The Katharinenkloster in Rostock was a Franciscan monastery in the brick Gothic style , some of which have been preserved. The monastery was dedicated to Catherine of Alexandria ; it originated before the middle of the 13th century and was dissolved as a result of the Reformation . From 1998 to 2001, modern buildings were added to the remaining historical buildings, in which the Rostock University of Music and Theater is now located.
The Katharinenkloster, founded before 1243, was one of the three medieval monasteries within the city walls , along with the Dominican monastery of St. Johannis , which has completely disappeared from the cityscape, and the largely preserved Cistercian monastery at the Holy Cross . A fourth, the Carthusian monastery Marienehe , was located near the village of the same name and was demolished in 1559. Of these four facilities, St. Catherine's Monastery is considered the oldest.
The monastery complex is located in the northern section of the historic Rostock old town, i.e. the area between a branch of the Warnow , known as the “pit” at that time , today's Grubenstrasse , and the eastern city wall. In the south, the complex is bordered by the streets Beim Waisenhaus and Beim Katharinenstift , while the spacious monastery grounds are framed in the west by the pit and in the east by Faule Strasse . It was a feature of all inner-city monasteries in Rostock as well as in several other Mecklenburg cities that they were built close to the city wall. The Katharinenkloster was located near the wall on the harbor side, a single section of which remained between Grubenstrasse and Wendenstrasse . It was conveniently connected to the port and the old town market.
The monastery church was in the south of the complex, to the west of it was the cemetery of the monastery. To the north of the cemetery and church, connected by the cloister , two residential and farm buildings were connected.
The first written evidence for the presence of brothers of the Franciscan order founded in 1210 comes from 1243, as a member of this order is mentioned in a Rostock document from that year, namely Eylardus fratrum minorum gordianus ("Eylardus, Guardian of the Friars Minor"). The Franciscans were also known as the Gray Brothers because of their clothing . They went barefoot . The designation of Eylards as Guardian indicates that at the time there was a multi-member convention and that the superior of this branch was already regarded in the city as a witness to a legal act. The foundation of the Franciscan monastery in the then still young merchant town of Rostock took place a few years before 1243 and was probably based on the Lübeck Katharinenkloster founded in 1225 , at least the monastery then belonged to the Lübeck custody of the Saxon order province ( "Saxonia" ). Archaeological investigations have shown that building land reclamation measures on the site were described as early as 1234, by means of which a stretch of beach of the lower Warnow was converted into flood-proof building land.
The monastery was built on a former Wendish castle site on a hill on the Amberg. Prince Heinrich Borwin III is the founder . in question, with whom the first Guardian Eylard apparently had good contact. From 1248 until his death in 1249, Eylard was also the confessor of the Schwerin bishop Wilhelm and was of great importance for the social recognition of the Franciscan order in Mecklenburg. Originally the monastery was located on one of the less sought-after building sites in front of the western, wooden city limits of the actual old town, as this was initially concentrated on the old town hill around the Petrikirche . However, the area sloping towards the pit was settled very quickly, so that the monastery was included in the entire city of Rostock, which was created in 1265. In the vicinity of the monastery, mainly craftsmen and small traders - shopkeepers, butchers, bakers - were resident.
A monastery church was first mentioned in Rostoch in 1259 as the ecclesia fratrum minorum . The first church was probably a late Romanesque hall church from the first third of the 13th century, which the Franciscans took over when the monastery was founded. A town fire destroyed this church and the first wooden monastery buildings in 1262. The monastery church that was then built was a simple three-aisled, early Gothic hall church with a short, two-bay choir in the style of a mendicant church with the patronage of St. Catherine of Alexandria. At the same time, stone monastery buildings were built north of the church around a courtyard, which were expanded and rebuilt several times in the 14th and 15th centuries. On the first floor of the east wing, which adjoined the choir of the church, there were meeting rooms, possibly the chapter house and a heated “convent room” as a work and meeting room. On the floor above was the dormitory for sleeping and working (“ read and slapple ”), most likely with built-in cells for the individual brothers, as was customary with the Franciscans. On the upper floor of the west wing, the monastery probably had a hall that could have been used for meetings with lay people or as a library. The partially preserved cloisters were covered with ribbed vaults and opened onto the inner courtyard with pointed arcades. The church was also subjected to construction work, the nave possibly only received a vault later, and in the 14th century a high, late Gothic long choir with vaults was built.
