The term document management (also document management system ) describes the database-supported management of electronic documents . In the German language , the management of digitized, originally paper-based documents in electronic systems is also meant and is used in a broader sense as an industry name.
When managing paper documents, one speaks of written material management . For better distinction is often the term electronic document management (English electronic document management , EDM) is used. Document management systems (DMS) are used as software .
In English usage , "document management" is a more limited term for the management of files with check-in / check-out, versioning and other functions, such as B. can be found in content management systems .
Document management in the narrower and broader sense
Since the general understanding of the term document management, as originally intended in American, differs greatly from the German definition of the term, Ulrich Kampffmeyer in 1995 made a distinction between document management in the broader sense as an industry name and categorization for various document technologies and document management in the narrower sense, classic document management American style, differentiated.
Document management in the narrower sense
On a file server , the user can only carry out a search using attributes such as file name, file extension, size or modification date. In the case of database-supported document management, on the other hand, any fields for metadata or keywording are available in the data record for a document , e.g. B. for numerical values such as customer or order number. Documents marked in this way can be researched using more information fields than a file server makes available. Essential properties are visualized order structures, check-in / check-out, versioning and database-supported metadata management for index-supported document searches.
The classic document management systems in the narrower sense are solutions that have arisen from the need to provide administrative functions for large files. One counts here
- Compound Document Management,
- Electronic Filing and
- dynamic filing systems for managing the life cycle of documents before electronic archiving .
The scope and functionality of classic document management systems are roughly defined in the ISO 10166 DFR Document Filing & Retrieval standard, which, however, has no significance.
An essential application of document management in the narrower sense is the electronic file , in which information is brought together from different sources. If this is done at runtime and controlled by the analysis of attributes of documents and document classes such privileges or status characteristics, it is called the "virtual file" that dynamically view (Engl. View ) is generated.
To differentiate classic document management products from products for document imaging, workflow management and groupware , one also speaks of compound document management solutions. You will e.g. B. used for product data management , digital asset management and the administration of documents from office applications . As an enterprise content management system, document management in the narrower sense is a component of the overarching strategy of enterprise content management (ECM).
Document management in the broader sense
A document management system in the broader sense is understood to mean different system categories and their interaction, such as
- Document management in the narrower sense (see above),
- Office communication,
- Document Imaging,
- Scanning ,
- Computer Output on Laserdisk (COLD),
- Management of work processes ( workflow management ),
- Groupware and
- electronic archiving .
The different document technologies are to a large extent dependent on one another, and the use of one component is generally not useful without access to other components. What all product categories have in common is that different types of documents - scanned facsimiles , incoming faxes , files from office applications, multimedia objects , etc. - are managed in a database-supported manner and independently of conventional hierarchical file managers . The use of databases allows the handling of large amounts of data and direct access to individual documents and document groups. In this context, for example, the area of imaging (capture, display and output of scanned documents) should be considered from the point of view that this is only a special type of document. The electronic archiving is attributed to the environment document management. Document management in the broader sense is often equated with Enterprise Content Management (ECM) in German-speaking countries .
Document management systems are used more and more frequently as an information base for organizational programs. This can be seen as a consequence of making documents available to a large group of users - for example an entire company. The completion of business processes is made possible in direct connection with the corresponding documents. Access to the data required for this is guaranteed simultaneously to all departments entrusted with processing. The completion of tasks, orders, etc. is thus supported in a logical and chronological sequence as a workflow . An authorization system that manages access to individual documents and business processes must be set up for this in order to avoid possible misuse.
What is an electronic document?
With document management systems, electronic documents managed. The term document is still interpreted very differently today. In Anglo-Saxon it is often used for text files. This can be clearly seen, for example, in the “.doc” ending used for file names in text documents . A distinction is therefore made between “Document Imaging”, the administration of scanned documents, and “Document Management”, the administration of texts that have already been digitally generated.
In German, the term “document” has a specific reference to paper-based documents . A document is often understood to mean a piece of writing with high quality content and legal significance. The document is brought closer to the charter enshrined in the law . This is particularly evident in derived terms such as “ document authenticity ”. When it comes to document management, German users initially think of scanned documents and are therefore only operating in a sub-area of this technology. In the Anglo-American language area, the content / legally defined document corresponds to the term “record”. "Records Management" is therefore not equated with "Document Management" either.
