Josephine land survey

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Josephinische Landesaufnahme - regional distribution of the times of the Landesaufnahme

The Josephinische Landesaufnahme , also known as the first land survey , is the first comprehensive map project (land survey) in the territory of the Habsburg Monarchy from the 1760s to the 1780s . It is named after the Archduke of Austria and Roman-German Emperor Joseph II .

The 3,589 hand-drawn colored map sheets (later expanded to 4,096 sections) encompass the Habsburg hereditary lands ; they are kept in the war archive of the Austrian State Archives.

Vienna and surroundings
Mountain areas are only shown schematically ( Rax )
Edlitz and the Pittental
Vienna Woods near Purkersdorf , Gablitz and the valley of the Wien River

Origin and scope

Military considerations gave the impetus for taking up the country. During the Seven Years' War from 1756 to 1763, the lack of reliable maps had proven to be a major disadvantage for the Austrian troops . Field Marshal Daun suggested to Maria Theresa in 1764 that officers of the General Staff (General Quartermaster Staff) map their countries . In the time before, the creation of maps was the matter of private landowners who had relevant maps made to document their property. On May 13, 1764, after approval by the Empress, the Court War Council issued appropriate orders for a first comprehensive survey of the country. Work started in Bohemia and Moravia .

The Josephinische Landesaufnahme was started under the reign of Maria Theresa and completed under Joseph II . The maps are hand-drawn and initially had a scale of 1  Viennese customs : 400 Viennese fathoms (approx. 1: 28,800). Only the ad hoc level marks the height of development over the surface to represent were hatching that trace the local slope and direction of the fall line, used and not contour lines . Maps on a four-fold reduced scale of approx. 1: 115,200 were derived from the sheets of the land survey. These sheets are also referred to as "Josephinische Landesaufnahme".

The Carte des environs de Schönbrun et ceux de Laxemburg of the south-west of Vienna from 1755 is considered a forerunner of the Josephinische Landesaufnahme. The author of this map was Jean-Baptiste Brequin de Demenge .

The Josephinische Landesaufnahme ultimately comprised over 4,000 sheets from the years 1763 to 1785. The following Habsburg regions were recorded in detail:

region year Overview
Duchy of Upper Silesia 1763 Josephinische Landaufnahme Schlesien.jpg
Kingdom of Bohemia 1764-1767 Josephine land survey Boemia.jpg
Margraviate of Moravia 1764-1768 Josephine Land Survey Moravia.jpg
Netherlands 1764-1771 Josephine land view Netherlands.jpg
Temescher Banat 1769-1772 Josephine land view Banat.jpg
Grand Duchy of Transylvania 1769-1773 Josephine Land Survey Transylvania.jpg
Banal limit 1773-1775 Josephine Land Survey Banal Border.jpg
Bukovina district 1773-1776 Josephine land view Bucovina.jpg
Austria under the Enns 1773-1781 Josephine land view Felso Ausztria.jpg
Karlstadt Generalate 1774-1775 Josephinische Landaufnahme Karlstadter.jpg
Upper Austria with the Innviertel 1775-1777 and 1779-1780 Josephinische Landaufnahme Ober Ausztria.jpg
Galicia and Lodomeria 1779-1783 Josephinische Landaufnahme Gallicischen.jpg
Slavonian military border 1780 Josephine Land Survey Slavonian District.jpg
Wallachian-Illyrian Banat Military Regiment 1780-1784 Josephine land view Banat.jpg
German Banat Military Regiment 1769-1772 Josephine land view Banat.jpg
Warasdin Generalate 1781-1782 Josephine land view Varasdi.jpg
Slavonia Province 1781-1783 Josephine Land Survey Slavonia.jpg
Kingdom of Hungary 1782-1785 Josephine Land Survey Kingdom of Hungary.jpg
Province of Croatia 1783-1784 Josephine land view of Croatia.jpg
Inner Austria 1784-1785 Josephine land view Belso Ausztria.jpg

Tyrol was initially excluded, as the Atlas Tyrolensis map series on a scale of 1: 103.800 by Peter Anich and Blasius Hueber had been available since 1774 . The exact recording of Tyrol, begun in 1803, remained unfinished and had to be broken off in 1806 due to the French-Bavarian occupation.

Further single sheets were produced by 1806, which also covered areas from southwest Germany and smaller parts of Switzerland, France and Venice.

The land survey originally only existed in two copies, one each for the emperor and the supreme general. It was kept secret. The sheets are - depending on the commitment of the employees - of different graphic, but also technical quality. The individual sheets do not have a uniform measurement basis (no triangulation ) and can therefore not easily be combined into larger units.

The maps of the Josephinische Landesaufnahme are accessible in the Austrian State Archives / War Archives .

The Josephinische Landesaufnahme was then replaced from 1807 by the Franziszeische (2nd) Landesaufnahme .

Examples of sheets of the Josephinische Landesaufnahme

See also


  • Ernst Hillbrand: The map collection of the Vienna War Archives. In: Communications from the Austrian State Archives 28/1975. Pages 183-196.
  • Ernst Hofstätter: Contributions to the history of the Austrian regional recordings. An overview of the topographical recording procedures, their origins, their developments and organizational forms of the four Austrian regional surveys. 2 volumes. Federal Office for Metrology and Surveying, Vienna 1989.
  • Robert Rill: The beginnings of military cartography in the Habsburg hereditary lands: The Josephinian land survey of Bohemia and Moravia according to court war council sources. In: Communications from the Austrian State Archives. Volume 49/2001. Pages 183-202.


  • Wilfried Beimrohr, Tyrolean State Archives: Special Map Tyrol, Vorarlberg and Liechtenstein 1823 . 2006 - Information sheet on the Josephinian and Franziszeische land recordings and on the special map of the princes of Tyrol, together with Vorarlberg and the neighboring Sovereign Principality of Liechtenstein, measured trigonometrically, topographically recorded, reduced and drawn in 1823 ( pdf ,
  • Vincenc Rajšp (project leader): Slovenija na vojaškem zemljevidu 1763 - 1787 Opisi . 7 volumes. Ljubljana 1995-2001. (Josephine land survey 1763–1787 for the territory of the Republic of Slovenia, country description)
  • Zdzisław Budzyński, Waldemar Bukowski, Bogusław Dybaś, Andrzej Janeczek, Zdzisław Noga (editorial board): The Josephine Land Map of Galicia 1779 - 1783. 15 volumes. Vienna 2012 – ongoing (Josephinische Landaufnahme for the historical region Galicia, country description).

Web links

Tickets online:

Commons : First Military Mapping Survey of Austrian Empire  - collection of images, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. Wilfried In the tube: The First and Second land survey of Tyrol. Tyrolean State Archives, 2007 (pdf,
  2. Austrian State Archives. Archive plan context. Card collection. Signature AT-OeStA / KA KPS KS ( archiving history ,