The provincial chapter of Saxonia met as early as 1283 in St. Catherine's Monastery ; there were apparently enough rooms available for this in the meantime. It is possible that the monastery in Petrivorstadt had a brick factory until 1325, which was demolished in 1360. Other provincial chapters met in Rostock in 1310, 1343, 1388 and 1509. In the Poor Clare monastery in Ribnitz , Franciscans from Rostock and Wismar worked several times as confessors and, as guardians, represented the nunnery in terms of church and civil law. In Güstrow Rostock Franciscans were talking, just like the local Dominicans , a Terminei for collecting alms and as a pastoral base. With the establishment of an observant Franciscan convent in Güstrow in 1509, the Rostock brothers were asked to withdraw from there.
The monastery was involved in the political and social life of the city of Rostock. Public meetings were held in the monastery , and the monastery superiors repeatedly authenticated or transsumed documents or appeared as witnesses in court proceedings; so they testified in 1373 in favor of the mayor and the city council, when Bishop Friedrich von Schwerin had raised serious accusations against them with the Pope for injustices and offenses. The Franciscans did not particularly appear in inner-city disputes. The relationship with the parish clergy in Rostock ran without tension, there were even occasional donations from world priests to the Mendicant monasteries . The monastery church has served as a burial place for Rostock families since the 14th century .
The monastery was one of the general study houses of Saxonia for theological and philosophical training of the next generation of the order. At the University of Rostock , founded in 1419, Franciscans studied several times, who were transferred there by the religious superiors of various provinces and were supposed to work as lecturers for theology and philosophy in other monasteries after their studies, such as Thomas Murner from Strasbourg. With its extensive, only partially preserved library, the Katharinenkloster was one of the intellectual centers in Rostock. The over 640 prints covered many areas of medieval knowledge; In addition to theological and philosophical works, there were also medical, legal, astronomical and historiographical works. The provincial ministers Matthias Döring and Eberhard Runge and the theologian Johannes Bremer worked as academic teachers at the university.
The Franciscans received foundations and legacies throughout, which, however, in accordance with the poverty rules applicable in the order, did not pass into their possession, but were administered by Rostock council members as procurators. Individual founders took up residence near the convent - for example, in a neighboring house, some Beguines with whom the Franciscans had contact in the 13th and 14th centuries - or were accepted into the convent community as maids. Nevertheless, the Franciscans got into economic difficulties at times, around the turn of the 14th century.
From about the middle of the 14th century can be observed that donors their gifts with the desire for requiem masses or year combined -Measure as an annual foundations, sometimes at a certain altar or on a specific date. From around 1340 foundations were recorded that were no longer made to the convent but to individual brothers in the form of annuities. The last foundation can be traced back to 1522. In 1526, at the beginning of the Reformation , there were 19 altars in the church and about 40 brothers belonged to the community. According to the family name, the offspring for the monastery was also recruited from Rostock families. The brothers in Rostock were reluctant to adopt the Martinian constitutions with a return to the Franciscan ideal of poverty at the turn of the 16th century.
It is significant for the history of the Saxon Franciscan Province that a provincial chapter took place in the Rostock convent on September 14, 1509, in which 400 brothers took part, who, under the leadership of Provincial Ludwig Henning, decided on the Statuta Julii issued by Pope Julius II for the reform of religious life in the sense of a stricter observation of the vow of poverty. The division of the order into observants and conventuals in 1517 and the division of the observant Saxon province in 1518 could not be prevented.
Reformation and repeal
The Reformation came to Rostock in 1523 when Duke Heinrich V. commissioned Joachim Schlueter (Slueter) with the evangelical sermon in the Church of St. Petri . While the Rostock Dominicans resolutely opposed the new doctrine, individual Franciscans actively campaigned for the expansion of the ideas of the Reformation, such as Stephan Kempe , who joined Rostock in 1521 and became the first church reformer in Hamburg from 1523 , and Valentin Korte , the Lutheran preacher in 1528 at the Heilig-Geist-Kirche and finally left the order in September 1529.
