|Voivodeship :||Greater Poland|
|Area :||14.40 km²|
|Geographic location :||51 ° 58 ′ N , 17 ° 30 ′ E|
|Residents :||26,155 (June 30, 2019)|
|Postal code :||63-200|
|Telephone code :||(+48) 62|
|License plate :||PJA|
|Economy and Transport|
|Street :||Kalisz - Poznan|
|Rail route :||Kreuzburg – Poznan|
|Oels – Gnesen|
|Next international airport :||Poznań-Ławica|
Jarocin [ja'rɔʨin] (German: before 1920 also Kesselberg , 1815-1919 and 1939-1945 Jarotschin ) is a medium-sized district town (26,155 inhabitants) in the eastern part of the Polish Voivodeship of Greater Poland . It is the seat of the Jarociński Powiat and the town-and-country municipality of the same name with 45,753 inhabitants.
The village is located about 70 kilometers (as the crow flies) southeast of the city of Poznan and 50 kilometers northwest of the city of Kalisz .
The Jarocin land was founded around 1800 BC. Inhabited by a tribe of hunters and shepherds.
The Jarocin rule was given in 1257 by the Duke of Posen Boleslaw the Pious to a Janko from the Zaremba heraldic tribe . Jarotschin is probably the village of Jarossino , which was subsequently donated to the Cistercian Lenden monastery . On April 13, 1293, Duke Przemysł II of Gniezno allowed at the request of Abbot Gerald to create a village under German law on this property and to settle German and free Poles in it.
Around 1400 a rapid development of the city began, which lay at the crossroads of the important trade routes from Wroclaw to Thorn and from Posen to Kalisch . At that time, more than half of the city's population was German (mainly immigrants from Silesia ). In 1661 the town passed to the Radolinski family , a branch of the Wielkopolski nobility Koszutski family , and remained their property until 1945.
Between 1793 and 1807, after the Second Partition of Poland , the city belonged to South Prussia , then until 1815 to the Duchy of Warsaw . In 1815 Jarocin was taken back by Prussia and became the province of the Grand Duchy of Posen . In the spring of 1848 the Polish party temporarily occupied Jarotschin.
After 1850 the town began to develop rapidly and industry began to settle in. An important railway junction was built in Jarocin in 1875. In 1887, the Jarotschin district was created with the Prussian administrative reform . By 1914 the town had a gas works and sewerage system , and the station had electric lighting.
On November 8, 1918, the Greater Poland uprising against Prussian rule broke out. The first soldiers' council of the Poznan Province was established in Jarotschin . Five companies from Jarocin took part in the fighting with the German Freikorps . In 1919 the city was ceded to Poland under the terms of the Versailles Treaty .
After the attack on Poland in 1939, Jarocin was annexed by the Greater German Reich in violation of international law and became the district town of the Jarotschin district in the Reichsgau Wartheland . Many Jewish Poles were expelled by the Nazi authorities and German settlers from the Baltic States , Volhynia and Bukowina were settled.
At the end of January 1945 the city was captured by Soviet and Polish troops. Between 1960 and 1975 the industry was built up. New businesses for furniture production, woodworking, clothing and machine factories emerged. In 1975 during the Polish administrative reform, Jarocin lost its rank as a district town and became a municipality in the newly formed Kalisch Voivodeship. In 1980 the Jarocin Music Festival took place for the first time , the most important rock festival in Poland at that time. In 1999 the district in the new Greater Poland Voivodeship was restored .
The city coat of arms shows a red city gate with three blue helmeted turrets in yellow.
