de Havilland DH.106 Comet

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de Havilland DH.106 Comet
BEA de Havilland DH-106 Comet 4B Berlin.jpg
De Havilland DH.106 Comet 4B
over Berlin-Tempelhof (1969)
Type: Airliner
Design country:

United KingdomUnited Kingdom United Kingdom


de Havilland Aircraft Company

First flight:

July 27, 1949


May 2, 1952

Production time:

1951 to 1964

Number of pieces:

114 (including prototypes)

The four-engine British de Havilland Comet DH.106 was the first series jet airliner in the world. Manufacturer was the de Havilland Aircraft Company (the first jet airliner was the prototype Vickers Type 618 Nene-Viking , which took off on its maiden flight on April 6, 1948, more than a year before Comet . The Comet was initially designed as a low-wing aircraft for 36 passengers . The four engines were integrated into the wing roots. The first flight of the prototype took place on July 27, 1949. On October 4, 1958, two Comet 4s, one to the east and one to the west, were the first passenger jets to cross the Atlantic in non-stop flight .


DH.106: engine intakes
De Havilland Comet

Towards the end of the Second World War , plans for a civil jet airliner arose for the first time. As early as 1942, the Brabazon Committee around Geoffrey de Havilland , a well-known English aircraft manufacturer, dealt with the development of post-war aircraft. From the Brabazon Committee under the name Brabazon IV combined requirements resulted in the DH-106 Comet , a low-wing aircraft with four de Havilland Ghost - jet engines . The Comet prototype took off on its maiden flight on July 27, 1949.

On May 2, 1952, the British Overseas Airways Corporation (BOAC), which had played a key role in the planning from the start, was the first company in the world to start scheduled service with a jet airliner. The success of the jet airliners was foreseeable. With its cruising speed of 800 km / h, the Comet cut the journey time by half, was vibration-free and quiet. This quickly led to numerous orders from de Havilland.

Soon, however, accidents occurred due to poor aerodynamic performance when the aircraft took off. Some design changes had to be made. In addition, pilot training has been improved. After these problems had been resolved, several Comet 1 crashed due to material fatigue, which temporarily resulted in a worldwide shutdown of all Comet machines (see subchapter accident series 1953-1954 ). This also led to the cancellation of an order placed by Pan American World Airways for three Comet 3s in August 1952 .

Postcard with the planned Comet 3 in the colors of Pan Am

De Havilland developed extensive improvements, which were eventually sold as the Comet Mk IV in the variants Comet 4, 4B and 4C. In operation, these machines proved to be extremely reliable - the British Navy used sea reconnaissance aircraft based on the Comet 4C until mid-2011 - however, on the one hand the reputation of the type was damaged by the problems with the Comet 1, on the other hand de Havilland lost due to the series of accidents and the This required new development valuable time, which the French and American competitors Sud Aviation , Boeing and Douglas Aircraft Company were able to use to mature their Caravelle , Boeing 707 and Douglas DC-8 models and successfully place them on the market. When the Comet 4 finally went into service in October 1958, the first much larger and more powerful 707s were put into service, the Caravelle and the DC-8 followed in the following year.

During the development of the Caravelle, the nose and cockpit were taken over from Comet in an initial British-French collaboration to accelerate the project.

Accident series 1953–1954

In 1953 and 1954 the Comet 1 suffered a series of accidents in which the aircraft broke in the air.

  • On May 2, 1953, six minutes after taking off from Calcutta Airport, a Comet 1 (G-ALYV) of the BOAC broke during a climb during a heavy monsoon rain 32 kilometers northwest of the take-off airport. All 43 people on board died. The total loss of the G-ALYV was explained by bad weather conditions.
  • On January 10, 1954, about twenty minutes after taking off from Rome-Ciampino airport in the direction of London, near the island of Elba, the BOAC's Comet 1 G-ALYP broke during a climb over the Mediterranean Sea for unknown reasons. All 35 inmates were killed. During the ongoing investigations, the Comet was initially banned from flying. The cause of the accident could not initially be determined. Just two months after the launch ban was lifted, another Comet crashed on April 8th (see below) under similar circumstances.
  • On April 8, 1954, there was the similarly puzzling loss of the G-ALYY of the BOAC near Stromboli in Italy. A good half an hour after taking off from Rome Ciampino airport , the Comet 1 chartered by South African Airways broke and crashed into the Tyrrhenian Sea - all 21 people on board were killed. It was the third de Havilland Comet accident in a year under similar circumstances. The type certificate was then withdrawn. Was consuming investigations fatigue by using the pressurized cabin found as cause of the crash - a then new knowledge. The Comet has been redesigned.