The term “electronic document” refers in principle to all types of weakly structured or unstructured information that is available as a file as a closed unit in an EDP system. It can be a scanned facsimile or a digitally transmitted fax , but also a file from a word processing program , a database extract or a list . In the case of documents that have been digitized from an analog format, such as paper or speech, and are available as a data stream or image that cannot be directly evaluated, one speaks of non-coded information (NCI). In the case of documents that are coded by character sets and can be evaluated directly by programs, one speaks of Coded Information (CI). Techniques such as OCR are used to convert NCI documents into CI documents.
Another source for the term “document” in connection with document management systems is the term “ documentation ”, which refers to a compilation of documents on a specific subject. Some "classic" document management systems therefore also pursue the goal of compiling a self-contained, current documentation at a defined point in time from various individual components that can be available in different versions.
The different origins of the term document also make it understandable how misunderstandings could arise among providers and users with regard to the different meanings. It is therefore important to determine which documents are to be transferred to a document management solution and how they are structured physically, formally and in terms of content. The use and legal character of the documents are also decisive for the administration: dynamic text files that are being processed are to be distinguished from unchangeable documents that are to be stored for a long time.
A document therefore usually has the following characteristics:
- physical properties ( paper , file ),
- formal properties (structure, design),
- Order (professional affiliation, sequence, version, classification in a file plan ),
- Content ( content reference),
- Character (suitability for archiving, retention obligation , legal character, processing options),
- Time (creation date, expiry date, last use),
- Producer (sender, creator, author),
- User (recipient, authorized processor, reader, last processor).
As a rule, all of these characteristics result from the document itself. They are used in IT systems for administration, access and provision. The protection and search features for the document management system also result from them. Attributes such as “order” or “character” that apply to all documents in a class, e. B. retention periods , times of destruction, common keywords , authorizations, etc. can be inherited via document classes.
Forms of documents
Documents can get into a document management system from various sources:
- Objects created by the systems themselves, such as files (e.g. print or text files) or data records (e.g. tables from a database ),
- analog objects converted into a digital format such as facsimiles ( scanned images ) or video films with sound, speech, etc., which are captured with a camera or microphone.
A document can also consist of one or more individual objects, such as:
- Documents from word processing , spreadsheets or graphics,
- Images, such as scanned paper documents and photos ,
- Forms, for example Electronic Data Interchange ( EDI ),
- COLD documents (Computer Output to Laser Disk),
- ASCII or XML text files,
- Video clips or
- Sound and voice clips, for example a recorded interview.
- Elementary documents, which consist of one object, contain only data of one type, i.e. no embedded graphics, images or calls to other objects.
- Documents composed of several objects are also known as compound documents. Compound documents consist of combined files that can contain text, format information, images, tables etc. as well as hyperlinks or references to other components.
- Individual objects, complex objects, reference information, links, metadata and internal administrative data can also be combined in containers for better handling.
Self-describing electronic documents
Container documents can usually only be broken down, interpreted and displayed by the generating program. If a document that has only been saved once is to be used for different contexts or if individual components of the container are to be accessed via programs other than the generating program, the container document must carry all the necessary structure, identification and management information with it. If these conditions are met, the documents are called "self-describing".
In addition to its content, a self-describing electronic document consists of attribute data (metadata) that allow access to documents and their cataloging. Today these are mostly mapped in XML based on a DTD or a schema . In English usage, such objects are referred to as “self-contained document objects”. In German they are also called "self-describing information objects". They are made up of any content component (individual object, container, list, etc.) and an upstream “header” connected to the content component. The header itself can be composed of different parts. It usually begins with a neutral description of which features and attributes can be expected in the header.
A header generally contains the following attributes that belong to the document as metadata:
- Codes for the self-explanatory function
- This includes, for example, the number and order of the following attributes, attribute names, attribute formats, etc., today mostly defined in XML and referenced externally in a DTD or a schema
- Clear identification of the object
- This is usually handled by a "Unique Identifier", a unique key for identifying each object. Both general standardizations and industry-specific specifications exist for unique identifiers . The Unique Identifier is used to access the object and identify it as a unique document. As a rule, the place and date of origin of the object are coded with the time in the Unique Identifier.
- Information on the type, number and structure of the individual parts of the content component
- This includes the construction is content component to understand that only a single facsimile , but also from a structured DV - list can be made, a multipage document or a composite container.
- Format information
- This includes descriptive data of the creation of the content component. Format information is evaluated to reproduce the information (for example for display, processing and printing).
