Günthersleben-Wechmar was a municipality in the Thuringian district of Gotha , which was founded in 1997. She has been part of the Drei Gleichen community since July 6, 2018 . The municipality Günther-Wechmar the districts were Günthersleben and Wechmar .
former community Günthersleben-Wechmar
Rural Community Three Equals
|Height :||303 m above sea level NN|
|Area :||26.82 km²|
|Residents :||2999 (December 31, 2016)|
|Population density :||112 inhabitants / km²|
|Incorporation :||6th July 2018|
|Incorporated into:||Three of a kind|
|Postal code :||99869|
|Area code :||036256|
Location of the former municipality in the Gotha district
Günthersleben and Wechmar are located southeast of Gotha in the fertile glacial valley of the Apfelstädt at an altitude of 278 to 369 m above sea level. NN. A chronicle published by the municipality in 2001 therefore also bears the title In the valley of wild water . The parts of the former municipality separated by the river are connected by a bridge.
Günthersleben and Wechmar are connected to traffic via the Gotha exit of the A4 motorway. Due to an industrial park that was created in the 1990s, the districts have grown together structurally.
Günthersleben-Wechmar bordered the municipalities of Gotha, Drei Gleichen , Ohrdruf , Hohenkirchen and Schwabhausen . In the municipality, 2999 inhabitants (as of December 31, 2016) lived on 26.82 km² .
Early on there was lively life in the valley basin between the 320 m high vineyard (in the northwest of the village), the up to 409.2 m high Seeberg in the northeast, the 383 m high Röhnberg (in the southeast) and the 460 m high Hainberg in the south which is proven by the many prehistoric and early historical finds. Soon the slopes of the surrounding mountains and the individual hills emerged as the main settlement areas. In 1973 a settlement from the year 4000 BC was built on the Heiligen Lehne (southern tip of the Seeberg ). Discovered BC, and traces of an early settlement can also be found on the Röhnberg. The oldest demonstrable settlement was in the parcel "Tiefenbach" (headwaters in the northeast of Günthersleben), where people lived more than 5000 years ago. The prehistoric grave cemetery, which was recovered in 1937 in the “Altfeld” between Wechmar and Wandersleben, bears witness to hikes and settlements of the Hermundurs and Burgundians .
In the time of the Kingdom of Thuringia around 500 AD, the region was favored by the trade route that passed here, called “The High Road”, which came from Erfurt through the ford of the apple cities to southern Germany. This trade route was subject to the special protection of the sovereigns and was secured by castles. One of these protective castles was in Wechmar. It was originally built as a tower hill castle and stood in the area of the later manor in the east of the village. Lords of Wechmar, from whose family Rüdiger Freiherr von Wechmar emerged in the 20th century, one of the most famous German diplomats, have been named in a document since 1140. They were ministerials to the Counts of Käfernburg and then to the Counts of Gleichen . Later they allied themselves with the city of Erfurt . When the Counts of Wechmar moved to South Thuringia, ownership of the castle changed constantly. A few remains of ramparts and ditches are evidence of the original fortification.
The first documentary mention of both villages can be found in the Breviarium Lulli , a list of properties of the Hersfeld Monastery from the year 786 as villam wehemare and gonresleibin . In a deed of gift dated May 18, 874, Gonrichisleba, along with other 116 places in Thuringia, is mentioned as the Fulda Abbey. Archbishop Liubert zu Mainz as well as Abbot Sigehard zu Fulda asserted the right to raise the tithe for themselves. The dispute over this was decided by King Ludwig the German (840–876) at the court of Ingelheim in favor of the Fulda Abbey. The Wechmar royal court mentioned in the document of 786 offered admission for a court day of Emperor Otto II on June 2, 975. On February 7, 1086, Emperor Heinrich IV stayed for a court day in Wechmar's royal court.
