district of Warsaw
|Population density||3389 inhabitants / km²|
Ursynów (pronunciation: Warsaw . With an area of 44.6 km² and an area share of 8.6%, it is the third largest district in the city. Ursynów has about 137,000 inhabitants and is one of the fastest growing districts in Warsaw; about 25% of the population are younger than 18 years.) is the southernmost district of the Polish capital
The eastern part of Ursynów consists mainly of residential buildings, while the western and southern parts are often referred to as "green Ursynów" because of their lower population density and large, extensive green spaces. The city district is also known as the "dormitory city of Warsaw" and houses around 25% of the new buildings built in the city after 1989. The Warsaw Metro, which opened in 1995, has its southernmost stop in the Ursynów district at the Kabaty depot .
The urban forest of Kabaty , which extends over more than 9.2 km², forms the southern edge of the municipality . Other points of attraction are the Warsaw Vistula embankment , the Potocki Palace in the residential district of Natolin and the racecourse in Służewiec , built in 1939 , which is used for open-air concerts, festivals and exhibitions in addition to racing events.
In Moczydło, which is now part of the Wola district, and in the Ursynów Kabacki area, flint tools for working leather were found that date from the Mesolithic and date back to around 6000 BC. Be appreciated. Until around 1000 BC Today's Ursynów consisted of forests and swamps. An urn of the Lusatian culture was found in the area near Służew . Around this time (1300–400 BC) the permanent settlement of parts of Ursynów probably began. Corpse remains from around 100 BC were found in a cemetery in neighboring Wilanów . Found.
There are traces of settlement in Wyczółki and Służew from the 13th century. As early as 1065, Benedictine monks from the monastery in Mogilno in Służew had set up a mission. The village of Służew (today the district border between Ursynów and Mokotów runs here ) developed early. It was on an important trade route that stretched from France to Kiev . The historical use of the trade route is shown by silver coins found here with the image of the Roman emperor Trajan .
In 1238 a first parish was founded in Służew and a church of St. Catherine was built; it is the oldest parish in Warsaw. At about the same time gave Mazovian Duke Konrad I possession Służew the knight Gotard which, in return, the country from attacks by Lithuanians , Prussians and Jatwingern had to protect. It is believed that a small military camp ( Villa militari ) was built for this purpose. Over time, the Gotard family expanded their property in the area and by the 15th century already had 17 villages. At the beginning of the 16th century a parish school was built by the church in Służew. In the 17th century the Gotard property fell to the owners of Wilanów, the Sobieski family. As a result, Służew and other places in Ursynów belonged to the changing owners of Wilanów (families Czartoryski , Lubomirski and Potocki ). Służew developed into a local trading center in the 18th and 19th centuries, many wealthy farmers, whose fields partly extended to the Kabaty forest, lived here. The further development of Służew was hampered by the construction of a ring of forts around Warsaw. Fort Służew , which was built by the Russian occupation authorities in the 1880s near the Katharinenkirche, was not intended to play a significant military role, but prevented further growth of the village until 1909 due to the prohibition of the construction of new buildings in its vicinity.
Another early village in what is now Ursynów was Kabaty. It was first mentioned in 1386 as the property of Andrzej von Ostrołeka and Żelechów (coat of arms: Ciołek). He came from a wealthy family from the Sandomierz area and served as a close advisor to King Władysław II Jagiełło . In the Battle of Tannenberg in 1410 he commanded a royal regiment. In 1404 he went on a pilgrimage to Santiago de Compostela . At that time Kabaty consisted of about 70 hectares of land. Like other Ursynów settlements, it was destroyed during the Second Northern War . There is a wooden cross erected in 1864 near the former village of Kabaty. The cross, which stood elsewhere until 1909, was donated by Karol Julian Karniewski as thanks for his salvation from exile in Siberia. The son of a librarian in the Wilanów Palace was land tenant (20 hectares) at Kabaty and administrator of an estate belonging to the then Wilanów owner August Potocki (1806–1867). As part of a police investigation into a weapons smuggling initiated by Potocki during the January uprising in 1863, Karniewski took over responsibility and was imprisoned in the Warsaw Citadel . The day before he was transported to Siberia, Potocki bought him free with a bribe and gifted him with the leased land. Karniewski's house is now (after moving from ul. Puławska ) on ul. Rosoła . It is one of the oldest wooden houses in Warsaw.
