London and South Western Railway

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L & SWR network at its greatest expansion in 1922

London and South Western Railway (L & SWR) was a railway company in England that existed from 1838 to 1922. Their network extends from London southwest and west to Plymouth via Salisbury and Exeter with branches to Ilfracombe and Padstow and via Southampton to Bournemouth and Weymouth . There were also many links between Hampshire and Berkshire, including Portsmouth and Reading . Through the Railways Act 1921 , a law to consolidate the British railways, the L & SWR became part of the Southern Railway .

L & SWR has achieved extraordinary achievements in railway development, such as the electrification of underground lines and the introduction of powerful signaling technology.


After the coalition wars , there was broad agreement to improve the safety of coastal shipping between Southampton and London or to replace it with other systems. So a number of plans were made that provided a canal system between the two port cities. At the same time, the technical possibilities of the railway developed, which were intensely discussed as a connection.

An early proposal for a rail link came from both Parliament Aryans Robert Johnson and Abel Ros Dottin who came from Southampton. The first plans were published on October 23, 1830. In February 1831 the proposals were unanimously approved. The railway was introduced as the Southampton, London and Branch Railway and Dock Company , with its £ 1.5m capital split into £ 20 shares. In addition to the main route Southampton – London, a branch should extend to Hungerford and Bristol. At the same time the Great Western Railway (GWR) was advertised; both were soon to become competitors in the rail links between cities in the southwest.

Initially, L & SWR only promoted the Southampton – London route, regardless of the commercial interests of the two cities of Bristol and Bath interested in a rail connection . Two routes were considered by Francis Giles, who came from the canal construction , and ultimately the more northerly one via Kingston , Woking and Winchester was chosen because it gave better future connections to Bristol via Hungerford , Devizes and Bath.

The railway was approved by Parliament on July 25, 1834 under the name London and Southampton Railway (L&SR).

Railway construction

Construction of the Southampton line

Railway stations along the first L & SWR route

Construction began in September 1834 under the direction of Giles. As he was used to from building canals, he simultaneously deployed several small groups of workers along the future route. Construction progress was slow and Giles was unable to keep to budget. As the delay increased, the costs rose from an estimated £ 894,000 to £ 1.5 million. In 1837, parliamentary representatives were forced to contribute new money. After an internal investigation initiated by a group of Lancashire shareholders, Giles was replaced by engineer Joseph Locke , a student of Robert Stephenson . This dissolved most of the small construction sites and commissioned the established company of the congenial Thomas Brassey , who significantly accelerated the construction.

The railway was opened in stages: the first section went on May 21, 1838 from Nine Elms Railway station in London to Woking Common (which was later renamed Woking). The company changed its name to the London and South Western Railway Company that day .

The remaining sections opened:

  • Woking to Shapley Heath: September 24, 1838
  • Shapley Heath to Basingstoke: June 10, 1839
  • Winchester to a makeshift "Southampton" station on Northam Road: June 10, 1839
  • Basingstoke to Winchester and the new Southampton terminus: May 11, 1840.

The section between Basingstoke and Winchester was the most technically demanding because the Loddon , Test and Itchen rivers had to be crossed and four ridges had to be tunnelled.

Competition to the GWR

Between the first considerations for the construction of the first line between London and Southampton and its implementation, the owners and other interested parties were already considering connecting other cities to the line, for example in the area of ​​Bath and Bristol. The Great Western Railway (GWR) also planned to reach these two cities. A parliamentary resolution of August 31, 1835, which approved the construction of the line for the GWR, caused the L & SWR to enforce their interests more strongly. The L & SWR and its "followers" managed to acquire parts of the land in this area and thus fight the GWR.

Gauge dispute

"Mixed gauge" with 2,140 mm and 1,435 mm

The GWR built in the 2140 mm wide gauge developed by Sir Isambard Kingdom Brunel , while the L & SWR relied on the gauge of 1435 mm, which is now referred to as standard gauge. A shared use of routes was thus initially ruled out. But GWR already had the same problems at the interfaces with other companies and had switched to laying three-rail tracks there. This contest between the GWR and other "standard gauge companies" in the name of "Gauge Wars" went down in history as a result of the satisfaction of shareholders, the approval of parliament and the technical feasibility of opening up new areas.