After the crash near Elba, a flight ban was first issued for the entire Comet fleet. Unfortunately, it was canceled before the cause of the accident was finally clarified. Only about two weeks after it was restarted, the crash occurred off the coast of Naples . This tragedy meant the final end for the Comet 1. The cause was only found after an extremely complex investigation with a complete hull structure in a plunge pool: The expansion and contraction of the pressurized cabin when the machine climbed and descended led to greatly increased material fatigue in the area of ​​the radio compass . After a certain number of flight cycles, hairline cracks formed due to the repeated stress peaks (see Wöhler curve ). This ultimately led to a sudden failure of the structure, an accompanying explosion-like pressure loss and thus to the total loss of the aircraft. In addition, the rivet holes for fastening were not drilled, as was customary up to now, but punched. As a result of this process, the aforementioned microscopic hairline cracks formed during manufacture, which then enlarged under load. The actual service life of the fuselage structure did not even reach a third of the target. The problem was with the previous propeller aircraft has not occurred despite the pressure cabin because they were flown at a lower level, thereby having a lower cabin pressure. Since the investigation report used the word "window" for the fiberglass cover of the radio compass, the impression was in part that the passenger windows of the Comet were the cause of the crash. Since the corners of the previously square passenger windows were exposed to increased loads, they were subsequently replaced by round windows.

The aircraft of the first series Comet 1 and 2 were then retired. The Comet 2 were modified and then used by the Royal Air Force .

The findings of the investigation led to the use of softer alloys in aircraft construction (which are less brittle and prone to cracking) and the installation of reinforcements in aircraft fuselages to prevent any cracks from spreading. The new findings on material fatigue also led to the design of the wing structure being changed: the wings of all aircraft have since been "pretensioned". You are now loaded by the chassis - i.e. from below - even in the rest position. This prevents the wings - loaded from below during flight operations - from bending in the opposite direction on the ground due to their own weight and thus tiring their structure.

In addition, the time-consuming search for the cause of the series of accidents was the reason for the invention of the flight recorder by the accident investigator involved, David Warren .


Comet Mk I.

The original Comet was the world's first jet-powered civil aircraft . Two prototypes were produced that had one passenger window less than the later series models and also had a different design of the main landing gear - there was only one large wheel on each of the two legs of the main landing gear. For series production, this configuration was later modified so that a chassis with four smaller wheels was mounted on each leg. Including the prototypes, only 21 Mk-I series Comets were produced. Further production was discontinued after the operating license was withdrawn (see accident series ) .

Comet 1 of the BOAC at London Heathrow Airport
Comet 1

The first series Comet was the Comet 1 model. In contrast to the prototypes, it received a main landing gear with four smaller wheels per landing gear and a modified window and emergency exit configuration. The first customer was BOAC , who carried out the first passenger flight with a jet aircraft with this type on May 2, 1952. The machine used for this with the registration G-ALYP crashed on January 10, 1954 off Elba . The investigation of this crash led to the withdrawal of the operating license for the Comet 1. However, the fleet was released again before the cause of the crash was finally clarified. Only two months after the resumption of the liner service, another BOAC plane crashed into the Tyrrhenian Sea off Naples. After this accident, the entire Comet-1 fleet never flew again. Only 16 series Comet 1s were produced, five of which crashed (see accident series ). The BOAC had a total of nine Series 1 Comets in its fleet.

Comet 1A

The Comet 1A was the first further development of the original model and had improved De Havilland Ghost engines and a reinforced structure with a higher maximum take-off weight. The launch customer was Canadian Pacific Airlines . A total of ten Comet 1As were produced, three of which crashed.