- Usage information
- Examples of usage information are producer, intended user group, status of the information or link to permissible processing operations.
- Protection information
- This includes checksums , access protection features , possibly an electronic signature and other attributes.
- Reference information
- Reference information includes the affiliation to other objects such as following pages, predefined document classes, replacement of other documents by "logical deletion", notes, version management, background facsimile etc.
- Content information
- These are descriptive attributes and organizational features that are usually used in the administration database for direct access. They are used in the header for checking, restoring and display functions.
The attributes can also be evaluated if the administration database is not accessible or the information object has been sent to an environment outside the generating system.
Areas of application
Document management systems are complex systems consisting of database servers with the document data , file servers on which documents are kept in the processing state (called "vaults" in English), multi-level archiving systems on which documents are stored in their final state, conversion servers that produce this final state in the long-term file format , and communication servers who manage the transactions to the central system at network process level.
To access the central system, there are client programs based on client-server technology or, more recently, web technology, which run decentrally on the users' network PCs, the latter in their internet browser, and the user queries over the network forward and receive the system responses over the network and display them to the user.
Due to this complex technology, hardware purchases, software licenses, but above all the operation and support for such systems are extremely expensive. The high administrative effort for user roles, user rights, keyword dictionaries (classification systems) and the like should not be underestimated . Ä.
Comprehensive document management often also has additional personnel-requiring services, such as template management department, scanning department, central print and print distribution center, formal checking services, document import and export services (electronic customer interface), system hotline in up to 3 levels and Ä.
The main advantage of easier and longer-term retrievability is not only ensured by the electronic system, but by the setting up and maintenance of keyword dictionaries (classification systems, thesaurus ), document classes and the corresponding keywording when filing / saving documents.
This and the filing of documents, which is at least two times slower due to the system complexity compared to filing documents on simple file servers in the company network, causes more effort for all employees who store their documents with a document management system. This greater effort comes in through less effort when searching, although it must be taken into account that not every document stored in a company has to be accessed again.
The actual added value of a document management system arises above all when documents have to be retrieved after a long time due to legal requirements and financial sanctions can be avoided by retrieving them, which can be significant for a company. Finding old documents can also avoid costly duplicate developments.
Since most companies do not make general provisions for such long-term risks, the so-called return on investment for the use of document management systems is difficult to determine commercially.
Furthermore, there are also quality advantages that are difficult to quantify from a commercial point of view, which are particularly evident in customer relationships.
Further business challenges are the fixed costs for software licenses, operation and support on the one hand and the considerable costs per user for workplace / process-specific configuration, training and for the "internal marketing" of the introduction of the document management application and the stated amount of working time per user.
While the costs can steadily increase as the number of users increases, the risk that important documents cannot be found decreases with increasing system use in the company. On the other hand, the costs for the smallest number of users are relatively lowest at first glance, but still considerable due to the high fixed costs, and these considerable costs are then offset by almost no benefit.
Central document management systems often come up against their limits, for example with mobile employees with international business activities. For this, "packing your suitcase" and " synchronization " functions with e.g. B. project copies of documents on laptops as a document management function required. However, such functional expansions in modern systems are becoming increasingly popular.
Although most document management systems offer to create electronically navigable relationships between documents stored in the system, there is a lack of management options for modularly assembled documents. B. a document is displayed as part of another (see functionality of hyperlinks , OLE , embedded graphics, etc.). Often, such relationships can no longer be resolved by the corresponding application in the case of documents opened from a document management system. The remedy of the work instruction to the employees to forego such modularizations then again brings with it some disadvantages that the use of document management should actually eliminate, namely duplication and duplication of the same documents (nmodule) and problems with the timeliness of such multiple instances.
Maintenance and training of the subject headings dictionaries (also known as classification systems or thesauri ) pose a problem . The organizational unit responsible for the maintenance of the thesaurus is often overwhelmed with the meaning of the subject headings and thus with ensuring correct classification and freedom from redundancy. She therefore often gives in to requests for new filing terms too lightly. On the other hand, applicants from the business processes often do not have an overview of the existing structure of the keyword structure. The result is a Babylonian tangle of keyword systems and redundancies, which quickly calls into question the advantage of easy retrieval of documents in a document management system according to content criteria. Here you can document classes do with inheritance mechanisms remedy.
