The margraviate of Baden-Rodemachern refers to the territory that was ruled by the branch line of the margraves of Baden-Baden zu Rodemachern that existed from 1556 to 1666. These are the dominions Rodemachern , Useldingen and Hesperingen originally located in the Duchy of Luxembourg .
Rodemakers in the structure of the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation
Emperor Charles IV , raised the Luxembourg homeland to a duchy in 1354. The lords of Rodemachern, Hesperingen and Useldingen belonged to the Duchy of Luxembourg and their lords were feudal takers of the Duchy. The duchy belonged to the Burgundian Netherlands , which formed the main part of the Burgundian Empire . In 1441 the last duchess from the House of Luxembourg sold the land to the House of France, Burgundy . But it remained a fiefdom of the empire under constitutional law . After the death of Charles the Bold, the last Duke of Burgundy, in 1477, Luxembourg passed the entire Burgundian inheritance to Charles' daughter Maria and her husband, the later Roman-German Emperor Maximilian von Habsburg .
At his solemn abdication in 1555, Maximilian's grandson Charles V proposed the entire Habsburg Netherlands , including Luxembourg, to his son Philip II , King of Spain . From then on until the Spanish Habsburgs died out, Luxembourg was part of the Spanish Netherlands within the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation .
Due to the Habsburg-Bourbon antagonism , Luxembourg was repeatedly drawn into the wars between France and the Habsburgs in the following 200 years. In 1659, Spain had to cede the southernmost part of the duchy to France as part of the Peace of the Pyrenees .
In the Treaty of Utrecht , which ended the War of the Spanish Succession in 1714 , the entire complex of countries, which roughly corresponded to today's states of Belgium and Luxembourg, was assigned to the Austrian line of the Habsburgs within the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation. The Austrian Netherlands existed within the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation until the conquest and annexation of the country by troops of the French Revolution in 1794. From 1795 to 1814, the previous Duchy of Luxembourg formed part of the French Republic as the Forêts Department and later the French Empire .
How Rodemachern came to the Baden house
Christoph I of Baden served under the then Duke of Burgundy, Maximilian I , in his fight for the Netherlands , the inheritance of his late wife Maria of Burgundy . The Duchy of Luxembourg also belonged to the Netherlands at that time . Christoph was appointed Governor General and received pledges through the Duchy of Luxembourg. In 1479, Christoph received the castle and rule of Useldingen as a fiefdom of the Duchy of Luxembourg. In 1492 Christoph also received the castle and rule of Rodemachern and Hesperingen . The previous owner, Gerhart von Rodemachern , had fought on France's side against Duke Maximilian and was expropriated because of Felonie .
The Baden-Rodemachern branch line
The branch line Baden-Rodemachern (also: Baden-Baden zu Rodemachern) was created due to an inheritance division among the sons of Margrave Bernhard III. von Baden-Baden , Philibert and Christoph II. Christoph received the Luxembourg rule in the partition agreement. Since he intended to go on longer trips, he left the government and use of these dominions to his brother Philibert for 4,000 guilders a year. Christoph did not live in Rodemachern until 1566.
When his son Eduard Fortunat became Margrave of Baden-Baden, he did not reunite the Luxembourg dominions of the House of Baden with the Margraviate of Baden-Baden , but gave them to his brother Philip III. further. With the death of Philip's great-nephew, Margrave Karl Wilhelm Eugen , the sideline to Rodemachern ended in 1666 and the rights passed to Margrave Wilhelm von Baden-Baden . For reasons of tenancy law, the Luxembourgish lordships were not the subject of the Baden inheritance contract of 1765, but were given by the Baden-Baden margrave August Georg to the Baden-Durlach margrave Karl Friedrich when it was signed on January 28, 1765 , which means that the two margraves of Baden were reunited in 1771 already belonged to Karl Friedrich for six years.
The margraves of Baden became fiefs of the French kings
Due to the Peace of the Pyrenees , Diedenhofen was ceded by Spain to France on November 7, 1659. After the French view, the estate belonged Rodemachern to the dependent territories of the provost Thionville (Thionville), which were assigned to what was of Spanish-Luxembourg side, but vehemently denied. The rule of Hesperingen, in turn, was viewed by France as a dependent area of the rule of Rodemachern, which is why the sovereignty was also claimed here. In the Peace of Aachen (1668) the Thionville article of the Pyrenees Peace was confirmed without further specification and the conflict remained unresolved. The peace of Nijmegen also failed to resolve this issue, as Spain was too weak to enforce its view and France was content to simply create facts on this marginal point of the entire dispute with Habsburg. On December 30, 1678, France occupied the rule of Rodemachern. In the Treaty of Versailles of May 16, 1769 between France and Austria, Austria gave up sovereignty over the territories occupied by France as dependencies of Thionville.