Comet 1XB

After the cause of the Comet crashes had been found, four copies of the Comet 1A type were converted to Comet 1XB. The conversion included a reinforced structure and oval windows, as they were later installed on the Comet 3 and 4. In addition, improved de Havilland Ghost engines were installed and the maximum take-off weight increased. The last completely preserved Comet 1 is a copy of this type, which is exhibited in the RAF Museum Cosford in BOAC colors (although this machine first flew for Air France and after being converted to an XB for the Royal Air Force , so it was never operated by BOAC has been).

Comet Mk II

The first structural modification of the Comet was the Comet Mk II; it had a stretched fuselage compared to the Mk I and modified wing leading edges. In addition, from the Mk II onwards, Avon 505 engines from the supplier Rolls-Royce were used instead of the Ghost produced by de Havilland itself . The Rolls-Royce engines were more powerful and quieter than those previously used in the Comet 1.

Comet 2X

The sixth Comet 1 built was equipped with Rolls-Royce-Avon engines for test purposes and designated as Comet 2X, making the machine the prototype of the Comet Mk II series. After the debacle with the “pirated copies” of the Nene and Derwent engines in Russia , the Comet 2 with Avon engines was even banned from flying over the territory of the Soviet Union .

Comet 2

The commercial Comet 2 was never flown in scheduled service after the disasters of the Comet 1. Five copies that had already been completed were scrapped and three more were parked. All other Comet 2s were modified after the Comet 1 accident series had been resolved (equipped with oval windows and doors, among other things) and in various military versions for the Royal Air Force (see following subsections C.2 , T.2 , 2R and 2E ) rebuilt.

Comet C.2

The fuselage and cabin floor of this military variant have been reinforced and the originally square windows have been replaced by oval windows. The maximum take-off weight was increased to 57,878 kg and Rolls-Royce Avon 117/118 was installed. A total of eight copies were handed over to the Royal Air Force, but each was allowed to complete a maximum of 8,000 take-off-landing cycles before they had to be decommissioned.

Comet T.2

This version is identical to the Comet C.2, but does not have the reinforced cabin floor. Both copies of this type were later converted to C.2.

Comet 2R

The hull of this variant was not pressurized and still had the original angular Comet windows. The material fatigue on the angular windows of the Comet 1 occurred because it had a pressure-ventilated fuselage, which placed considerably more stress on the material. Without pressure ventilation, the Comet 2R did not have to install new windows and doors. Rolls-Royce Avon 117 served as the drive. A Comet C.2 was later converted to a Comet 2R.

Comet 2E

The Comet 2E was a Comet C.2 with different engines. The outer two engines were Rolls-Royce Avon 524, as they were later used on the Comet 4. The two inner engines were Avon 505.

Comet Mk III

The first further development of the original Comet design was called Comet Mk. III or Comet 3. After the series of disasters on the Comet 1, the project was terminated prematurely for financial reasons. Only one copy was completed and later served as the development base for the Comet Mk. IV.

Comet 3

Compared to the Comet 1, the Comet 3 had a fuselage stretched by about 5.5 meters, oval windows and doors and Rolls-Royce-Avon 523 engines. In addition, the Comet 3 got the later typical wing tip tanks for the Comet Mk IV, which are visible as larger bulges on the outer leading edges of the wings. Minor changes have also been made to the engine outlets to reduce corrosion and noise pollution. The first flight of the prototype (registration G-ANLO) took place on June 24, 1954, but the project was not pursued because of the problems of the Comet 1 and instead the development of the much improved Comet Mk IV began. Ten Comet 3s under construction were scrapped, leaving the prototype the only Comet 3 that ever flew.

Comet 3B

The prototype of the Comet 3 (registration G-ANLO) was brought up to the technical standard of the Comet 4B in 1958. The most significant change was the removal of the wing tip tanks. The only Comet 3 thus became the only Comet 3B.

Three-sided view of the Comet 4B

Comet Mk IV

De Havilland tried according to previous failures due to fatigue problems of the first series with a much more advanced version of the Comet, called Comet Mk IV or Comet 4, but still successfully establish this type in the market for civil jet aircraft. After the setbacks of Comet 1, however, a lot of time was lost, and US competitors Boeing and Douglas had taken the opportunity and successfully marketed the Boeing 707 and the Douglas DC-8 , respectively .