Self-learning systems with similarity vectors and / or neural networks , but at least the option of full-text search would be the solution here. Such techniques are not yet offered in all document management systems today, or if the number of documents is too large, the user can no longer reasonably be expected to impair the performance of his search queries, which is why such options are often deactivated in the configuration of the document management system, even if they are in principle available.
The use of workflow management components must go hand in hand with a corresponding conventional resource management. The fast, electronic forwarding of the work steps is of no use if bottlenecks of work capacity in the process repeatedly stop the flow of work. After all, the transparency provided by workflow logs offers the opportunity to find such bottlenecks. In Germany, however, reporting evaluations are prohibited by appropriate employee protection regulations.
In the case of higher business processes, workflows must never be programmed too rigidly, otherwise conventional processing, e.g. B. has a clear advantage through clarifications through joint meetings and cannot be supported by the document management system.
It is often difficult to enforce the use of document management systems for all users. This applies to the use of electronic workflows as well as to the more complicated filing of documents. In many companies, the workload per employee is now so compressed by rationalization measures that the additional expenses for administrative activities hardly appear sustainable for the employees.
The implemented authorization concepts are often felt to be too open. You can increase the benefit through openness, but also reduce it, if too much openness discourages employees from filing their documents with the document management system.
An important prerequisite is therefore that the company management, i.e. H. the executives at all levels are fully behind the comprehensive use of a document management system for at least all essential documents. The management must be aware of the economic effects described above and be responsible for and consistently represent them. It is not enough for the IT department to push ahead with the use of the system.
Document management differs depending on the type of documents and areas of application, which in turn can overlap:
Most of the documents in companies are of a commercial nature. For commercial letters , receipts , tax-relevant data and other contract and business information, there are guidelines for storage (in Germany e.g. tax code , GoBD and others). Business mail can be destroyed after scanning if the information is completely indexed and transferred unchanged to an audit-proof electronic archiving system. Documents originally created electronically must also be managed in electronic form with document management systems. The document management of commercial documents is often linked to ERP systems, as customers and transaction data on the documents are managed in these. Even emails can constitute commercial documents and are to be managed in accordance electronically in the factual connection with document management solutions.
Technical drawings are kept in design offices, engineering companies and similar companies . It can be tens or even hundreds of thousands of often large-format drawings that are typically stored flat in large drawers. The references here are called drawing numbers, but do not necessarily have to be numbers. In this case, the technical document management allows a search for the type of drawing, especially the client, and makes the drawing number available. In addition, further production information, such as suitable machines, is given. The drawings are usually saved depending on the format.
Libraries offer catalog systems with which one can search the inventory. Document management does not include the documents (media) themselves, but only references to their content and location; the OPAC is often used for this today .
A large number of documents are with the authorities. They are called files there . Files are usually kept in the registry and requested by the clerk. The request is usually made via the file number , and the output is often managed via registry software. There are detailed regulations on the type of file number, but these vary from authority to authority. The basis for the file number is the respective file plan of the administration, based on the uniform file plans of the respective countries. Without a file number, a file can usually no longer be found. The DOMEA concept was developed for the administration of electronic files at authorities . However, this is less suitable for use in smaller administrations and administrative associations at the local level.
For private households, a document management system can be used as an electronic repository for personal documents. If every scan is provided with metadata (e.g. with the import date and keywords) and saved, for example, as a write-protected PDF file, it is sometimes unnecessary to store paper documents. Some invoices are only received electronically anyway, and some documents, such as instructions for use, are available on the Internet.
A regular backup copy is also of crucial importance for the private household. In addition, relatives need to know how to access the documents in an emergency. Certain documents are still required in the original, in particular training and professional documents (training certificates, diplomas, certificates of employment, employment contracts, pay slips and social security documents), official documents (birth certificate, family register, passport, baptism certificate, marriage certificate, death certificates of family members) and other important documents (e.g. medical reports, insurance certificates) as well as, if applicable, wills, health care proxy, care and living wills. In practice, however, only a few private households use electronic document management systems for important documents.