The British government found it economically nonsensical to allow multiple gauges in one region. That is why the Five Kings expert commission was founded and placed within the Board of Trade to examine what future developments should look like and which company should be preferred in which region. This was laid down in the so-called Railway Regulation Act 1844 .

From 1836 proposals were made to reach the cities of Exeter and Plymouth with standard gauge, but the "broad gauge company" Bristol & Exeter Railway managed to connect Exeter to their rail network on May 1, 1844 before a possible agreement.

In other regions, too, there were various competitions between competing companies for the connection of certain cities, but some of these were also negotiated. In 1844, the newly established Southampton and Dorchester Railway submitted proposals to lease a route from the L & SWR. However, no agreement was reached and in September 1844 a contract was signed with the GWR to lease the line to it on the condition that it be built in broad gauge. The L & SWR then built an independent line, but the "Five Kings Commission" supported the Southampton & Dorchester route. On January 16, 1845, an agreement was finally reached between L & SWR, GWR and Southampton & Dorchester, which provided exclusive areas of influence for the construction in the future. Part of this agreement is the Southampton and Dorchester line, which was built in standard gauge and which enabled L & SWR to reach Weymouth via the GWR line.

First route extensions

The route network of the L & SWR 1858

The L & SWR also built some branches in its early days, for example to Salisbury (as part of the main westward direction), to Richmond , Gosport (as the start of the line to Portsmouth ) and to Godalming .

In 1836 the L&SR proposed a branch to Bishopstoke ( Eastleigh ) for continuation to Portsmouth , the so-called Portsmouth Junction Railway. But the people of Portsmouth wanted a direct route to London rather than a branch from the main line to Southampton. But that was not taken into account.

In January 1838 a direct route to London via Chichester , Arundel and Dorking was finally proposed. Proponents hoped for the L&SR, but they were angry about what had happened two years earlier and refused. In addition, it was already in the process of connecting Portsmouth Harbor to its network from the west . As a concession to Portsmouth, the name L&SR was changed to London and South Western Railway on June 4, 1839 .

Head stations in London

Location of the first London terminus

London's first terminus was Nine Elms on the outer south-western edge of the urban development at the time, directly on the Thames . The building was oriented towards the river in such a way that it could be immediately loaded onto boats. Access was less practical for rail travelers as they first had to cross the river by boat or road bridge. The distance to Trafalgar Square was about a mile.

As early as 1836, a more central location was considered and approved with the Act of Parliament of July 31, 1845. As the "Metropolitan Extension", the north-eastern extension of the railway line and a significantly larger station building were created. The approved construction cost was £ 950,000. The Vauxhall station and two short branches to Waterloo Bridge Road and Hungerford Bridge were established at the original terminus . However, the wish for a stopover near the city and the continuation of the terminus at Waterloo Bridge remained unfulfilled.

The original opening date for the new station, June 30, 1848, could not be met because board of trade inspectors refused to approve some of the long-span bridges at the eastern end, but after a few load tests, the inspectors were satisfied and the entire route could be completed by the 11th Opened July 1848. The Nine Elms station was converted for freight traffic.

West of Salisbury

The routes of the Exeter and Crediton Railway , which opened on May 12, 1851, and the North Devon Railway - opened on August 1, 1854 - were leased to the London and South Western Railway in 1862/63 and became independent from 1865 The Exeter and Crediton line branch later became the West of England Main Line and was the actual main line of LS&WR between London and Plymouth.

The rival Great Western Railway had already reached Exeter. The L & SWR was able to open its own station, the so-called Queen Street Station , today Exeter Central, but due to the unfavorable geography, the L & SWR was forced to build a connection to the GWR station, where the L & SWR's trains were under its sovereignty. In 1871 the line to Okehampton opened from this station and reached Plymouth in 1871. For the short link between the two stations in Exeter, a tunnel had to be built with a very steep gradient (2.7%). This problem was caused because the GWR insisted that all trains going to and from Okehampton stop at their own station. Heavily loaded freight trains needed three powerful locomotives to cope with the increase. Trains from both companies were on the same platform in the opposite direction for departure to London.

The lines of the L & SWR reached their westernmost point at Padstow in 1899 , about 260 miles from London.

The lines to the west of Exeter were often referred to as 'The Withered Arm' among railway workers. This name comes from the fact that the development was much more modest than further east, but also because the route on maps appeared like many long fingers or branches on a long, emaciated arm.