On October 4, 1958, two Comet 4s, one to the east and one to the west, were the first passenger jets to cross the Atlantic in non-stop flight .

The Comet 4 was based on the dimensions of the Comet 3, but was significantly redesigned compared to it. The Comet 4 received a fuselage made from a different aluminum alloy , improved Rolls-Royce-Avon engines and a significantly higher maximum take-off weight. A total of 74 copies of all Comet Mk IV variants were produced, the last of which was delivered in 1964. BOAC began to take the first machines out of service as early as 1965.

Comet 4
Comet 4

The first variant of the Comet Mk-IV series. The Comet 4 was based on the design of the Comet 3, but had a reinforced structure, a higher maximum take-off weight and improved Rolls-Royce-Avon 524 engines. The first flight took place on April 27, 1958, and BOAC was able to put the first aircraft into operation in October 1958. This short time between the first flight and commissioning was made possible because the majority of the approval tests had already been successfully completed by the Comet 2E and the Comet 3 prototype. Like the Comet 3, the Comet 4 had two pointed tanks on the outer leading edges of the wings. A total of 28 copies of this variant were built.

Comet 4A

In June 1956 the development of this short-haul variant of the Comet 4 was announced. The fuselage was stretched compared to the Comet 4, while the wings were reduced and the maximum take-off weight was also lower. The development of this variant was stopped when the only customer, Capital Airlines , canceled the order.

A Comet 4 B of the Olympic
Comet 4B

After the Comet 4A had never left the drawing board, de Havilland developed the Comet 4B, which, like the Comet 4A, was designed as a short-haul variant. The shorter wings of the Comet 4A were retained, but the wing tip tanks that were still intended for this type were removed. In addition, the fuselage was stretched again and the Rolls-Royce Avon 525 (B), which was further improved, was installed. The outer two engines were equipped with thrust reverser flaps, making the Comet 4B the first Comet variant that had a thrust reverser. The first of a total of 18 Comet 4Bs built made its maiden flight on June 27, 1959.

Comet 4C

The Comet 4C was essentially a Comet 4B with the wings of the Comet 4. Like the latter, the Comet 4C again had wing tip tanks to increase the range. Like the short-haul version Comet 4B, the Comet 4C was powered by four Rolls-Royce Avon 525B turbo jets . A total of 23 machines of this type were built, the first of which took off on its maiden flight on October 31, 1959.

Comet C.4

The Comet 4C operated by the Royal Air Force were given the designation "Comet C.4". The interior was modified compared to the normal passenger version, but the technical features were identical. A total of five Comet C.4 were built for the British Air Force.

Comet Mk V (project)

For a short time, de Havilland pursued a project called "Comet 5". Although it was also called the Comet , it would ultimately have been an almost entirely different aircraft. The fuselage was to be widened in order to accommodate up to five passengers in a row, the wings were to have a stronger sweep and Rolls-Royce-Conway engines, which were no longer mounted in the wing roots, but with so-called pods on the surfaces would be (similar to how this was later implemented with the VFW 614 ). The Comet 5 was thus designed similar in size and configuration to the US competitors Boeing 707 and Douglas DC-8. However, the Ministry of Transport failed to provide financial support, which is why de Havilland decided not to pursue the project any further. BOAC , which had been critical of the Comet 5 from the start, ordered Boeing 707-420s equipped with British Rolls-Royce-Conway engines instead.

A Nimrod MR2

Nimrod maritime patrol

In the late 1960s, the British Royal Air Force developed the Nimrod reconnaissance aircraft based on the Comet . State-of-the-art communication and reconnaissance systems were installed and the range was extended to up to 11,000 km. From 2002 the machines were fundamentally revised and should be in use for at least another 15 years. However, they were decommissioned by summer 2011.

In addition, an almost completely new development under the designation MRA4 was planned, but not implemented.