During the Second World War, numerous men and women had to do forced labor : a family with five children on the von Swaine family estate in Günthersleben and 70 prisoners of war from Poland in Wechmar on the Willy Hesse manor . In the Thuringian machine factory on Gothaer Straße, women and men from Ukraine , Russia and Poland as well as military internees from Italy had to work. A Polish slave laborer was hanged in public, a memorial stone erected in 2002 commemorates him.
The unitary community Günthersleben-Wechmar was created on December 31, 1997 through the voluntary merger of the previously independent communities Günthersleben and Wechmar. Günthersleben-Wechmar was a fulfilling community for the neighboring town of Schwabhausen . On July 6, 2018, she came to the Drei Gleichen Congregation. There Wechmar and Güntersleben are independent districts, which collectively have a common local constitution in accordance with Section 45a of the Thuringian municipal code. The combined locality with local constitution is called Günthersleben-Wechmar.
Frank Ritter (independent) has been mayor of the unified community Günthersleben-Wechmar since 2006.
For more than 15 years, the SPD / Open List voter community had an absolute majority in the local council. In the 2014 municipal council elections , the CDU was chosen as the strongest force and, with six seats, received the most seats . The last parish council was composed as follows:
- CDU - 6 seats (35.0%)
- Citizens for Günthersleben-Wechmar - 5 seats (32.2%)
- SPD - 5 seats (27.3%)
- LEFT - 1 seat (4.9%)
Culture and sights
- One focus of the village's development in recent years has been the preservation of the historic center of Wechmar, which makes history and the future tangible on the site of the former royal palace . Modern and historical buildings can be found here in a very small space. The community center “Old and Young” with daycare center “Wichtelburg” and senior citizens' club, the community hall with 200 seats, the Wechmar carnival house and the Wechmar rifle house with modern sports facilities are located directly at the museum in the Bach main building and around the village square. There are three restaurants on Wechmarer Markt. The "old malt house" houses the community archive and the registry office. The malting tower built and renovated in 1908 shows a combustion system from the company JA Topf and Sons from Erfurt.
- In the middle of Hohenkirchenstrasse, in the immediate vicinity of the Studnitz Villa, there is an old village fountain. Up until the 18th century, the town's water supply was ensured via deep wells. The fountain at the Studnitz Villa dates from the 15th century and was discovered in 1999 during restoration work in the street. Laufbrunnen , which were fed by the water from the Heinberg springs, have been built in the village since around 1650 . The water was led through wooden or clay pipes to the basins in the village. This well is 12 m deep and has a water level of 2 m.
- The manor house of the former domain in Wechmar was restored in 2009 and is now an apartment building.
- In 1143 a moated castle was built in Günthersleben , which was converted into a moated castle in the course of the following centuries. After the Second World War, the Günthersleben moated castle was demolished and a local recreation area was set up on the site in the 1970s. After 1990 a pavilion was built in the entrance area, which is used as an information center for regional history and geology . There, the scenic features of the Burgenland "Drei Gleichen" are conveyed within the GeoPark Inselsberg - Drei Gleichen .
- The “Landhaus Studnitz”, built in 1750, can be found in Hohenkirchenstrasse just a few steps away from the Bach parent company. The Gotha court marshal Hans Adam von Studnitz built this right next to the Wechmar Sankt Viti church as his summer residence . Originally the property consisted of three parts of the house and two side wings, of which in 1997 only the central building and the west wing stood. It is thanks to the commitment of Ambassador Rüdiger von Wechmar , whose family comes from Wechmar, that the still young German Foundation for Monument Protection and the last GDR government under Lothar de Maizière provided the first funding for securing and re-roofing the building from 1990 to 1993 provided. After many years of restoration, it was reopened on November 27, 1999 by the Wechmarer Heimatverein founded in 1982. With funds from urban development and the Heimatverein, the east wing was rebuilt and presented to the public on December 2nd, 2000. The showpiece of the house is a rococo hall rich in faience .
- The war memorial in Wechmar shows the names of 48 fallen soldiers in the community for the First World War and of 73 fallen and 40 missing soldiers for the Second World War.
- The war memorial in front of the church in Günthersleben commemorates 20 fallen and missing in the First and 46 in the Second World War.