The end of the manorial rule of the Margraves of Baden in Luxembourg
As early as 1701, Margrave Ludwig Wilhelm initiated explorations for the sale of the Luxembourg possessions, which however remained unsuccessful.
After the reunification of the margraviates of Baden, the Baden council and registrar, EM Vierordt, examined the legal development of the Baden possessions in Luxembourg and summarized its findings in a four-volume work in 1782.
The manorial rule remained with Baden until 1796, which renounced all rights to the rule Rodemachern and Hesperingen in the separate peace treaty of August 22, 1796, whereby in the secret articles of this peace treaty France already made concrete promises regarding compensation through the secularization of certain clergymen on the right bank of the Rhine Territories made in favor of the Margraviate of Baden.
(Not sovereignty) square kilometers with an area of 5375 square miles, or 296 for the left bank areas under badischer unable legal authority and 15,430 inhabitants was Baden then also by the Reichsdeputationshauptschluss compensated by 1803rd The inventory drawn up by Vierordt in 1782 was used by the margrave in the negotiations between 1796 and 1802 with France about compensation for loss of territory on the left bank of the Rhine. Since France ultimately largely dictated the Reichsdeputationshauptschluss, these were the decisive negotiations. The Baden lordship over Rodemachern lasted a little over 300 years from 1492 to 1796.
Luxembourg rulers in the treaty of partition of 1556
On April 23, 1556, the Margraves Philibert and Christof signed a partition contract in Baden, which defines Christof's share as follows:
“On the other hand, that my gracious Herr Marggrav Christof and his princely Because men should have inherited heirs, rule, use and be banned, rulers in the Lucenburg Land, Rodemachern, Vnseldingenn, Reichersperg, Hesperingen vnnd Pittingen including Hillenhenchin's estates and all other Marggrefischen estates in the country ... "
|Bailiwicks||Year of purchase||associated places||Remarks||coat of arms|
|Rodemachern Lordship and Castle||1492||Fief of the Duchy of Luxembourg|
|Useldingen manor and castle||1479|
|Reichersberg Castle ( Richemont (Moselle) )||1492|
|Lordship and castle Hesperingen||1481||In 1481 Hesperange Castle was destroyed by Luxembourg troops|
|Pétange (Pittingen)||1491||Margrave Christoph I of Baden bought the rule from Count Friedrich von Zweibrücken; Duke Maximilian approved the purchase as fiefdom on March 2, 1492, whereby the fiefdom could be inherited in male and female lines.|
|Hillenhentgesgüter||1488||House in Luxembourg; House in Fentsch ; Hof in Anffen||Gift from Duke Maximilian to Margrave Christoph; The previous owner was Jean de Dommarien who was expropriated because of his alliance with the French king|
The margraves of Baden zu Rodemachern
|Name (life data)||Reign||Remarks|
(February 26, 1537 - August 2, 1575)
|1556-1575||Son of margrave Bernhard III. from Baden-Baden|
(born September 17, 1565 - † June 18, 1600)
|1575-1588||Son of Christoph II and Cäcilie Wasa ; since 1588 Margrave of Baden-Baden|
(August 15, 1567 - November 6, 1620)
|1588-1620||Brother of Eduard Fortunat; was held prisoner from 1605 to 1620 in the stronghold near Emmendingen|
(born January 23, 1595 - † January 4, 1665)
|1620-1665||Son of Eduard Fortunat|
Karl Wilhelm Eugen
(* 1627; † 1666)
|1665-1666||Son of Hermann Fortunat|
- Johann Christian Sachs : Introduction to the history of the Marggravschaft and the Marggravial old princely house of Baden . Third part. Lotter, Carlsruhe 1769, p. 265–282 ( limited preview in Google Book search).
- Fridolin Weber-Krebs: The Margraves of Baden in the Duchy of Luxembourg (1487-1797) , Trier 2007, ISBN 978-3-933701-26-8 .
- Hansmartin Schwarzmaier : Baden. In: Meinrad Schaab , Hansmartin Schwarzmaier (ed.) U. a .: Handbook of Baden-Württemberg History . Volume 2: The Territories in the Old Kingdom. Edited on behalf of the Commission for Historical Regional Studies in Baden-Württemberg . Klett-Cotta, Stuttgart 1995, ISBN 3-608-91466-8 , p. 205.
- P. Nève: The rule of Rodemachern, disputed between the Counts of Wied and Neuenahr and the Margraves of Baden. In: Journal for the history of the Upper Rhine, Volume 138 (1990), p. 210ff.