Population figures before 1945
- 1800: 603, two thirds of them Poles, one third Jews
- 1837: 1.617
- 1861: 2.075
- 1875: 2,469
- 1880: 2.505
- 1890: 2,903, of which 744 Protestants, 1,798 Catholics and 361 Jews
- Town Hall, Baroque and Classicism , built around 1804 during the first Prussian rule;
- City parish church of St. Martin of Tours , Gothic and Baroque , mentioned as early as 1257, rebuilt several times (most recently tower, 1838), with a crypt of the counts and princes Radoliński / Radolin;
- Church of Christ the King, baroque , early 18th century;
- Former castle of the Radolin princes, built 1847-1853 in Tudor style according to plans by Friedrich August Stüler , today houses the city library and two branches of the University of Poznan ;
- Old castle in the castle park, originally Gothic , built around 1450, residence of the landlords until the end of the 18th century, today a museum;
- Ruins of the St. George Hospital Church, Gothic around 1516, permanent ruins since 1833;
- Railway station, built 1870–1875, neo-Gothic , last unchanged Prussian transshipment station in the former province of Posen.
- Synagogue , built from 1841 to 1843
- Śmiełów : palace and park ensemble, classicism , with a museum for Adam Mickiewicz , about 10 km north of the city;
- Dobrzyca : palace and park ensemble, late baroque and classicism , also with a museum, about 15 km southeast of the city.
- 5 municipal and one private kindergarten ;
- 4 primary schools ;
- 3 municipal and 1 private middle school;
- 2 high schools ;
- 2 post-high school vocational schools.
- a humanistic and economic college in Jarocin
- a branch of the University of Szczecin for master’s studies in public administration
- There are also two branches of the Poznan universities and one of the university in Kalisz.
Over 2,700 companies are registered in the city. Jarocin has clothing, furniture and food industries.
Jarocin has a station on the railway lines Oleśnica-Chojnice and Kluczbork-Poznań , formerly also the branched railway Jarocin-Kąkolewo , and in Mieszkow the railway Mieszkow-Czempiń .
The city-and-rural community (gmina miejsko-wiejska) Jarocin includes the city itself and 23 villages with school boards. It has an area of 200.23 km² and more than 45,500 inhabitants, of which around 60% are able to work, 30% are young people and 10% are retirees.
Sister cities and municipalities
- Libercourt , France, since 1978
- Veldhoven , Netherlands, since 1995
- Hatvan , Hungary, since 1997
- Schlüchtern , Germany, since 2003
- Oleksandrija , Ukraine, since 2004
- Korkuteli , Turkey, since 2007.
- Eduard Lasker (1829-1884), German politician
- Emil Löwenthal (1835–1896), German painter
- Hugo Fürst von Radolin (1841–1917), German diplomat
- Gustav Wegner (1903–1942), German athlete
- Elisabeth Schwarzkopf (1915–2006), opera singer
- KT Neumann (1919–2012), German metal sculptor
- Damian Bryl (* 1969), Polish Roman Catholic bishop
- Szymon Krawczyk (* 1998), cyclist
- Heinrich Wuttke : City book of the country Posen. Codex diplomaticus: General history of the cities in the region of Poznan. Historical news from 149 individual cities . Leipzig 1864, pp. 325–326.
- Leopold von Zedlitz-Neukirch : New Prussian Nobility Lexicon . Volume 3, Berlin 1837, pp. 26-27.
- City website (German, Polish, English)
- Material on Jarocin Castle in the Duncker Collection of the Central and State Library Berlin (PDF; 223 kB)
- ↑ amor.cms.hu-berlin.de ( Memento from September 17, 2015 in the web archive archive.today )
- ↑ http://www.ub.uni-frankfurt.de/bzg/images/Wandkarten/Wk_20.JPG
- ^ Jarotschin district (place names)
- ^ A b c d e Heinrich Wuttke : City book of the country of Posen. Codex diplomaticus: General history of the cities in the region of Poznan. Historical news from 149 individual cities . Leipzig 1864, pp. 325–326.
- ^ A b c Michael Rademacher: German administrative history from the unification of the empire in 1871 to the reunification in 1990. pos_jarotschin.html. (Online material for the dissertation, Osnabrück 2006).