Extra-urban lines

Route diagram of the L & SWR 1890

After the London and Greenwich Railway in 1836, the L & SWR was the second British railway company to set up commuter traffic immediately after the line opened in 1838 . In the Royal Borough of Kingston upon Thames , the administration prevented the construction of the railway on the outskirts. So the train station could be built only three kilometers outside the village. Due to the success of the railway line with its fast and comfortable way of getting to London, there was a lot of residential construction around the station, then also on the road connecting the station and Kingston. The new settlement was called Surbiton because a farm with that name had previously stood there after the station was called Kingston-on-Railway for a short time. The new settlement attracted numerous workers from the city center, who found peace and clean air here, but could still easily reach their workplaces. The traffic from Surbiton increased so much that the L & SWR soon started using additional trains at rush hour and introduced special tariffs to Waterloo .

Routes in Southamptonshire

Topography around Portsmouth

The original South Western Main Line , which opened in stages between 1838 and 1840 , linked the cities of Southamptonshire Basingstoke , Winchester and Southampton , but not the politically and economically most important city, Portsmouth . While the SWML was being built, the company tried to change the route accordingly.

In 1841 the L & SWR opened two independently built routes, which enabled a connection to the city of Gosport and was only a good kilometer from Portsmouth Harbor. At Eastleigh, the Eastleigh to Fareham Line branched off the main line and ran almost in a straight line to the market town and port of Fareham . Here the route met the newly built connection to Gosport, where there was a ferry service to Portsmouth.

The situation escalated further when the London, Brighton and South Coast Railway (LB & SCR), L & SWR's eastern neighbor, opened a route to Portsmouth via Havant in 1847 . The following year, L & SWR built a link via Portchester north of Portsmouth Harbor in order to reach the new route before the confluence with Portsmouth. Nevertheless, the connection from Portsmouth to London was still very cumbersome because it was indirect, especially compared to the connection via Brighton or Southampton. Businessmen and other wealthy people in Portsmouth were raised enough money to build a direct route from L&SWR station in Guildford under a new private company . This route reached Havant in 1850 and sparked a tough battle between LB & SCR and L & SWR (which had taken over the operation of the independently built route) over access rights to Portsmouth, both legally and - at times - physically. A high point was reached in 1859 in the so-called Battle of Havant , when the new Portsmouth Direct Line was acquired by L & SWR, which ultimately gave the company a second main route to the south coast.

In the meantime, the company had built another route in northern Hampshire with the Alton Line in 1852. Initially this was only done from a single-track line at Farnham , but in 1865 the SWML built a high-speed railway line at Brookwood via Aldershot . The initially independent company, the Alton, Alresford and Winchester Railway Company (AA&WR), which had already built a line between these two places in 1865 and leased the L & SWR for their trains, therefore had to give up in 1884 and merged with the L & SWR.

In 1863 the company took over the Bishops Waltham Railway Company (BWR), which had built the Bishops Waltham branch between that location and the L & SWRs Botley station on the Eastleigh to Fareham Line , but went bankrupt . L & SWR took over the traffic to Bishop's Waltham, where a large brick factory was located. Passenger traffic ended here in 1932, freight traffic in 1962, 99 years after it was built.

In 1866 the L & SWR built a short branch from Southampton to Netley to serve the newly built Royal Victoria Military Hospital , which was probably opened in 1863 . In 1876, the Portsmouth Direct Line was extended south and now extended to Southsea , where it was connected to the Portsmouth Harbor naval base .

Hockley Railway Viaduct, 2005

Now that all major towns and places in Hampshire were connected, little was built in the 1880s. The only route worth mentioning was the connection between the South Western Mainline (SWML) and the newly built Didcot, Newbury and Southampton Railway over the Hockley Viaduct , the longest in the county, as well as a short section from the Netley branch to Fareham via Swanwick , which bridged the gap in the West Coastway Line between Southampton and Brighton in 1889 .

