|Area :||7.52 km²|
|Geographic location :|
|Height :||162 m npm|
|Residents :||5150 (Dec. 31, 2016)|
|Postal code :||77-310 to 77-311|
|Telephone code :||(+48) 59|
|License plate :||GCZ|
|Economy and Transport|
|Street :||Ext. 188 : Człuchów - Piła|
|Rail route :||PKP - route 426: Piła – Tczew , train station: Lipka (5 km)|
|Next international airport :||Danzig|
Debrzno [ 'dɛbʐnɔ ] ( German : Preußisch Friedland ; Kashubian : Frédląd ) is a small town in the powiat Człuchowski of the Polish Pomeranian Voivodeship . It is the seat of the town-and-country municipality of the same name .
The city is located in the former West Prussia , about 16 kilometers south-south-west of Człuchów , 39 kilometers south-east of Szczecinek and 152 kilometers south-west of Gdansk on the north bank of the Debrzynka river , which comes from the Suckau lake east of the city, here the Friedländer or Stadtsee and afterwards flows through the Lower Lake . The headwaters of the Debrzynka, the Nemonitz or the Nemonicz have their source northeast of the city, near the village of Mossin . Both rivers used to be border rivers. The Kraina Lake District begins in the south , and a nature reserve ( Miłachowo ) on the western city limits .
The area around the village, which in earlier times Frede country was called and later to distinguish it from the East Prussian city of Friedland and from the networks district town of Mirosławiec the name Prussian Friedland received, originally belonged to castellany Ziethen the Pomeranian Dukes of Gdansk . During the settlement by the Pomeranian dukes, a border castle was built there, under whose protection a small settlement was created, from which the city later developed. Since 1309 the surrounding country was part of the domain of the Teutonic Order . The place Fredeland was first mentioned in a document from 1346, with which the administrator of the order of Schlochau assigned four Hufen land to a settler named Tylo. In 1354 Grand Master Winrich von Kniprode granted the town Kulm town charter and allocated 150 Hufen land to it. To protect against the neighboring Kingdom of Poland , a bailiff was installed in the city, who built strong fortifications.
During the Thirteen Years War of the Cities , an eight-day Polish siege broke out in 1461, but it was unsuccessful. After the defeat of the Teutonic Order, Pr. Friedland became part of the autonomous Prussian royal share with the Second Peace of Thorner of 1466 , which had voluntarily submitted to the sovereignty of the Polish king. On the occasion of the establishment of the Union of Lublin in the Lublin Sejm announced King Sigismund II. August on 16 March 1569 the autonomy of West Prussia, however bitter under penalty sanctions unilaterally, which is why the supremacy of the Polish king in this part of the former territory of the German Order of 1569 until 1772 was perceived as foreign rule.
According to a tax list from 1564, twelve farmers lived in the city, which consisted of 115 houses, plus a few shoemakers, blacksmiths, stove fitters, a draper and a butcher. The 17th century brought little good for the city. During the Thirty Years War it was looted by Swedish soldiers in 1627, the plague broke out in 1659 and in 1696 a fire destroyed everything but three houses. Around the middle of the 18th century, Mayor Davidson and a like-minded person, a Meister Biegalke, tried to found a sect in Prussian Friedland, which was forbidden on June 12, 1752 by the Schlochau rulers.
On the occasion of the first Polish partition in 1772, Prussian Friedland came to Prussia and was incorporated into the West Prussian Schlochau district, from which the Schlochau district was later formed. In 1783, Frederick the Great had a new fulling mill built on Suckausee to promote wool weaving . However, since this suffered from a lack of water, it was moved to Grunau, where from then on the Friedlanders and Grunau drapers walked together. In 1778 there were 54 master cloth makers in Preussisch Friedland. The trade in Friedland fabrics extended to Russia . A brisk trade also developed in beer and malt, which mainly went to Pomerania and Danzig .
During the Napoleonic period, Preussisch Friedland suffered a lot, especially in 1806 and 1807, as French soldiers constantly marched through the city, causing oppressive rise in prices. After the wars of freedom were over, city life gradually returned to normal.
Until then the clothmaking trade had dominated in the city, but also due to the fact that Preussisch Friedland was not connected to the railway network, this source of income decreased more and more in the course of the 19th century. On the other hand, Preussisch Friedland was able to achieve a certain supraregional importance with its higher schools and especially with the Protestant school teacher seminar. At the end of the 19th century, many Rhinelanders moved to the city, which doubled the population. At the beginning of the 20th century, Preussisch Friedland had a Protestant church, a Catholic church, a synagogue , a Progymnasium , a Protestant teacher training college and a district court.
After the First World War , the economic situation deteriorated dramatically, as the loss of the province of West Prussia made the city a border region to Poland. It now belonged to the Prussian province of Grenzmark Posen-West Prussia .
At the beginning of the 1930s, the district of the city of Preussisch Friedland had an area of 38.9 km², and there were 426 houses in 15 different places of residence in the city:
- Dire Maul
- Forester's House Babusch
- Forest house Rehwinkel
- Prussian Friedland
- Loyalty willows
In 1925, Preussisch Friedland had 3,830 inhabitants, who were spread over 915 households; among them were 2,796 Protestants, 893 Catholics and 118 Jews. Around 1930 there was a district court, a grammar school and a state advanced school in Preussisch Friedland.
Towards the end of the Second World War , troops of the Red Army entered Preussisch Friedland on January 29, 1945 , were repulsed, but returned on February 20, 1945. 70 percent of the city was destroyed in the fighting. After the city was conquered by the Soviet troops, there were serious attacks and arbitrary acts against the civilian population.