Civil users

Classic clock cockpit of the N888WA ( Mexicana )
A de Havilland Comet operated by Channel Airways at Berlin-Tegel Airport in 1971

After the considerably improved Comet 4 began service in August 1958, the last Comet was delivered just over six years later, in 1964. The following year, the British BOAC began to remove the first machines of this type from the fleet.

The Comet only flew with a few companies (around 24, which already includes some state and presidential aircraft) as well as the Canadian and British air forces. Comet's civilian customers included BOAC, Air France , BEA , Malaysia-Singapore Airlines (forerunner of Singapore Airlines ), MEA , Mexicana , Olympic and United Arab Airlines .

Most of the civil Comet had disappeared from the airline fleets by the early 1970s. Only the British Dan-Air London held on to the type introduced in 1966 for a relatively long time. She had operated the world's largest Comet fleet; a total of 49 pieces were in their possession. This company also carried out the last passenger flight with a Comet (a Comet 4C) in the fall of 1980.

Military users

Royal Canadian Air Force
Royal Air Force
Royal Aircraft Establishment

The 216 Squadron , based at RAF Lyneham , was the main user in the Royal Air Force . It used Comet from June 1956 in versions C.2 and from 1962 C.4 until 1976. One of her tasks was monthly liaison flights to the British garrisons in Southwest and Southeast Asia. The last flight of a Comet took place on October 30, 1997. The Comet 4C with the registration number XS235 was last owned by the Defense Evaluation and Research Agency of the British Ministry of Defense and was transferred from Boscombe Down to the Bruntingthorpe Aerodrome. The Nimrod reconnaissance aircraft of the British Royal Air Force based on the Comet 4C were still in service until 2011 .

More incidents

From the first flight in 1949 to the end of its mission in 1997, the De Havilland Comet suffered 25 total losses. 492 people were killed in 12 of them. Extracts:

  • On March 3, 1953, the pilots of a Comet 1A ( aircraft registration number CF-CUN ) of Canadian Pacific Airlines took the aircraft nose up too steeply when taking off from Karachi ; the machine shot over the end of the track and fell into a dry river bed. The machine was on its delivery flight to Canada. All 11 inmates were killed. It was the first fatal accident involving a passenger jet.
  • On June 25, 1953, a Comet 1A of the Union Aéromaritime de Transport (UAT) (F-BGSC) coming from Paris rolled over the end of the runway when landing at Dakar-Yoff Airport . She crossed a drainage ditch, which led to the loss of her landing gear, and remained lying on the fuselage around 40 meters behind the end of the runway. All ten passengers and seven crew members survived. The machine was only eight weeks old and was irreparably damaged.
  • On July 25, 1953, a Comet 1 of the BOAC (G-ALYR) got at Calcutta airport while rolling on unpaved ground, with the right undercarriage being pushed up through the wing, which led to a total loss. The trigger was a bad design of the Comet's headlights. The switches for the right and left landing lights had to be switched on and off alternately to prevent the lamps from melting. The switches were behind the seat of the captain, who had to let go of the nose wheel steering to operate them. All 42 people on board were uninjured.
  • On December 21, 1961, a Comet 4B operated by British European Airways (BEA) ( G-ARJM ) on the flight from Ankara-Esenboğa Airport to Nicosia went into an extremely steep flight position immediately after take-off, suffered a stall and sank to the ground. The cause is assumed to be a malfunction of the artificial horizon on the captain's side. 27 of the 34 people on board were killed.
  • On July 19, 1962, a Comet 4C of the Egyptian airline United Arab Airlines (SU-AMW) crashed on Khao Yai Mountain, Thailand . None of the 26 people on board survived this controlled flight into terrain (see also United Arab Airlines flight 869 ) .
  • On July 27, 1963, a Comet 4C operated by United Arab Airlines ( SU-ALD ) crashed into the sea on a night approach during severe turbulence about 10 km west-northwest of Bombay Airport . All 63 people on board were killed; the wreck was not found.
  • On October 12, 1967, a Comet 4 of British European Airways (BEA) ( G-ARCO ) crashed into the Mediterranean after a bomb explosion on the flight from Athens to Nicosia 35 km south of Demre (Turkey). All 66 people on board were killed.
  • On July 3, 1970, a Comet 4 of the British Dan-Air ( G-APDN ) coming from Manchester flew into a mountain while approaching Barcelona Airport northeast of the field in the Sierra del Montseny southwest of Arbúcies . All 112 people on board were killed. This was the Comet accident with the most fatalities. The causes were navigation errors by the pilots and incorrect instructions from air traffic control .
  • On January 2, 1971, the Comet 4C SU-ALC operated by United Arab Airlines hit a dune at an altitude of almost 120 meters when approaching Tripoli Airport . During this controlled flight into terrain , everyone on board, eight passengers and eight crew members died.