West Meon Station 1905. The wooden bridge was removed in the 1920s

In the 1890s , Hampshire got a short but significant new railway construction. In 1894 a new line from Gosport to Lee-on-the-Solent was completed to accommodate the growing tourist traffic to the Isle of Wight . The main focus of the L & SWR was to prevent its biggest competitor, the Great Western Railway , from doing the same from Reading . The blockade was caused by the establishment of initially two independent lines, which, however , had to make head in the respective terminus in Alton : The Basingstoke and Alton Light Railway was the first line built in Hampshire to the standard of a branch line (according to the Light Railways Act 1896 ). The second was the 36 kilometer long, topographically demanding Meon Valley Railway , which connected Alton and Fareham , and which had been built to the standard of a main line. They opened in 1901 and 1903 , respectively , and were the last track openings in Southampshire before the railways merged in 1923.

Railway expansion


In 1913, L & SWR electrified a first line under the direction of Sir Herbert Ashcombe Walker , who had come from the London and North Western Railway a year earlier . Walker chose the 630- V - DC - busbar for urban transport routes. Implementation was somewhat delayed by the start of the First World War, and operations between Waterloo and Wimbledon via East Putney were finally started on October 1, 1915. The following year, the Hounslow Loop Line and Kingston Loop Line were also served. This system was not the in the London, Brighton and South Coast Railway used (LBSCR) 6600 V 25 Hz - AC - catenary combined. After the two companies were merged in 1923, the system already used by L & SWR was also adopted on the LBSCR routes.

Southampton Docks

Interest in the Southampton Docks was expressed when the company was founded . The first dry dock was already built and the development of the Port of Southampton was greatly encouraged by the arrival of the railroad. From 1843 the L & SWR started by ship charter traffic under the name New South Western Steam Navigation Company . A little later, L & SWR took over ships and from 1892 bought the docks and led shipping to even greater growth with the use of its own ships. (see list of operated ships ).

Chair of the Board of Directors

  • 1832–1833: Thomas Baring
  • 1834-1836: John Wright
  • 1837-1840: John Easthope
  • 1841-1842: Robert Garnet
  • 1843-1852: WJ Chaplin
  • 1853: Francis Scott
  • 1854: Sir William Heathcote, Bt
  • 1854–1858: WJ Chaplin (again)
  • 1859–1872: Captain Charles Mangles
  • 1873–1874: Charles Castleman
  • 1875-1892: The Hon. Ralph H. Dutton
  • 1892-1899: Wyndham S. Portal
  • 1899-1904: Lieut-Col. the Hon. HW Campbell
  • 1904-1910: Sir Charles Scotter
  • 1911-1922: Sir Hugh Drummond

General Directors

  • 1839–1852: Cornelius Stovin (as traffic manager)
  • 1852–1885: Archibald Scott (as traffic manager 1852–1870)
  • 1885–1898: Sir Charles Scotter
  • 1898–1912: Sir Charles Owens
  • 1912-1922: Sir Herbert Walker, KCB

Senior Engineers

  • 1834-1837: Francis Giles
  • 1837-1840: Joseph Locke
  • 1840-1849: Albinus [Albino] Martin
  • 1849-1853: John Bass
  • 1853-1870: John Strapp
  • 1870-1887: W. Jacomb
  • 1887-1901: E. Andrews
  • 1901-1914: JW Jacomb-Hood
  • 1914–1922: Alfred W. Szlumper

Consulting engineers

Technical senior developer

Adams T3 class locomotive No. 563, built in 1893

Locomotive factory

The Nine Elms Locomotive Works had existed since 1838 . Under Dugald Drummond, it moved to the much more generous factory in Eastleigh in 1909 .

Coloring as corporate design

Urie H15 483, 1914

Over the decades, the color of the locomotives has been changed again and again. The name goes back to the leading developers working at this time.