Cultural & social institutions
- Bach ancestral home, Bach memorial with museum of the Thuringian minstrels and instrument makers
- Veit Bach Mill, historic mill from 1685 with a Thuringian plank room from 1585
- Community library
- Landhaus Studnitz (museum collections with a magnificent rococo hall, house of the Wechmarer Heimatverein and seat of the Thuringian National Costume Association)
- Community hall and community center with citizens' hall in Günthersleben
- Community center "old and young", senior citizens ' club of the DRK , youth club Günthersleben-Wechmar
- Günthersleben club garden with small animal breeding facility
- Pedigree poultry breeding facility and youth breeding facility in Wechmar
28 clubs determine the cultural and sporting life in Günthersleben and Wechmar. About half of all residents are involved in associations and are thus actively involved in community life. Every year in July / August there is a village and local festival, which is accompanied by international sports competitions, historical festivals and concerts throughout the year.
The two volunteer fire brigades in Günthersleben and Wechmar are important for community life and security.
Economy and Infrastructure
Both localities were mainly characterized by agriculture until 1950. Many residents earned their living in the nearby towns of Gotha and Ohrdruf , and their wives worked the fields. While seven manors of aristocratic and later middle-class families emerged in Wechmar, in Günthersleben there were only the lords of the moated castle as the largest landowners. In the 19th century there were two manors in Wechmar, while in Günthersleben Johann Christian von Weiß took over the moated castle. He ran a successful sheep farm and had the wool processed in his spinning mills in southern Thuringia. Crafts have played an important role in both villages for a long time. While pottery used to be widespread in Günthersleben, there were rare craftsmen in Wechmar such as saltpeters , coppersmiths , basket makers and sculptors . Today, small and medium-sized businesses dominate the community's service sector.
Since the democratic change in 1989, the communities Günthersleben and Wechmar have practiced close cooperation, which was reflected in the development of the "Oberried" industrial park that began in 1991. 40 companies with around 800 jobs have settled on an area of 35 hectares. The industrial area forms the economic axis between the two localities. Since 1998, the municipality has been developing a new communicative axis in addition to the economic merger, which enables citizens to meet. These include the “Burgenland” elementary and regular school, the youth club, the “Kartoffelhalle” (festival hall for 2,000 guests), a bowling center with four-lane facilities that was inaugurated in 2003, the community center with 300 seats and the modern town hall. The Siebengehege residential area in Günthersleben and its planning development up to Wechmar form the basis for merging the two villages in the landscape.
- Günthersleben-Wechmar bowling center, four-lane bowling facility
- Wechmar football center: sports field, club houses and dance hall
- Sports center Günthersleben: sports field and two-lane bowling facility
- Wechmarer Schützenhaus with air rifle shooting range
- Trapp shooting range and small-bore shooting range
- Dog sports facility of the dog sports club Günthersleben-Wechmar
- Gut Weidensee riding stables with holiday apartments
- Beach volleyball facility from SSG Wechmar, volleyball department
In 2002 the place was awarded the title “Most senior-friendly community in Thuringia” and “Thuringian cultural community 2002”. The Wechmarer Heimatverein eV was awarded the Thuringian Monument Prize in the same year . In 2003 Günthersleben-Wechmar was named “Most beautiful village in Thuringia 2003”, and one year later it was named “Best community promoting voluntary work in Thuringia 2004”. In addition, the community received a gold medal in the national competition "Our village should be more beautiful - our village has a future".
Bach family of musicians
Famous personalities were at home in Günthersleben-Wechmar in past centuries. The Bach family of musicians was born on the Wechmarer Markt . Veit Bach and his son, the minstrel Hans Bach , lived in the Oberbackhaus and in the Veit-Bach-Mühle . They are the progenitors of the family of musicians. Her places of residence and work today are two museums and educational institutions.