Total losses through acts of war

On the night of December 28-29, 1968, Israeli commandos landed at Beirut airport and blew up 14 planes from various, mostly Lebanese airlines, including 8 MEA machines, as well as fuel dumps in retaliation for a Palestinian attack on an Israeli plane on December 26th December 1968 in Athens.

In detail, the following De Havilland Comet 4C of Middle East Airlines were destroyed in this action:

  • OD-ADQ, build number 6446
  • OD-ADR, construction number 6445
  • OD-ADS, build number 6448.

Technical specifications

Parameter Comet 1 Comet 1A Comet 1XB Comet 2 Comet 3 Comet 4 Comet 4B Comet 4C
First flight July 27, 1949 August 11, 1952 February 1957 August 27, 1953 July 19, 1954 April 27, 1958 June 27, 1959 October 31, 1959
crew 4th
Max. Number of seats approx. 60 approx. 70 106 109 119
typical number of seats 36 44 58 56 71 79
length 28.61 m 29.53 m 33.98 m 35.97 m
span 34.98 m 32.83 m 34.98 m
Hull diameter 2.97 m
Wing area 188.30 m² 197.04 m² 191.30 m² 197.04 m²
Wing extension 6.5 6.2 5.6 6.2
Arrow 20 °
height 8.70 m 8.99 m
payload 5,670 kg 5,350 kg 6,125 kg 9,160 kg 9,200 kg 10,930 kg
Max. Takeoff mass 47,620 kg 52,160 kg 53,070 kg 54,430 kg 65,760 kg 73,480 kg 71,610 kg 73,480 kg
Cruising speed 725 km / h 770 km / h 805 km / h 850 km / h 805 km / h
Service ceiling 12,800 m 12,200 m 11,500 m 11,900 m
Range 2,415 km 2,850 km 4,065 km 4,345 km 5,190 km 4,025 km 6,900 km
4 × jet engines de Havilland Ghost 50 Mk1
each 22.2 kN thrust
de Havilland Ghost 50 Mk2
each 22.8 kN thrust
de Havilland Ghost 50 Mk4
each 23 kN thrust
Rolls-Royce Avon 503
32.5 kN thrust each
Rolls-Royce Avon 523
each 44.5 kN thrust
Rolls-Royce Avon 524
each 46.7 kN thrust
Rolls-Royce Avon 525B
each 46.7 kN thrust
number of pieces 11 1 10 4
(converted 1A)
22nd 1 28 18th 28 2
  • 1) Including two prototypes that differed from the later series models in terms of window arrangement and chassis configuration
  • 2) including five Royal Air Force Comet C4s

Preserved copies

Comet 1

  • The only Comet 1 still completely intact is a Comet 1XB, which is on display in the RAF Museum Cosford . It bears the BOAC colors and the aircraft registration G-APAS, although the aircraft was initially delivered to Air France and, after being converted to the Comet 1XB, was used by the British government, so it never flew for BOAC.
  • The nose of the former BOAC Comet 1A G-ANAV is on display in the London Science Museum , while the fuselage of the former Air France Comet 1A F-BGNX has been preserved at the De Havilland Aircraft Heritage Center in Hertfordshire .

Comet 2

  • The Comet C.2 "Sagittarius" (serial number XK699, later maintenance number 7971M) is currently on display at the entrance to the Royal Air Force Base Lyneham in Wiltshire . Lyneham was previously the base of operations for all Comets in the British Air Force.