  • until 1850 (John Viret Gooch)
  • little information available; from 1844 the locomotives were probably dark green with red and white lines, black wheels and red buffer beams.
  • 1850–1866 (Joseph Hamilton Beattie)
  • Passenger locomotives - Indian red with black exterior cladding, white interior. Driving splashers and cylinders lined in white. Black wheels, smoke box and chimney, vermilion buffer planks and running boards.
  • Freight locomotives - Indian red, without lines. Older units remained black until 1859.
  • 1866–1872 (Joseph Hamilton Beattie)
  • All units are dark chocolate brown with 1-inch wide black ribbons, framed white inside, vermilion framed outside. Side walls of the tender divided into three fields.
  • 1872–1878 (William George Beattie)
  • Lighter chocolate brown, also called purple brown, with the same lines. From 1874, the white lines were replaced by yellow ocher and vermilion with purple.
  • 1878–1885 (William Adams)
  • Amber brown with three black bands outside and light green lines inside. Black boiler bands with white ends. Puffer plank vermilion. Smoke chamber, chimney, frame, etc. black.
  • 1885–1895 (William Adams)
  • Passenger locomotives - medium green with black edges terminated by a thin white line. Boiler bands as well.
  • Freight locomotives - medium green with black edges terminated by a thin dark green line.
  • 1895–1914 (Dugald Drummond)
  • Passenger locomotives - royal green, bordered in chocolate brown, white triple line. Boiler bands outlined in black with white 3-inch wide stripes on each side. Cylinder with black stripes and white borders. Chimney, chimney, outer frame, tips of splashers, passenger platform, etc. black. Inside window frame light brown. Buffer beam vermilion; Cabin interior pine color.
  • Freight locomotives - medium green, edges in black and provided with a light green line. Black boiler bands with light green edges.
  • 1914–1917 (Robert Urie)
  • Passenger locomotives - olive green with "Drummond lining".
  • Freight locomotives - medium green with black edges and white lines.
  • 1917–1922 (Robert Urie)
  • Passenger locomotives - olive green with black edges and white ends.
  • Freight locomotives - medium green, often without lines until 1918.


The L & SWR maintained a large number of ships. Over the years shipping has developed into an important field of business management.

ship Acquisition Tonnage
Comments / whereabouts
Alberta 1900 1,236 Sold to Greece in 1930 .
Alice 1857 635 Acquired by Caledonian Railway in 1869 , scrapped in 1887.
Alliance 1855 400 1900 shipwreck.
Alma 1894 1,145 1912 Eastern Shipping Co Ltd. sold
Ardena 1915 1,092 Ex-Peony, acquired in 1919 and renamed Ardena . Sold to Greece in 1934 .
Brittany 1864 Shipwreck 1900
Brittany 1910 618 Bought by London, Brighton and South Coast Railway in 1912. Renamed Aldershot in 1933. Sold to Italy in 1936, where renamed Hercules .
Caesaria 1910 1.505 1928 sold to Isle of Man Steam Packet Company , renamed Manx Maid .
Cherbourg 1873 Broken down in 1930
Colombia 1894 1.178 Sold to Spain in 1912 , where it was renamed Sitges .
Courrier 1847 255 Scrapped in 1885.
Diana 1876 745 Shipwreck at St Malo in 1895.
Dora 1889 813 Sold to Isle of Man Steam Packet Company in 1901 . Renamed there to Douglas , the third ship of this company with this name.
Ella 1881 820 Sold to the Shipping Federation in 1913 .
express 1847 256 Scrapped 1859.
Fannie 1859 635 Acquired in 1869 by the Caledonian Railway . Scrapped in 1880.
Frederica 1890 1.059 Sold to Turkey in 1911 , where it was renamed Neylofer .
guernsey 1874 1915 shipwreck on the French Biscay .
Hantonia 1912 1,560 Scrapped in 1952.
Havre 1856 372 Shipwreck 1875.
Hilda 1882 820 Shipwreck in 1905 at St Malo , 105 people lost their lives.
Honfleur 1874 Sold in 1911.
Laura 1885 641 1927 sold to the Bahamas and renamed the City of Nassau .
Lorina 1918 1.504 Bomb hit in Dunkirchen in 1940.
Lydia 1890 1.059 Sold to T Sales Ltd in 1920.
Normandy 1910 618 Bought by the London, Brighton and South Coast Railway in 1912 . Torpedo hit on January 25, 1918 and sunk near Cape La Hague .
Normannia 1911 1.567 Bombed in Dunkirchen in 1940.
Princess Ena 1906 1.198 Commanded in 1915 during World War I and used as a Q-ship . Returned after the war. 1935 “Fire on board” off Jersey and sunk.
Sarnia 1910 1.498 Torpedoed and sunk off Alexandria in 1918 .
South Western 1843 204 Sold in 1863.
South Western 1874 657 Torpedoed and sunk in 1918. 24 people lost their lives
Southampton 1860 585 Sold for scrapping in 1897.
Stella 1890 1.059 Sunk off the Channel Islands in 1899 with over 100 people on board.
Vera 1898 1.136 Scrapped in 1933
Victoria 1896 709 Sold to Turkey in 1919, later Greek owner. Scrapped in 1937.
Waverley 1865 593 Bought by the North British Railway in 1868 . Wrecked in 1873.
wolf 1863 731 Acquired in 1871. Sold in 1896 for use as a hospital ship .
Wonder 1844 250 Wrecked in 1873.