With the Artmann family, musical instrument making found its way into Wechmar in 1750 . Georg Valentin Artmann and his son Johann Nikolaus made Cremonese violins in the village, some of which later achieved world fame. Her last student, August Küttner, built instruments in Günthersleben from 1860 onwards. The Bach parent company presents two instruments from this Thuringian family of violin makers . The Hanff family had their home in Wechmar long before the Artmann family. Its most famous member is Johann Nicolaus Hanff from Wechmar , who worked as cathedral organist in Eutin and Schleswig until 1712 .
Otto von Stotternheim (formerly Stutternheim), who later became the rector of the University of Erfurt, was born in Günthersleber Wasserburg in 1380 . Günthersleben is also the home of the most famous horticulturist Johann Volkmar Sickler. He owes the breeding of the "Piedmont" - or heart cherry . Sickler is considered to be the founder of fruit growing on the Fahner Höhe near Erfurt, which is still in bloom today . On June 1, 1849, Friedrich Seitz was born in Günthersleben , who became known as a composer and court conductor in Magdeburg and Dessau . His most famous student was the later film diva Marlene Dietrich .
Sons and daughters of the church
- Georg Valentin Artmann (born October 19, 1750 in Wechmar; † January 11, 1799 in Wechmar), violin maker
- Johann Bach (1604–1673), the oldest certified composer representative of the Bach family of musicians
- Johannes Bach (around 1550/80; † 1626), town piper
- Christoph Bach (1613–1661), musician and grandfather of Johann Sebastian Bach
- Heinrich Bach (1615–1692), German organist
- Arno Franz , actually Franz Arno Kalklösch (1880–1930), German journalist and writer
- Joachim Hartung (1948–2014), mathematician and professor of statistics, Thomas L. Saaty Prize winner
- Jürgen Heun (* 1958), German soccer player
- Knut Kreuch (* 1966), Lord Mayor of Gotha
- Johann Simon Schlimbach (born December 6, 1803 in Wechmar; † December 6, 1856 in Werningshausen), German school teacher, chronicler and astronomer
- Friedrich Seitz (1848–1918), composer, violinist and court music director with an international reputation
- Johann Volkmar Sickler (1742–1820), German pomologist , the most famous varieties are apple and pear trees and the heart cherry
- Otto von Stutternheim , (* 1380 in Günthersleben; †?), Rector of the University of Erfurt
- Johann Anton Gottfried Wechmar (born January 7, 1727 in Wechmar; † December 4, 1799 in Wechmar), German parish clerk and copyist of works by the Bach family, created a multi-volume collection of silhouettes (shadow images) , which was considered the most valuable portrait collection of the 18th century in Thuringia apply
- Hans Melchior Marschall (1602–1628), buried in the Jakobskirche (Weimar)
Personalities who have worked on site
- Veit Bach (1550–1619), ancestor of the Bach family of musicians
- Johann Levin Friedrich Clauß (* 1735 in Marlishausen; † January 12, 1814 in Wechmar), official adjunct of the Counts of Hatzfeldt and author of one of the first agricultural textbooks in Germany
- Erich Kunisch (1929–2003), German painter and artist
- Johann Nicolaus Hanff (1663 – Christmas 1711), German organist and composer of the North German Organ School
- Hans Adam von Studnitz (1711–1788), German Oberhofmarschall at the Gotha Duke and director of the Ekhoftheater, which is considered the oldest standing theater in Europe
- Official website of the unified community Günthersleben-Wechmar
- National GeoPark Thuringia Inselsberg - three equals
- Information about Wechmar as a Bach place with short video
- Michael Köhler: Thuringian castles and fortified pre-historic and prehistoric living spaces. Jenzig-Verlag, 2001, ISBN 3-910141-43-9 , pp. 268/269.
- Guido Reinhardt: History of the market Gräfentonna , Langensalza 1892.
- StBA: Changes in the municipalities, see 1997
- Section 4 (2) of the main statute of the Drei Gleichen community from July 20, 2018
- Günthersleben-Wechmar. In: 2014 municipal council elections in Thuringia - final result. Thuringian State Office for Statistics, May 25, 2014, accessed on April 14, 2015 .