The city council of Rostock published a decree on January 3, 1531, with which it expressly allowed the evangelical preachers to preach and criticized abuses in the Catholic clergy . The Catholic clergy were invited to work on a new church order, but reacted only hesitantly and inadequately, so that at Easter in early April 1531 the celebration of Holy Mass was forbidden in all of Rostock , but tolerated for another five months. A council resolution of April 29, 1531 forbade all religious from wearing the habit outside the monastery. From September 1531 the mendicant churches in the city were closed, the monasteries were inventoried and were under strict control of the city council.
At the end of August 1534, the Franciscan monastery - together with the Dominican monastery and the monastery of the fraternal lords - was abolished, the religious were expelled from the monastery, but were given citizenship . While some brothers stayed in the abandoned Dominican monastery, nothing more can be heard from the Franciscans after this appointment. A poor house was set up in the Franciscan monastery and an orphanage in 1624. The western section of the street Bei St. Katharinen to the corner of Pferdestraße was given the current name, Beim Waisenhaus . Bei St. Katharinen originally referred to the entire street between Grube (nstraße) and Fauler Straße. The books that were preserved in the monastery library were transferred to the Rostock University Library in 1842.
Re-use of the building
In the town fire of 1677 , which destroyed large parts of the historic old town and the northern central town , the monastery church was destroyed except for the choir . Only the lower part of the west wall from the late 13th century with the entrance portal and bud capitals as well as the southern chapel annex are preserved of the nave . In the former monastery rooms you can still find some Gothic vaults, which, based on archaeological research, may have come from a later construction phase (from the 14th century).
The remaining choir was initially converted into an emergency church and later into a warehouse, so that its original function can no longer be recognized. During the occupation of Rostock by the French, these walls served as a hospital in 1806/07. In 1728 the remaining monastery premises were used as a penitentiary and workshop, later as an industrial school, and from 1834 the choir served as a psychiatric sanatorium. In the 20th century the monastery complex was used as a retirement home "St. Katharinen-Stift" until 1991.
From 1998 the Katharinenstift was converted into the University of Music and Theater. By 2001 the existing buildings were renovated and new parts of the building were added. The construction phase was used for extensive archaeological excavations. Open-air events take place in the cloister courtyard, the former refectory is now an organ hall and the dormitory is a chamber music hall. The old and the new were not mixed together, the new parts of the building stand out clearly from the historic ones.
Brothers in leadership
The superiors are usually appointed by the provincial chapter for three years, repeated appointments are possible. Names and years indicate the verifiable mention. A guardian is the superior of a convent in the Franciscan order , the vice guardian or vicar is his deputy.
- Eylardus (before 1243-1248)
- Marcwardus (1265)
- Nikolaus de Wolteke (Nikolaus von Woltecke) (1285, 1308)
- Conradus (1300)
- Johannes Ricbode (1346-1351)
- Hermanus (1362)
- Brnadus (1373)
- Petrus Rosa (1374)
- Mathias (1379-1385)
- Mathias Lovenborch (1436–1443)
- Bertel (1443)
The principal was possibly the lector principalis , the "first lecturer " at a study house of the order.
- Jaspar Siveke (1524)
- Valentin Korte (1529)
The lecturers instructed the order's offspring in philosophy and theology. The mention of Rostocker Lektoren could be interpreted as a reference to a Saxonia study house existing at the convent . If several lecturers were active, there could be a lector secundarius in addition to the lector principalis .
- Johannes de Hitteren (1346)
- Johannes Rodenkerke (1385)
- Valentin Korte (1528)
- Peter Bruen (1531)
Literature and Sources
- David Franck : Old and New Mecklenburg. Book 1–19, Güstrow / Leipzig 1753–1758, II. 5, p. 80, III. 9, pp. 151-175.
- GVH Niehenck : From the Katharinenkloster in Rostock as the current residence of poor orphans, especially from this latter foundation and its establishment. Non-profit essays from the sciences for all stands on the Rostocker Nachrichten. Rostock 1770, St. 46–51, pp. 185–208.
- Ingo Ulpts: The mendicant orders in Mecklenburg. A contribution to the history of the Franciscans, Poor Clares, Dominicans and Augustinian Hermits in the Middle Ages. (= Saxonia Franciscana. 6). Dietrich-Coelde-Verlag, Werl 1995, ISBN 3-87163-216-3 , pp. 34-44, 171-183, 367-374, 500.