Comet 4

  • A Comet 4B (license plate G-APYD) is on display in the Science Museum's branch in Wroughton , Wiltshire .
  • A Comet 4C (US registration N888WA) is in BOAC livery at the Museum of Flight in Seattle , where it is currently being restored.
  • A Comet 4C (registration number N777WA) is on display in Parque Zoológico Irapuato in Mexico .
  • A Comet 4C (registration G-APDB) is exhibited in the colors of Dan-Air in the Imperial War Museum Duxford . The machine is part of the so-called flight line display and can therefore also be viewed from the inside at certain times.
  • A Comet 4C (registration G-BDIW) is exhibited in the colors of Dan-Air in the Leo Junior flight exhibition in Hermeskeil .
  • A Comet 4C (registration G-BDIX) is on display in the Dan-Air colors in the Museum of Flight in East Lothian , Scotland .
  • The last Comet 4C ( Canopus , RAF serial number XS235) flown in 1997 is kept in working order at Bruntingthorpe Aerodrome (Great Britain). The machine regularly carries out so-called high speed taxi runs (taxi runs over the runway at high speed).

See also


Web links

Commons : De Havilland DH.106 Comet  - Collection of Images

Individual evidence

  1. Christof Brenner: The first passenger jet took off 70 years ago: the de Havilland Comet. In: AERO International , No. 8/2019, pp. 76–79
  2. ^ Bruce Hales-Dutton: The Third shall be First . In: Airplane Monthly September 2016, p. 62
  3. Xavier Massé: Avion Concorde: de l'évocation en 1943 au dernier vol en 2003 , Dossiers aéronautiques, ISSN 1284-6864, Nouvelles Editions Latines, 2004, ISBN 978-2723320450 , page 13
  4. Air-Britain Archive: Casualty compendium (English), March 1995, pp. 95/25.
  5. ^ Accident report Comet 1 G-ALYV , Aviation Safety Network (English), accessed on August 20, 2017.
  6. ^ Accident report Comet 1 G-ALYP , Aviation Safety Network (English), accessed on August 22, 2017.
  7. ^ Air-Britain Archive: Casualty compendium (English) part 59, December 1995, pp. 95/112.
  8. ^ Accident report Comet 1 G-ALYY , Aviation Safety Network (English), accessed on August 22, 2017.
  9. Report of the Court of Inquiry into the Accidents to Comet G-ALYP on 10th January 1954 and Comet G-alyy on 8th April, 1954 ( English , PDF) Ministry of Transport and Civil Aviation . February 1, 1955. Retrieved January 31, 2019.
  10. Marc Dierikx: Clipping the Clouds: How Air Travel Changed the World , published by ABC-CLIO, 2008, ISBN 978-0-313-05945-2 , page 40
  11. ... And Dan-Air Buy Comets. World News, Flight International, February 24, 1966, p. 290.
  12. Flight International, December 1, 1979 (English), accessed July 28, 2019.
  13. ^ Institution of Electrical Engineers 1978, p. 89.
  14. Accident statistics de Havilland DH-106 Comet , Aviation Safety Network (English), accessed on July 28, 2019.
  15. Air-Britain Archive: Casualty compendium (English), March 1995, pp. 95/25.
  16. ^ Accident report Comet 1A CF-CUN , Aviation Safety Network (English), accessed on August 20, 2017.
  17. ^ Accident report Comet 1A F-BGSC , Aviation Safety Network (English), accessed on August 18, 2017.
  18. ^ Accident report Comet 1 G-ALYR , Aviation Safety Network (English), accessed on November 11, 2017.
  19. ^ Accident report Comet 4B G-ARJM , Aviation Safety Network (English), accessed on January 21, 2016.
  20. ^ Accident report Comet 4C SU-ALD , Aviation Safety Network (English), accessed on January 21, 2016.
  21. ^ Accident report Comet 4 G-ARCO , Aviation Safety Network (English), accessed on January 21, 2016.
  22. ^ Accident report Comet 4 G-APDN , Aviation Safety Network (English), accessed on January 21, 2016.
  23. ^ Accident report Comet 4C SU-ALC , Aviation Safety Network (English), accessed on January 19, 2016.
  24. Aviation Safety Network - Report List 1968/3: see 28-DEC-1968 (English), accessed on July 28, 2019.