Numerous organizations, companies and institutions keep documents, such as B. Hospitals, businesses, associations, self-employed, research institutions, etc. The basic problems of retrieval are the same everywhere. Nevertheless, all cases are different. So the number of documents is important. It makes a difference whether only ten thousand or several million documents have to be managed. The confidentiality of the documents varies greatly; some are secret, others are public. The question of who is looking for documents is also important. If this is the general public, the forms of representation must be understandable in and of themselves. If only trained personnel have access, this is not necessary and, in the case of confidential documents, also not desired. It is also important whether the documents change or not, whether they should be stored in an audit-proof manner or not, whether they grow significantly or not, whether they should be accessed frequently or only very rarely, or how large the amount of data is in general. Depending on the situation, document management systems must be designed differently.
It is also possible to use document management systems to provide technical support for areas such as quality management , performance management and resource management and thus to make them more efficient.
Business considerations of document management
The following arguments speak for the benefit and economic efficiency of using electronic document management systems:
- Guarantee of easy retrieval of documents ( search engine , keywording , allocation of unique document identifiers )
- Guarantee of the long-term readability of documents (through automatic conversion in all probability to "timeless" file formats such as TIFF or PDF / A )
- Guarantee of the statutory archiving periods (sometimes up to 30 years)
- Management of processing statuses (versions)
- Support of document creation (template management, document assignment workflow , read-write synchronization when creating documents in a team, checking, approval, distribution and archiving workflow)
- Automation of business processes with documents
- Guarantee of an access authorization concept (information security and data protection )
- Logging of all manipulations to the documents and the forwarding of the documents (audit trail)
- Avoiding storage costs that arise from multiple filing of documents (on the e-mail servers, on project, department and user drives)
- Avoiding ambiguities about the validity of document statuses and conflicts through parallel changes
- Avoid duplication of work and filing
Further development of document management
By merging conventional document management techniques (in the broader sense) with Internet techniques , web content management and portals , ECM ( Enterprise Content Management ) was created in the late 1990s . Today, document management is often just an integrated component of comprehensive systems with workflow , collaboration , records management, electronic archiving , input management and output management . Overall, the term document technologies or (English) Document Related Technologies (DRT) has been naturalized since about the year 2000 . Information Lifecycle Management (ILM) is increasingly overlapping with the traditional functions of document management.
Document management systems
For some time, there is also free software for DMS (under royalty-free open source - licenses ). Free DMS software can be installed and used by companies themselves. However, there are also system houses that have specialized in free DMS programs and provide paid services based on this software.
The advantages of a free system are, on the one hand, the possibility of adapting the program to your needs or correcting errors, on the other hand, the investment volume can be significantly reduced. The resulting freedom within the budget can be used more intensively for the most necessary adjustments. In addition, a license-free system is neutral in relation to the length of the chosen implementation schedule, since no costs are incurred over time. As a consequence of the investment, the arbitrary and, in principle, free scalability of the system is an advantage (apart from indirect costs such as the provision of the infrastructure, which must be taken into account for all such installations).
From a technical point of view, free DMS systems are by all means competitive, however, questions of liability as well as further development, maintenance and service are important when choosing them. Due to the general availability of the source code, free DMS systems generally offer the greatest possible independence from the manufacturer and thus, at least in theory, greater security for the future, which is solely dependent on the long-term benefits of the providers and users. An aspect that is important for future security is the availability of know-how regarding the systems. A large community ensures the desired independence and availability of knowledge about the respective DMS. Future security is particularly important in public administrations. It is important to be able to access archived documents even after decades. This is facilitated by the use of free software and open document formats.
The programs belong to the free software
- Alfresco (Community Edition)
- bitfarm archive
- LogicalDOC (Community Edition)
- Main Pyrus DMS
- Nuxeo EP
The programs belong to the proprietary software
- Alfresco (Enterprise Edition)
- Electronic Leitz folder
- Fabasoft Folio
- IBM FileNet
- LogicalDOC (Enterprise Edition)
- Microsoft SharePoint Server (only partial functions of a DMS)
- Xerox DocuShare
- Easy software
- Marcel Bisges: Copyright aspects of electronic document management . Nomos, 2009, ISBN 978-3-8329-4627-2 .
- Klaus Götzer, Udo Schneiderath, Berthold Maier, Torsten Komke: Document Management . Dpunkt Verlag, 2004, ISBN 3-89864-258-5 .
- Jürgen Gulbins, Markus Seyfried, Hans Strack-Zimmermann: Document Management . Springer, Berlin 2002, ISBN 3-540-43577-8 .
- Knut Hinkelmann, Barbara Thönssen: Document Management & Archiving. Process support for companies and public administrations. 1st edition BPX Edition, March 2007, ISBN 978-3-905413-70-0 .