- Lucius Teichmann : The Franciscan Monasteries in Central and Eastern Germany 1223–1993. St. Benno Verlag, Leipzig 1995, ISBN 3-89543-021-8 , pp. 177-178.
- Hans Bernitt : On the history of the city of Rostock. Hinstorff Verlag, Rostock 1956. (Reprint: 2001, ISBN 3-935171-40-4 )
- Ernst Münch , Ralf Mulsow: The old Rostock and its streets. Redieck & Schade, Rostock 2006, ISBN 3-934116-57-4 .
- Frank Ivemeyer: Built close to the water. The Franciscan Monastery of St. Katharinen in Rostock. Keiper, Rostock 2013, ISBN 978-3-9809413-1-0 .
- Sandra Groß, Heiko Schäfer, Leonie Silberer, Anke Huschner: Rostock: Monastery of S. Katharina (Ordo Fratrum Minorum / Franziskaner). In: Wolfgang Huschner , Ernst Münch, Cornelia Neustadt, Wolfgang Eric Wagner: Mecklenburg monastery book. Handbook of the monasteries, monasteries, coming and priories (10th / 11th - 16th centuries). Volume II, Rostock 2016, ISBN 978-3-356-01514-0 , pp. 873-898.
- Vicke Schorler : Real abcontrafactur of the highly lavish and well-known old sea and Hensestadt Rostock, capital in the state of Meckelnburgk. 1578-1586. With a color reproduction of the original in rotogravure printing. Rostock City Archives 1965, scroll part II. St. Catherine's Monastery, p. 12.
- Hanns Weigel: Truly contrafacture of the old splendid Stat Rostock. Colored woodcut around 1560, Graues Kloster, p. 23.
- Wenceslaus Hollar: Rostochivm vrbs Megapolitana anseatica et vinversitate celebris. first printed by Jansson 1657, p. 31.
- Mecklenburg record book (MUB)
State Main Archive Schwerin
- LHAS 1.5-4 / 18 Monastery S. Katharinen Rostock.
- LHAS 11.11 Regest of Mecklenburg documents from 1400.
- Archive of the Hanseatic City of Rostock
- Existing council / church affairs.
- Holdings of archival maps, site plans, floor plans.
- Rostock University Library, special collections.
State Office for Culture and Monument Preservation
- Archaeological and architectural reports and investigations.
- Literature about Katharinenkloster (Rostock) in the state bibliography MV
- Some pictures of today's facility
- Sandra Groß: Rostock: Monastery of S. Katharina (Ordo Fratrum Minorum / Franziskaner). 1.2.1 Year of foundation, founder, mother monastery. In: Wolfgang Huschner among others: Mecklenburg monastery book. Volume II, Rostock 2016, p. 873.
- Ingo Ulpts: The mendicant orders in Mecklenburg. Werl 1995, p. 34f.
- Sandra Groß: Rostock: Monastery of S. Katharina (Ordo Fratrum Minorum / Franziskaner). 1.2.1 Year of foundation, founder, mother monastery. In: Wolfgang Huschner among others: Mecklenburg monastery book. Volume II, Rostock 2016, p. 874.882.
- Ingo Ulpts: The mendicant orders in Mecklenburg. Werl 1995, p. 36.42.
- Ingo Ulpts: The mendicant orders in Mecklenburg. Werl 1995, p. 38.
- Leonie Silberer: Rostock: Monastery of S. Katharina (Ordo Fratrum Minorum / Franziskaner). 7.2 Development of building history and 7.5 Classification of art history. In: Wolfgang Huschner among others: Mecklenburg monastery book. Volume II, Rostock 2016, pp. 882-885.888.891ff.
- Sandra Groß: Rostock: Monastery of S. Katharina (Ordo Fratrum Minorum / Franziskaner). 1.2.1 Year of foundation, founder, mother monastery. . In: Wolfgang Huschner among others: Mecklenburg monastery book. Volume II, Rostock 2016, pp. 874f.
- Ingo Ulpts: The mendicant orders in Mecklenburg. Werl 1995, pp. 35f.188.8.131.522f.
- Ingo Ulpts: The mendicant orders in Mecklenburg. Werl 1995, p. 172.178.183.