The company also operated a number of ships from the Isle of Wight with connections to the London, Brighton and South Coast Railway .

Ship Launched Tonnage (GRT) Notes
Duchess of Connaught 1884 342 Scrapped in 1910.
Duchess of Edinburgh 1884 342 Scrapped in 1910.
Duchess of Fife 1899 443 Scrapped near Bolnes in November 1929 .
Duchess of Kent 1897 399 Sold to New Medway Steam Packet Co Ltd in 1933 and renamed Clacton Queen . November 1935 sold to Mersey & Blackpool Steamship Co Ltd and renamed Jubilee Queen . Sold to Jubilee Shipping Co and then SB Kelly in July 1936 . Scrapped at Barrow-in-Furness in June 1937 .
Duchess of Norfolk 1911 381 Commanded by the Royal Navy in 1919 as Duchess of Norfolk . Returned in 1920. Sold to Cosens & Co Ltd in 1937 and renamed Embassy . Re-requisitioned by the Royal Navy in 1939 and renamed HMS Ambassador . Returned in 1945 and renamed back to Embassy . Scrapped in 1967 at Boom, Belgium .
Duchess of Richmond 1910 354 Run into a mine on June 28, 1919 and sunk.
Lymington 1882 204
Mayflower 1866 69 Purchased by Solent Steamship Co Ltd in July 1884. Scrapped in 1910
Princess Margaret 1893 260
Solent 1902 161
Victoria 1881 366 1900 scrapped at Bolness .



  • CF Dendy-Marshall: A history of the Southern Railway . 1968. ISBN 0-7110-0059-X .
  • EC Hamilton: The South Western Railway: Its Mechanical History and Background, 1838-1922 . 1956.
  • OS Nock: The London & South Western Railway . 1971. ISBN 0-7110-0267-3
  • RA Williams: The London & South Western Railway . Volume 1: The Formative Years . Volume 2: Growth and Consolidation . 1968 ISBN 0-7153-4188-X ; ISBN 0-7153-5940-1


Commons : London and South Western Railway  - Collection of images, videos and audio files
  • - South Western Circle: The Historical Society for the London & South Western Railway

Web links

Individual evidence

  1. ^ Williams, RA (1968) The London & South Western Railway , v. 1: The formative years, and v. 2: Growth and Consolidation, David and Charles, ISBN 0-7153-4188-X ; ISBN 0-7153-5940-1
  2. Fact file - PortCities Southampton
  3. The premier port - Port Cities Southampton
  4. a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq London and South Western Railway . Simplon postcards. Retrieved December 12, 2009.
  5. a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al London & South Western Railway Company . The Ships List. Retrieved January 5, 2009.
  6. cite Miramar | id = 1105657 | accessdate = 2009-12-15
  7. a b cite Miramar | id = 1105656 | accessdate = 2009-12-15
  8. ^ Isle of Wight Services, Page 1: LBCSR & LSWR Joint Fleet . Simplon postcards. Retrieved December 14, 2009.
  9. cite Miramar | id = 1087433 | accessdate = 2009-12-15
  10. cite Miramar | id = 1087432 | accessdate = 2009-12-15
  11. Cite Miramar | id = 1110219 | accessdate = 2009-12-15
  12. a b cite Miramar | id = 1108009 | accessdate = 2009-12-15
  13. cite Miramar | id = 5510305 | accessdate = 2009-12-15
  14. ^ PS Embassy (ex Duchess of Norfolk) . Tom Lee. Archived from the original on February 10, 2010. Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. Retrieved January 4, 2010. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  15. a b cite Miramar | id = 1128414 | accessdate = 2009-12-15
  16. a b cite Miramar | id = 1085152 | accessdate = 2009-12-15
  17. a b PS Mayflower . Tom Lee. Retrieved January 4, 2010.
  18. cite Miramar | id = 41651 | accessdate = 2009-12-15
  19. cite Miramar | id = 1114551 | accessdate = 2009-12-15
  20. a b cite Miramar | id = 1084238 | accessdate = 2009-12-15