details can be found in the (Turkish) annual report 1991 of the TİHV on pages 113 ff.
- See F-type Prisons, Hunger Strikes and Deaths . Democratic Turkey Forum. Retrieved November 12, 2010.
- See Report to the Turkish Government on the visit to Turkey carried out by the CPT from 19 to 23 August 1996. CPT , March 1, 2001, p. 19 f. ( PDF file; 301 KB ).
- Act No. 4422 of July 30, 1999 on combating profit-making criminal organizations, Official Gazette No. 23773 of August 1, 1999, p. 3 ff. ( PDF file; 5.7 MB ).
- See Adalet Hizmetlerinde Etkinlik Özel İhtisas Komisyonu Raporu. DPT , Ankara 2000, ISBN 975-19-2479-0 , p. 35 ( VIII. Beş Yıllık Kalkınma Planı. DPT. 2506 - ÖİK. 526; PDF file; 380 KB ( Memento from May 25, 2010 in the Internet Archive ) ).
- Bakan Turk: Cezaevleri F tipi olacak . ntvmsnbc.com, July 13, 2000. Retrieved November 12, 2010.
- Turkey. “F-Type” prisons: Isolation and allegations of torture and ill-treatment. Amnesty International , April 2001, AI Index: EUR 44/025/2001, p. 1 ( DOC file; 85 KB ).
- "Death Fast" in Turkey . Spiegel Online , April 13, 2001. Retrieved November 12, 2010.
- Minimum principles for the treatment of prisoners. German Translation Service of the United Nations, New York May 1977 ( PDF file; 77 KB ).
- Recommendation No. R (82) 17 concerning custody and treatment of dangerous prisoners. ( PDF file; 79 KB ).
- See the answer of the Ministry of Justice to the written question of the MP Ahmet Karavar, 7/4823, 4824, 4825, 4826, November 22, 2001, p. 2 ( PDF file; 790 KB ).
- See F tipine 524 mahkum gönderildi . Hürriyet , December 21, 2000. Retrieved November 12, 2010.
- See also F-tipi Cezaevleri Raporu . Helsinki Yurttaşlar Derneği, June 12, 2001. Accessed November 12, 2010.
- According to Art. 1 of Law No. 4666 of May 1st, 2001 amending an article of the Anti-Terrorism Law, Official Gazette No. 24393 of May 5th, 2001 ( online ).
- this 2002 Türkiye İnsan Hakları Raporu. Türkiye İnsan Hakları Vakfı Yayınları, Ankara 2003, ISBN 975-7217-40-9 , p. 187 ff. ( PDF file; 1.45 MB ( memento of the original from September 2, 2010 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was automatically inserted and not yet checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. ).
- TAYAD'lılar Ankara'daki Associated Press bürosunu bastı . Sabah , November 20, 2006. Retrieved November 12, 2010.
- Serkan Akkoç: F tipine Meclis duyarsız kalamaz . In: Hürriyet , December 27, 2006. Retrieved November 12, 2010.
- Circular No. 45/1 of January 22, 2007 ( online ( Memento of the original of December 16, 2009 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link has been inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. ).
- Aşçı eyleme ara verdi . Milliyet , January 23, 2007. Retrieved November 12, 2010.
- Aşçı Ölüm orucunu 293. günde bıraktı . Hürriyet , January 23, 2007. Retrieved November 12, 2010.
- Ertuğrul Mavioğlu: Yaşama doğru küçük bir adım yetti ( Memento of the original from October 24, 2012 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. . In: Radikal , January 24, 2007. Retrieved November 12, 2010.
- TIHV: Various reports from Wernicke-Korsakoff . Turkey Democratic Forum, January 16, 2004. Retrieved November 12, 2010.
- See Türkiye İnsan Hakları Raporu 2006. Türkiye İnsan Hakları Vakfı Yayınları, Ankara April 2007, ISBN 978-975-7217-57-2 , p. 393 f. ( PDF file; 6.7 MB ( Memento of the original from September 2, 2010 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was automatically inserted and not yet checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this note. ).
- With Art. 17 of Act No. 5532 of June 29, 2006 amending the Anti-Terrorism Act, Official Gazette No. 26232 of July 18, 2006 ( online ).
- Law No. 5275 of December 13, 2004 on the enforcement of sentences and security measures, Official Gazette No. 25685 of December 29, 2004 ( online ).
- Ordinance No. 2006/10218 of March 20, 2006 on the Administration of Prisons and the Enforcement of Penalties and Security Measures, Official Gazette No. 26131 of April 6, 2006 ( online ).
- Law No. 2803 of March 10, 1983 on the organization, tasks and powers of Jandarma, Official Gazette No. 17985 of March 12, 1983, p. 1 ff. ( PDF file; 2.6 MB ).
- See the list of existing prisons. General Directorate for Penal and Detention Centers of the Ministry of Justice of the Republic of Turkey ( XLS file; 67 KB ( memento of the original from October 17, 2011 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link has been inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link accordingly Instructions and then remove this notice. ).
- See e.g. Report to the Turkish Government on the visit to Turkey carried out by the CPT from 16 to 24 July 2000. CPT , November 8, 2001, p. 15 ( PDF file; 336 KB ).
- Report to the Turkish Government on the visit to Turkey carried out by the CPT from 7 to 14 December 2005. CPT , 6 September 2006, pp. 20 ff. ( PDF file; 424 KB ).
- See also report of the CPT (Anti-Torture) . Turkey Democratic Forum, September 6, 2006. Accessed November 12, 2010.
- İsmail Saymaz: 'F Tipi'nde Behiç Aşçı genelgesi uygulanmıyor' ( Memento of the original from April 14, 2008 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. . In: Radikal , April 10, 2008. Retrieved November 12, 2010.
- See CHD Istanbul on prison conditions (July 2010) . Turkey Democratic Forum, August 4, 2010. Accessed November 12, 2010.
- See Ocak – Haziran 2008 Marmara Bölgesi Hapishaneleri Hak İhlalleri Raporu . İnsan Hakları Derneği . Retrieved November 12, 2010.
- See 2007 Türkiye İnsan Hakları İhlalleri Raporu. İnsan Hakları Derneği ( PDF; 12.76 MB ).
- Cf. 2008 Cezaevleri İhlal Bilançosu. İnsan Hakları Derneği ( PDF file; 130 KB ).
- Amnesty International's Fundamental Documents on Turkey. Concerns in Europe and Central Asia, July - December 2006 . Amnesty International . Retrieved November 12, 2010.
- See Turkey. Memorandum to the Turkish Government. Amnesty International , January 14, 2008, AI Index: EUR 44/001/2008, p. 12 ( PDF file; 129 KB ( memento of the original from March 5, 2016 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and still not checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this note. ).
- Reply Letter to the Swiss Government . Human Rights Watch , June 27, 2007. Retrieved November 12, 2010.