- Heiko Schäfer: Rostock: Monastery of S. Katharina (Ordo Fratrum Minorum / Franziskaner). 7.4 Material cultural history, building equipment. In: Wolfgang Huschner among others: Mecklenburg monastery book. Volume II, Rostock 2016, p. 891.
- Sandra Groß: Rostock Monastery S. Katharina (Ordo Fratrum Minorum / Franziskaner). In: Wolfgang Huschner among others: Mecklenburg monastery book. Volume II, Rostock 2016, p. 875.879.
- Ingo Ulpts: The mendicant orders in Mecklenburg. Werl 1995, p. 179f.
- Ingo Ulpts: The mendicant orders in Mecklenburg. Werl 1995, pp. 39-42.172.
- Ingo Ulpts: The mendicant orders in Mecklenburg. Werl 1995, pp. 174-177.181f.
- Sandra Groß: Rostock Monastery S. Katharina (Ordo Fratrum Minorum / Franziskaner). 5.2 Spiritual activity. In: Wolfgang Huschner among others: Mecklenburg monastery book. Volume II, Rostock 2016, p. 879.
- Ingo Ulpts: The mendicant orders in Mecklenburg. Werl 1995, p. 322f.
- Ursula Creutz: Bibliography of the former monasteries and monasteries in the area of the diocese of Berlin, the episcopal office of Schwerin and the adjacent areas. Leipzig 1988, pp. 423-424.
- Ingo Ulpts: The mendicant orders in Mecklenburg. Werl 1995, pp. 367-370.
- Ingo Ulpts: The mendicant orders in Mecklenburg. Werl 1995, p. 370f.
- Sandra Groß: Rostock: Monastery of S. Katharina (Ordo Fratrum Minorum / Franziskaner). In: Wolfgang Huschner among others: Mecklenburg monastery book. Volume II, Rostock 2016, p. 875.
- Ingo Ulpts: The mendicant orders in Mecklenburg. Werl 1995, p. 372.
- Sandra Groß: Rostock Monastery S. Katharina (Ordo Fratrum Minorum / Franziskaner). In: Wolfgang Huschner among others: Mecklenburg monastery book. Volume II, Rostock 2016, p. 879.
- Leonie Silberer: Rostock: Monastery of S. Katharina (Ordo Fratrum Minorum / Franziskaner). 7.2 Development of the building history. In: Wolfgang Huschner among others: Mecklenburg monastery book. Volume II, Rostock 2016, p. 885.
- Sandra Groß: Rostock Monastery S. Katharina (Ordo Fratrum Minorum / Franziskaner). 2.1 History of the monastery up to secularization. In: Wolfgang Huschner among others: Mecklenburg monastery book. Volume II, Rostock 2016, p. 875.
- Sandra Groß: Rostock Monastery S. Katharina (Ordo Fratrum Minorum / Franziskaner). 3.3 Dignities and offices. In: Wolfgang Huschner among others: Mecklenburg monastery book. Volume II, Rostock 2016, p. 876.
- Mecklenburgisches Urkundenbuch (MUB) I. (1863) No. 550, 569, MUB II. (1864) No. 1051, 1221.
- Sandra Groß: Rostock Monastery S. Katharina. (Ordo Fratrum Minorum / Franciscans). 3.3 Dignities and offices. In: Wolfgang Huschner among others: Mecklenburg monastery book. Volume II, Rostock 2016, p. 877.
- Jana Bretschneider: Sermon, professorship and provincial leadership. Function and structure of the Franciscan education system in medieval Thuringia. In: Volker Honemann (Ed.): From the beginnings to the Reformation. (= History of the Saxon Franciscan Province from its foundation to the beginning of the 21st century. Volume 1). Ferdinand Schöningh, Paderborn 2015, ISBN 978-3-506-76989-3 , p. 330.
- Lambrecht Slagghert : Chronicle of the Ribnitz Monastery for the year 1529 : "Valentin Korte, principal tho Rostke". (= Friedrich Techen : The Chronicles of the Ribnitz Monastery. Schwerin 1909, p. 165 line 25. (digitized version) )
- Mecklenburgisches Urkundenbuch (MUB) X. (1877) No. 6711, MUB XX. (1900) No. 11672.