In the summer of 1945, Friedland was placed under Polish administration by the Soviet occupying power in accordance with the Potsdam Agreement, along with all of Western Pomerania , all of West Prussia and the southern half of East Prussia and was given the Polish place name Debrzno . Some of the new Polish settlers came from the areas east of the Curzon Line that had fallen to the Soviet Union as part of the “ West displacement of Poland ” . Unless they had fled, the German population was expelled from Friedland in the period that followed .
coat of arms
Blazon : "In silver on green ground, a black boar in front of an open, black hunting net."
The city colors are white - black.
The seal DE VREDELANTES, which still belongs to the 14th century, shows the boar turned to the left in the obliquely latticed seal field. This meaningless decoration became a hunting net as early as the beginning of the 16th century on the SIGILLVM CIVITATIS FREDELAND, and even more clearly on the SIGILLVM MAIVS CIVITATIS FRIDLANDENSIS 1638, which all later seals have retained. One of these from 1668 shows it hung on a string by means of rings.
|1783||1,138||all Germans, two thirds of them Evangelicals and one third Catholics|
|1816||1,449||including 990 Protestants, 363 Catholics and 96 Jews|
|1818||1,446||in 237 houses|
|1871||3,167||including 2,250 Evangelicals and 600 Catholics|
|1890||3,598||including 2,635 Evangelicals, 719 Catholics and 242 Jews|
|1925||3,830||including 2,796 Evangelicals, 893 Catholics and 118 Jews|
- Bar chart of the population to date
The town-and-country municipality of Debrzno includes other localities in addition to the city that gives it its name.
- Christian Langhansen (1660–1727), mathematician and Lutheran theologian
- Franz Triebel (1869–1942), German Imperial Judge.
- Mia Pankau (1891–1974), silent film actress
- Johann Friedrich Goldbeck : Complete topography of the Kingdom of Prussia . Part II: Topography of West Prussia , Marienwerder 1789, pp. 74–75, No. 7 ( e-copy )
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- Manfred Vollack , Heinrich Lemke: The Schlochau district - a book from Prussian-Pomeranian homeland . Kiel 1974, ISBN 3-9800051-1-9 .
- Ernst Bahr: Prussian Friedland . In: Handbook of historical sites , East and West Prussia , Kröner, Stuttgart 1981, ISBN 3-520-31701-X , pp. 179–180.
- City of Preussisch Friedland (Rolf Jehke, 2003)
- The town of Preussisch Friedland in the former Schlochau district in Pomerania (Gunthard Stübs and Pommersche Forschungsgemeinschaft, 2011).
- Jewish Community website (Polish)
- Friedrich Wilhelm Ferdinand Schmitt : The Flatow district. In all of his relationships. Thorn 1867, p. 37.
- Johann Friedrich Goldbeck : Complete topography of the Kingdom of Prussia . Part II, Marienwerder 1789, pp. 74-75, no.7)
- Hans Prutz : History of the Neustadt district in West Prussia . Danzig 1872, p. 104 .
- A. Reusch: West Prussia under Polish scepter. Ceremonial speech given at the Elbinger Gymnasium on 13th Spt. 1872 . In: Altpreußieche Monatsschrift , NF, Volume 10, Königsberg 1873, pp. 140–154, especially p. 146 .
- Hans Prutz : History of the Neustadt district in West Prussia . Danzig 1872, p. 104 ff .
- Prussian Provincial Papers. Volume 2, Königsberg 1829, p. 207, No. 4 ..
- Meyers Konversations-Lexikon . Sixth edition, 7th volume, Leipzig and Vienna 1907, p. 111, item 7).
- Gunthard Stübs and Pomeranian Research Association: The city of Preussisch Friedland in the former Schlochau district in Pomerania . (2011).
- The Big Brockhaus . 15th edition. Volume 15, Leipzig 1933, p. 114.
- Manfred Vollack , Heinrich Lemke: The Schlochau district - A book from Prussian-Pomeranian homeland . Kiel 1974, ISBN 3-9800051-1-9 , p. 334.
- Erich Keyser : German city book - manual urban history . W. Kohlhammer Verlag, Stuttgart 1939, Volume I: Northeast Germany , pages 214-215.
- German local coats of arms by Prof. Otto Hupp , published in 1925 by Kaffee-Handels-Aktiengesellschaft Bremen
- Alexander August Mützell and Leopold Krug : New topographical-statistical-geographical dictionary of the Prussian state . Volume 5: T – Z , Halle 1823, pp. 282–283, item 181.
- Christian Gottfried Daniel Stein: Newspaper, Post and Comtoir Lexicon . Volume 2, Part 1: F - H , Leipzig 1819, p. 105, item 2).
- August Eduard Preuss : Prussian country and folklore . Königsberg 1835, p. 378, No. 10.
- Johann Günther Friedrich Cannabich : Textbook of geography according to the latest peace provisions . 16th edition, Weimar 1847, p. 713.
- Gustav Neumann: Geography of the Prussian State . 2nd edition, Volume 2, Berlin 1874, pp. 55–56, item 11.
- Michael Rademacher: German administrative history from the unification of the empire in 1871 to the reunification in 1990. schlochau.html # ew39slocprfriedl. (Online material for the dissertation, Osnabrück 2006).
- Główny Urząd Statystyczny (GUS) Size and Structure by Territorial Division. As of December 31, 2008 ( June 3, 2009 memento on WebCite )
- Główny Urząd Statystyczny (GUS) Portret miejscowości statystycznych w gminie Debrzno w 2010 r. (Exelsheet, Polish, accessed August 29, 2013)
- Główny Urząd Statystyczny (GUS) Size and Structure by Territorial Division. As of December 31, 2012 ( June 8, 2013 memento on WebCite )