Second World War
Before the outbreak of World War II , only around 3,000 people lived in around 400 houses in the various villages in what is now the Ursynów District. The mostly peasant population lived from the cultivation and processing of vegetables and partly grain. It was sold in the large Warsaw markets. German colonists also settled in Jeziorki. In the Kabaty Forest the Branickis held great hunts; here were u. a. the high officers and politicians Ignacy Mościcki , Edward Rydz-Śmigły , Tadeusz Kasprzycki , Kazimierz Sosnkowski , Kazimierz Fabrycy (1888–1958) and Tadeusz Piskor (1889–1951) were invited as hunting guests.
The first German troops reached Pyry and Grabów on September 8, 1939, after shortly before the so-called “Wicher” unit (Polish code name , means “storm” in German), the BS4 unit of the Polish Biuro Szyfrów (BS) responsible for Germany . "Cipher office") had been evacuated from a well camouflaged and guarded military facility in the Kabaty forest near Pyry. Polish cryptanalysts such as Marian Rejewski , Jerzy Różycki and Henryk Zygalski have been working here successfully since 1932 to decipher German communications encrypted with the ENIGMA rotor key machine . In July 1939 there was a then top secret and now legendary meeting of Pyry , at which the Polish specialists disclosed their methods and equipment to their French and British allies. With the further advance of the German units in September, houses were partly burned down. In Służew, the destruction of the Katharinenkirche was prevented by the mediation of the resident, German-born settlers. Troops were stationed on the grounds of the racecourse. At the end of September the decisive ground attack on Warsaw was carried out by the 10th Infantry Division and the 46th Infantry Division from the fields of Ursynów.
post war period
In the mid-1970s, the expansion of Ursynów from a rural and rural area into a major residential district in Warsaw began. The construction work was preceded by extensive expropriations of the farmers who had previously lived here. Minimal compensation was only given to those who still tilled their land themselves; others were expropriated without compensation (this was particularly true of the Branicki family of landowners in Wilanów). As compensation for the demolition of their houses, building owners in the village of Imielinek were offered an apartment in the newly built apartment blocks. Construction work began in early 1974. First, the sewer system and roads were laid. The overall planning of the new residential district (still part of the Mokotów district) was based on a concept by Professor Witold Cęckiewicz ( Cracow University of Technology ), Stefan Putowski (1903–1985) and Professor Oskar Hansen ( Warsaw Art Academy ). Architect Ludwik Borawski, whose project won a tender from Stowarzyszenie Architektów Polskich SARP in 1971, was responsible for designing the residential complexes in northern Ursynów . After his death, Marek Budzyński continued work here. The facilities in the south were built under the direction of the architect Andrzej Fabierkiewicz. Professor Jacek Nowicki ( Technical University of Łódź ) designed other areas . In October 1975 the construction of the first apartment blocks could begin. On January 8, 1977, the first apartments were handed over to their new owners. The first elementary school opened on October 30, 1979. At the same time, the expansion of the SGGW was pushed ahead, their student dormitories were built. Edward Gierek had announced that there would be better living in Ursynów in the future. To this end, 400,000 square meters of living space should be completed annually according to the five-year plan . This requirement could not be met; only an average of around 220,000 square meters was achieved, although construction capacities had been drawn from across the country. In particular, the planned infrastructure facilities could not be implemented to the intended extent. Of 49 projected service centers, only 20 had been built by 1981. The resulting supply bottleneck led to the emergence of small private providers who established themselves in apartments or basements.
Landmarks and important buildings
- Botanical Garden of the Polska Akademia Nauk (PAN - Polish Academy of Sciences)
- Oncology Center "Marie Skłodowska-Curie"
- Krasiński Palace
- J. Ursyn Niemcewicz Park
- Fort VIII (fortification) from the 19th century
- Mieszko oak
- Warsaw University of Natural Sciences SGGW
- Służewiec Racecourse
- Potocki Palace in Natolin
- City forest in the Kabaty district
- Wyczółki Manor
- Gucin Gaj
- Culture park in Powsin
Mayor of the Ursynów District
- Stanisław Faliński 1994-2002
- Tomasz Sieradz 2002-2003
- Andrzej Machowski 2003-2006
- Tomasz Mencina 2006-2009
- Urszula Kierzkowska 2009–2010
- Piotr Guział 2010-2014
- Robert Kempa 2014 – today
- Jacek Krawczyk, Waldemar Siemiński: Ursynów. Wczoraj i dziś. Yesterday & today. ISBN 83-86351-37-3 , edition 1. Pagina, Warsaw 2001 (Polish and English).
- Jacek Krawczyk: Ursynów dawny i wspołczesny, Yesterday & today. Grupa Biznesu Callmein, Warsaw 2010, ISBN 83-925895-2-5 . (Polish and English)