- Martin Böhn, Maximilian Gantner, Michael Schiklnag: Enterprise Content Management : systems for document management and archiving in comparison. Oxygon Verlag, 2009, ISBN 978-3-937818-35-1 .
- Renate Karl: Document management and archive. dsk study ECM / BPM Edition. Part 1, dsk Beratungs-GmbH, Pfaffenhofen 2006.
- Wolfgang Limper: Document Management. DTV-Beck, 2001, ISBN 3-423-50236-3 .
- Bernhard Zöller et al .: Document Management - From Archives to Enterprise Content Management. Code of Practice. Series of publications of the VOI e. V., 1st edition, June 2005, ISBN 3-932898-11-7 .
- EN 82045-1 / 2 document management; Part 1 Principles and Methods, Part 2 Metadata and Information Reference Models
- Definition of the archive school Marburg, with references, 2010
- Link catalog on document management at curlie.org (formerly DMOZ )
- Ulrich Kampffmeyer: Basics of document management . Gabler, 1997, ISBN 3-409-87940-4 , pp. 18 .
- Ulrich Kampffmeyer: Basics of document management . Gabler, 1997, ISBN 3-409-87940-4 , pp. 36 .
- Ulrich Kampffmeyer: Document Management - Basics & Future . Project Consult, 1999, ISBN 3-9806756-0-2 , pp. 37 ( limited preview in Google Book search).
- Assessment according to Ulrich Kampffmeyer: Document Management - Basics & Future . Project Consult, 1999, ISBN 3-9806756-0-2 , pp. 157 ( limited preview in Google Book search).
- Ulrich Kampffmeyer: Enterprise Content Management . Project Consult, 2006, ISBN 3-9806756-0-2 , pp. 13 ff . ( limited preview in Google Book search).
- Ulrich Kampffmeyer: Document Management - Basics & Future . Project Consult, 1999, ISBN 3-9806756-0-2 , pp. 38 ( limited preview in Google Book search).
- Ulrich Kampffmeyer: Document Technologies - Where is the journey going . Project Consult, 2003, ISBN 978-3-9806756-4-2 , pp. 88 f . ( limited preview in Google Book search).
- The section "Document" became Ulrich Kampffmeyer: Basics of Document Management . Gabler, 1997, ISBN 3-409-87940-4 . borrowed
- Ulrich Kampffmeyer: Document Management - Basics & Future . Project Consult, 1999, ISBN 3-9806756-0-2 , pp. 27 ( limited preview in Google Book search).
- Definition according to Ulrich Kampffmeyer: Document Management - Basics & Future . Project Consult, 1999, ISBN 3-9806756-0-2 , pp. 27 ( limited preview in Google Book search).
- Ulrich Kampffmeyer: Basics of document management . Gabler, 1997, ISBN 3-409-87940-4 .
- The following section and compilations from Ulrich Kampffmeyer: Document Management - Basics & Future . Project Consult, 1999, ISBN 3-9806756-0-2 , pp. 29 ( limited preview in Google Book search).
- Ulrich Kampffmeyer: Document Management - Basics & Future . Project Consult, 1999, ISBN 3-9806756-0-2 , pp. 30 ( limited preview in Google Book search).
- For the following information on self-contained objects see Ulrich Kampffmeyer: Document Management - Basics & Future . Project Consult, 1999, ISBN 3-9806756-0-2 , pp. 30th f . ( limited preview in the Google Book Search - see also the derived definition of AIP Archive Information Object of ISO 14721: 2012 OAIS Open Archive Information System).
- For the following information on self-contained objects see Ulrich Kampffmeyer: Document Management - Basics & Future . Project Consult, 1999, ISBN 3-9806756-0-2 , pp. 30th f . ( limited preview in Google Book search).
- Following section according to Ulrich Kampffmeyer, document management , PROJECT CONSULT 2005, qumram-demo.ch ( page can no longer be called up , search in web archives ) (PDF) p. 10 ff.
- Following section according to Ulrich Kampffmeyer, document management , PROJECT CONSULT 2005, p. 8 ff.
- Following section according to Ulrich Kampffmeyer, document management , PROJECT CONSULT 2005, p. 10
- Ulrich Kampffmeyer: Document Technologies - Where is the journey going . Project Consult, 2003, ISBN 978-3-9806756-4-2 , pp. 215 ff . ( limited preview in Google Book search).