- W. Dotzauer: The western areas of the margraves of Baden from 1402-1803. In: Landeskundliche Vierteljahresblätter, Volume 14 (1968), pp. 31–54
- H.-W. Herrmann: Territorial connections and entanglements between the Upper Rhine and Lorraine areas in the late Middle Ages. In: Yearbook for West German State History, Volume 1 (1975), pp. 129–176
- Georg Friedrich Martens, Karl von Martens , Friedrich Saalfeld (eds.): Recueil des principaux traités d'alliance, de paix, de trêve ...: conclus ... , Treaty of Versailles of May 16, 1769, volume 1, p 265–281 Google digitized version
- Johann Jacob Moser: Attempting the latest European international law in times of peace and war. Volume V, p. 260
- Grotkaß: On the history of the Lords of Rodemachers. In: Yearbook of the Society for Lorraine History and Archeology , Volume 21, Second Half, 1909, pp. 105–131 Digitized at Gallica
- Johann Schoetter: History of the Luxembourg Country, edited and continued by KA Herchen and N. van Werveke. Run 1, 2.
- Jakob Grob: On the history of the years 1680–1682. §2 annexation of the lords of Rodemachern and Hesperingen. In: Ons Hémecht. Organ of the Association for Luxembourg History, Literature and Art. 4th year (1898), pp. 422-423 in the Internet Archive
- Jean Schœtter: Luxembourg et le comté de Chiny depuis le traité de paix de Nimègue jusqu'à la prize de la ville de Luxembourg par Louis XIV (1678 - 1684) , digitized
- Franz Xaver Kraus (ed.): Art and antiquity in Alsace-Lorraine. Descriptive statistics / on behalf of the Imperial Higher Presidium of Alsace-Lorraine, CF Schmidts Universitäts-Buchhandlung, Volume 3: Art and antiquity in Lorraine. Strasbourg 1889, pp. 874–877 in the Internat Archive
- Martin Uhrmacher: The effects of the Peace in the Pyrenees on the border between the Kingdom of France and the Duchy of Luxembourg as reflected in cartography. pdf
- Georg Peter Rapedius: Eydliches witness interrogation before the decreed Imperial Commission, for eternal memory: written June 7th 1715 , 1715 digitized
- Rodemack Fortress
- Useldingen Castle on the homepage of the Luxembourg Castle Association
- Hesperingen Castle on the homepage of the Luxembourg Castle Association
- Homepage SI Rodemack
Notes / individual evidence
- historically this name did not exist, but it was spoken by the lords of Rodemachern, Hesperingen and Useldingen. In the more recent historical literature - see Weber-Krebs - the term margraviate is sometimes used.
- by the Burgundian Treaty of 1548, the Burgundian Imperial Circle was partially detached from the Imperial Association
- [RI XIII] Suppl. 1 n. 335, in: Regesta Imperii Online  (accessed on April 6, 2017).
- Source: Pierer's Universal-Lexikon, Volume 2. Altenburg 1857, p. 167. online
- See the partition contract with Johann Daniel Schöpflin : Historia Zaringo-Badensis , Volume 7, pp. 79-88 digitized version of the Ub Freiburg
- s. Sachs p. 272 Google digitized
- s. Weber-Krebs p. 335
- see Art. 38 Henri Vast (ed.): Les grands traités du règne de Louis XIV. - Traité de Munster - Ligue de Rhin - Traité de Pyrénées (1648-1659) , Paris 1893, p. 111
- see VIII. Henri Vast (ed.): Les grands traités du règne de Louis XIV. - II (1668–1697) , Paris 1898, p. 20
- see Jakob Grob: On the history of the years 1680–1682. §2 annexation of the lords of Rodemachern and Hesperingen. In: Ons Hémecht. Organ of the Association for Luxembourg History, Literature and Art. 4th year (1898), pp. 422-423 in the Internet Archive here reference is made to the treaty of September 17, 1678 between France and Spain , which was solemnly announced on December 30 in Antwerp. Digital copy of the manuscript and digital copy in print at Gallica
- see Georg Friedrich Martens, Karl von Martens , Friedrich Saalfeld (ed.): Recueil des principaux traités d'alliance, de paix, de trêve ...: conclus ..., Volume 1, Treaty of Versailles of May 16, 1769 , Pp. 265–281, in particular Art. XIX. (P. 272) Google digitized version
- s. Weber-Krebs p. 328
- Conspectus Avulsorum Rodemacheranorum seu Bada-Luxemburgensium inde from 1634 onwards or an outline of those lands, estates and righteous people illegally ceded from the rule of Rodemachern and other Margraves of Baden, so-called Luxemburg rule since 1634 ; quoted in Weber-Krebs p. 336
- Art. IV .; Martens
- These are the rulers of Rodemachern and Hesperingen, which were formerly under Austrian rule
- s. Heunisch p. 33 Google digitized
- s. Heunisch p. 33 Google digitized
- s. Weber-Krebs p. 353
- see the contract of division with Johann Daniel Schöpflin : Historia Zaringo-Badensis , Volume 7, p. 81 digitized version of the Freiburg University Library
- s. Weber-Krebs pp. 268-270
- s. Weber-Krebs pp. 257-260